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Human resource management is referred to as a formal system in the management that is focused on the people in the organization. It focuses on the three major areas which are staffing, defining work and employee compensation (Bratton and Gold 2017). This assignment aims at the requirements of human resource management and its key terms. It focuses on seven key questions that provide an effective understanding of the subject "Bachelor of Business Administration". This assignment is limited to the theoretical perspective of the human resource organization and the need for managing the human resource department effectively.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a term that defines the formal system in the management regarding the people in the organization. It is a strategic approach that maintains an effective business and fulfils the need for competitive advantage (Bratton and Gold 2017). Through maximized employee performance, the strategic objectives of an employer can be identified. HRM is mainly concerned with the management of policies, organization and systems to maintain the human resources in the organization. Human resource department is responsible for managing human resources in the organization. It focuses on several tasks such as employee recruitment, employee-benefits design, reward management, performance appraisal and training and development (DeCenzo, Robbins and Verhulst 2016). It helps the management to balance employee and management relations and fulfil the needs of the organization through effective policies and procedures. Organizational change and maintain industrial relations is possible through balanced organizational practices and fulfilment of government laws. It is the major purpose of the human resource organization to achieve organizational success through people. Different functions of human resource management are planning, organizing, directing, controlling, recruitment, job designing/ analysis, performance appraisal and training and development. Human resource department maintains a positive environment in the organization to promote a good working condition (Bratton and Gold 2017).
Human resource management plays an important role in an organization. Through several acts, the government ensures effective operations of the organizations and reduces human exploitation in the companies. The field of human resources management is based on the state and federal laws that are concerned with employment issues governing body (Bratton and Gold 2017). It covers all aspects of human resource management such as placement, recruitment, compensation and development. The major HRM legislation in the functional area is known as the "Civil Rights Act 1964”. It is an essential law for the employees to work in the organization. This act disregards any kind of discrimination against the potential recruits or any employee in the organization for any reason such as religion, race, sex, colour or nationality (Inc, n.d.). It forces the employers to follow a fair practice in the organization and document each procedure which is based on hiring, pay, training, compensatory benefits or any other activity in the organization that are concentrated on human resource practices.
This act was further established as “Equal Employment Opportunity Commission” to enforce high penalties on the organizations for discrimination in the organization (Marchington, Kynighou, Wilkinson and Donnelly 2016). It is based on major civilian rights to design and document all the procures in the employment that ensures the compliance of the laws otherwise face significant penalties. Another important legislation is “Equal Pay Act 1963” that focuses on wage or salary discrimination based on equal work or gender (Inc, n.d.). However, it provides some exceptions but it helps the employees to attain equal opportunities in the organizations rather than unequal jobs. Equal worth in the organization motivates the employees to maintain consistency and function effectively. Human resource management fulfils the needs of the employees and works according to the federal laws (Marchington, Kynighou, Wilkinson and Donnelly 2016).
The functions of the human resource department are influenced by these laws. Planning for the selection of employees is promoted through a transparent process that does not discriminate employees based on national origin, race, colour, religion, sex or religion (Marchington, Kynighou, Wilkinson and Donnelly 2016). These acts define the future of employees and promote an effective organization of human resources in the organization. Equal opportunities for work and appraisal or provided by the human resource department irrespective of any discrimination. Job analysis and design are based on the requirement of the organizational needs rather than individual capacities. Equal opportunities for training and development are possible with the applicability of laws. Good and positive working conditions are maintained with the human resource departments to manage effective employee relations (Bratton and Gold 2017).
The behaviour at a workplace depends upon the feeling about being there so it is required to understand people's working attitudes which refers to the opinions, beliefs and feelings about aspects of the environment. The attitude toward eating, interacting with people and other things describe it. The two greatest potentials to influence behaviour are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Young et al. 2015). Job satisfaction is the feeling toward the job which is most important job attitude which is shown by the studies of institutions such as Gallup Inc. or the Society of Human Resource Management which conducts studies periodically that how satisfied the employees are at work. Organizational commitment shows the emotional attachment of employees in the organization to furnish their work. The level of satisfaction at the workplace for the job and commitment in the organization affects an individual to work differently in the organization. Each individual is unique and faces different situations in the organization. The experience of an individual reflects the behaviour of the employee in the organization. Personal behaviour and attitude also affect the individual to work in the organization. Seriousness and effective working conditions leads to organizational success (Wesselink, Blok and Ringersma 2017).
Recruitment is the process of identifying potential applicants and inspiring them to apply for the anticipated vacancy. It is based on finding and attracting potential vacancies in the organization. It is based on recognizing job vacancies, analyzing job requirements and design, evaluating the applicants, screening and selecting the appropriate candidate. Selection is considered a procedure that is based on the hiring of employees among suitable candidates and offers them a job in the company (Jeske and Shultz 2016). To get the right candidate in the required position, an individual requires the best opportunity. Recruitment and selection are major functions of human resource management. Recruitment is a positive approach to attract the candidates for the application while the selection is a negative approach that picks up the most suitable candidate and reject other candidates. Recruitment is the first step in the hiring process while the selection is the second activity after recruitment. Recruitment is based on the key factor of advertisement while the selection is based on the appointment of a suitable individual (Jeske and Shultz 2016).
