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Introduction to Negligence

The tort of negligence forms accountability for injury that was conceivable and could have been vetoed. In this case, Anna would have taken an action under negligence claiming compensatory damages for the individual harm agonized as an outcome of Trevor’s negligence. Anna who is a plaintiff has the burden of proof and would require to corroborate that the defendant Trevor. Trevor allocated her a duty of care and was uncaring in dwindling to do so as a sensible individual would have done which resulted in the injuries agonized by the plaintiff. The components must be evident on the equilibrium of prospects.

Duty of Care

The duty of care depicts that the sensible conceivability exam is enough to formulate a duty of care where the injury is corporeal and uncaring behavior is an act or an omission. This test must be done to consider whether a duty of care occurs and looks to the conceivability of a sensible individual in place of the defendant. As it has been stated in the case of Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks Co (1856) 11 Exch 781 that the sensible individual is accountable to advise an average, ordinary individual of no special mention. There is no valid facts in the report that signifies that Trevor is not an appropriate individual; accordingly he should have anticipated the possibility of the events that caused. It is proved that the subjective aspects are existing in the case. It has been noted that the Trevor is a capable aborist, thus we would presume a quality of care of a reasonable aborist. Trevor has the implicit information and capacity of care to anticipate the possible circumstances of his imprecision. If Anna can evident that the defendant possessed her a duty of care, she would then require to deliberate the breach of duty.

Breach of Duty of Care

A duty of care is penetrated when the defendant fails to represent as an appropriate individual would have done if the plaintiff was in the place of the defendant. The probable quality of care of an appropriate individual comprises of what risk an appropriate person would have forecasted and what an appropriate individual would have done in reply to that risk. An appropriate person in the position of the defendant could predict that the failing to protect the gate caused an actual risk which is not likely to cause and also would have taken accurate steps in reply to that particular risk. This upsurges a concern of distinct abilities. As it is known that Trevor was a competent aborist, the quality of care of an appropriate aborist would have been anticipated. It requires not be conceivable that Anna would be the individual who is being harmed, as it is abundantly enough to say that she was the associate of the kind of person who may agonize conceivable injury as an outcome of the defendant actions.

The gravity of the injury continued by the plaintiff was am fracture to her shoulder. The plaintiff would have to go under surgery and will suffer months till recovery. It has been noticed in the case of Paris v Stepney Borough Council [1951] AC 367; 1 All ER 42 that the gravity of the injury must be taken into notice while evaluating the defendants onus to avoid injury. Due to the gravity of the injury in Anna’s case, it is clear that the defendant had an onus to take the accurate measures to prevent this injury. The defendant Trevor should have curtailed accurate health and safety processes i.e. he must have shut down the gate and would have positioned a sign board on the section to inform the individuals that the segment was hazardous.

The Australian law depicts that the defendant is not gratified to take uneven procedures to prevent injury. When considering what accurate measures could have been taken to prevent injury, determination of suitability, cost, competence and struggle could be taken into notice. The case of Swain v Waverley Municipal Council [2005] HCA 4; is an example in which the court held that the counsil has breached the duty of care owed to Swain by failing to take accurate measures to avoid the conceivable injury. The court found that the injury could have been prevented by easily shifting the swimming flags to the other portion of the beach. The pragmatism of preventing injury in Anna’s case is identical to that of Swain’s case. The measures taken to prevent damages would have been of no actual problem, it would have been cheaper to carry out and would not have been of any trouble to an appropriate individual. Including these negligence calculating components, it is probable that Anna could evident that Trevor penetrated his duty of care.


In this case, even if Anna can evident that the defendant owed her a duty of because she penetrated his duty of care, the defendant will not be obligatory in negligence unless it can be shown that Trevor’s breached his duty of care occurring injury to the plaintiff. To evident that the harm agonized by the plaintiff were an outcome of Trevor’s negligence Anna would have to determine the two damages test, Causation and Remoteness. A duty to avoid injury exists when it is conceivable that the negligence of the defendant would occur injury of some sort to the plaintiff. Injury to the plaintiff may not be likely but must be an actual hazard and not ‘not likely to cause’.


When a specific breach of duty grounds injury it is a question of fact and must be considered by taking into notice general logic, practice, strategy and assessment pronouncements. The case of ACQ Pty Ltd v Cook; AircairMoree Pty Ltd v Cook (2009) HCA 28, Cook’s harm were occurred by the influence with the aircraft in the flight, outcomes in the plaintiff being enabled to the injuries appealed. In such case, can Anna state that if the carelessness of the defendant had not caused, the injuries to the plaintiff possibly would not have been caused? Taking into notice the causation components, it is prime that an appropriate aborist would have enough experience in this sort of circumstances and would have a present duty to avoid injury. Trevor would have pronouncement abilities to forecast that deteriorating to follow concrete measures would outcome in the injury to the plaintiff. If Trevor had followed the measures he assumedly knew needs to prevent injury, the harm to the plaintiff perhaps would have not been caused.


The remoteness test is used to measure whether the injury of the sort that caused was rationally conceivable. In the case of Overseas Tankship (UK) LtfvMiller Steamship Co Pty Ltd (The Wagon Mound (No 1)) [1961] AC 388; 1 ALL ER 404 is an example of the remoteness test. Though an uncommon sequence of proceedings caused, the injury was found rationally conceivable as there was an actual and considerable hazard that somewhat like the occasion which ensued to be caused. In the Anna’s case, though it was, it is rationally conceivable that the failure to shut the gate formed an actual and considerable injury foremost to the occasions that caused. It is rationally conceivable that the plaintiff dropping into the channel would outcome in acute injury to her shoulder.


Anna would appeal for compensatory damages for the private harm agonized as an outcome of the defendant’s negligence. Thee compensatory damages would comprise her medical expenses, expenses of future care, lack of earning and ache and agonizing. Anna quit her occupation due to the continued hurts and she will require to compensation for this forfeiture of revenue.


Contributory negligence

A defendants responsibility for a plaintiff’s harm or loss could be restricted if the defendant can evident that the plaintiff added to the damages or loss occurred due to their own carelessness. Trevor could appeal contributory negligence at variance that Anna added to her indemnities because she was befuddled and beholding at her texts at the same time. The Civil Liability Act 2003 (QLD) Section 47 depicts that an individual who is intoxicated may be open to incremented danger as of the individual’s deprived of the capability to practice accurate care, and skill as an outcome of being intoxicated. If the Trevor evident that Anna added to her injuries, the Civil Liability Act depicts that the compensatory damages could be decreased by 25 percent or more because of the occurrence of the contributory negligence.

Though the analysis of the components of carelessness it is apparent that the defendant owed the plaintiff a duty of care, penetrated the duty of care and was negligent in doing as an appropriate individual would outcome in the injuries agonized by the plaintiff. The most possible result in the circumstances would be that Trevor is found carelessness and Anna is approved for the damages claimed. Anna would be allowed compensatory damages for her medical expenses and lack of revenue because of the harms agonized as an outcome of the defendant’s negligence.

References for Negligence

ACQ Pty Ltd v Cook; AirciarMoree Pty Ltd v Cook (2009) HCA 28

Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks Co (1856) 11 Exch 781

Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltf v Miller Steamship Co Pty Ltd (The Wagon Mound (No 1)) [1961] AC 388; 1 ALL ER 404

Paris v Stepney Borough Council [1951] AC 367; 1 All ER 42

Swain v Waverley Municipal Council [2005] HCA 4

The Civil Liability Act 2003 (QLD)

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Business Law Assignment Help

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