As an HR manager, recruitment is a necessary process to include the appropriate individual in the organization. A public relation officer (PRO) is an individual who is responsible for all the public relations related responsibilities (Slavić, Bjekić and Berber 2017). To recruit PRO for the organization, we can follow the below-mentioned steps:
The major purpose of performance appraisal is to review and analyze the duty of care and fulfilment of the responsibilities by the employees. It helps to maintain all the records and maintaining continuous efforts that can be achieved. Performance appraisal promotes a system of evaluation to analyze how well an individual can perform the tasks and fulfil the roles and responsibilities based on the tasks and duties (Tziner and Rabenu 2018). It brings motivation and fulfils the expectations of the employees with hard work. Principle of performance appraisal includes specific standardized elements that can represent understandable, equitable, achievable, measurable and verifiable objectives. Maintaining paperwork and emphasizing the development are major principles of performance appraisal (Kim and Holzer 2016). The process of performance appraisal includes the establishment of performance standards and expectations for the defined job role, working with regular feedback, measuring actual performance, comparing the performance with standards, discuss the results of the appraisal, manage corrective measures and conclude the performance appraisal through effective incentives. An effective performance appraisal helps to analyze the performance of an employee over a specific period (Tziner and Rabenu 2018).
Principles of conflict resolution are based on the conflict situation. It focuses on active listening to maintain effective communication. Resolution of conflict is based on the body language and active listening process (Wallensteen 2018). Through immediate reaction and appropriate possibilities, an individual can understand the reaction behind the conflict. A fair process for conflict resolution is necessary to maintain fairness among all parties. Acceptance towards responsibility helps to resolve a conflict over time. Instead of the attack on the problems, elimination can be adopted for conflict resolution. Direct communication and maintain focus on future opportunities help to stand dynamic in the process (Wallensteen 2018). An opinion of mutual gain prevents resolution and helps to minimize the issues. The process of conflict resolution is based on the leader of the organization. Responding to the ground needs and challenges is the first step in the process of conflict resolution. Another step proceeds towards a reduction in violence. Development of capacities to maintain change process helps to structure level and maintain the interpersonal group. Identification and building cultural resources help to analyze the cultural patterns and promote conflict resolution. It helps to avoid and accommodate conflict in minimal capacities (Jeong 2018).
Emotional intelligence is considered as a capacity to understand and management of emotions. The major skills in the emotional intelligence are self-regulation, empathy, social skills, self-awareness and motivation. Emotional quotient, motional leadership, emotional intelligence and emotional intelligence quotient are defined as individual capacities to analyze one’s feeling and emotions. To enable an employee to maintain emotions helps to communication in the organization (Petrides et al. 2016). Major principles of emotional intelligence are:
The relevance of emotional intelligence is considered through the support and influence of particular beliefs on individuals. Logical consistent belief is reflected through emotional consistency. It enables an individual to work in five distinct categories: social skills, motivation, self-regulation, empathy and self-awareness (Lee and Chelladurai 2018). It yields happiness and promotes elevated success in professional terms. It helps to realize the true potential in the behaviour of another person. Motivation increases with the effectiveness of the social relationship. Decision-making skills enhance both professional and personal life. Emotional intelligence promotes the professional and personal success by managing effective communication skills. Meaningful human relationships are possible with the greater propensity to satisfy relationships in social skills (Petrides et al. 2016).
It can be concluded that human resource management is a necessary part of the management the promotes better functioning in the organization. Human resource management focuses on employee recruitment, employee-benefits design, reward management, performance appraisal and training and development. It needs to follow several laws and legislations are defined by the government. Two major laws followed by the human resource department are the Civil Rights Act 1964 and the Equal Pay Act 1963. These regulations help to plan, organize and maintain human resources in an effective manner. Recruitment, selection and performance appraisal are some effective functions of the human resource management that promotes effective functioning in the organization. Conflict resolution is a major aspect of the organization that requires effective processes and procedures. Direct communication and fair process help to maintain the conflict resolution process. Emotional intelligence is necessary for an organizational leader to maintain positive relationships and maintain empathy. Five principles of emotional intelligence propose maintenance of effective human relationships in the organization by human resource management.
Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2017. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave: UK.
DeCenzo, D.A., Robbins, S.P. and Verhulst, S.L., 2016. Fundamentals of human resource management. John Wiley & Sons: US.
Inc. n.d. Human resource management. [Online]. Available at: https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/human-resources-management-and-the-law.html [Accessed on: 1st June 2020].
Jeong, H.W. ed., 2018. Conflict resolution: dynamics, process and structure. Routledge: New York.
Jeske, D. and Shultz, K.S., 2016. Using social media content for screening in recruitment and selection: pros and cons. Work, employment and society, 30(3), pp.535-546.
Kim, T. and Holzer, M., 2016. Public employees and performance appraisal: A study of antecedents to employees’ perception of the process. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(1), pp.31-56.
Lee, Y.H. and Chelladurai, P., 2018. Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, coach burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in sport leadership. European Sport Management Quarterly, 18(4), pp.393-412.
Marchington, M., Kynighou, A., Wilkinson, A. and Donnelly, R., 2016. Human resource management at work. Kogan Page Publishers: UK.
Petrides, K.V., Mikolajczak, M., Mavroveli, S., Sanchez-Ruiz, M.J., Furnham, A. and Pérez-González, J.C., 2016. Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion review, 8(4), pp.335-341.
Slavić, A., Bjekić, R. and Berber, N., 2017. The role of the internet and social networks in recruitment and selection process. Strategic management, 22(3), pp.36-43.
Tziner, A. and Rabenu, E., 2018. Organizational environment factors influencing the appraisal process. In Improving Performance Appraisal at Work. Edward Elgar Publishing: UK.
Wallensteen, P., 2018. Understanding conflict resolution. SAGE Publications Limited: US.
Wesselink, R., Blok, V. and Ringersma, J., 2017. Pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace and the role of managers and organisation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, pp.1679-1687.
Young, W., Davis, M., McNeill, I.M., Malhotra, B., Russell, S., Unsworth, K. and Clegg, C.W., 2015. Changing behaviour: successful environmental programmes in the workplace. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(8), pp.689-703.
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