• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : BUSM1162
  • University : RMIT University
  • Subject Name : People management

Personality and Perception

Executive Summary

This report provides an analysis of the managerial behaviour and employee engagement in the organization. It focuses on the study of personality and perception and their relationship in the organization. Methods of analysis include secondary qualitative research methods to analyze the relationship between employee engagement and managerial behaviour. To identify the solutions for the organizational problem, SMART technique is used by the researcher which includes different solutions. Results of the research show that management affects the engagement of employees through organizational culture, policies and procedures. Employees engagement can be increased through regular interaction with employees and working on regular feedbacks.

The report identified a direct relationship with the behaviour and attitude of the management to the employee’s commitment and management that reflects their perception. Recommendations of the report include regular feedback and continuous communication of the management to enhance employee satisfaction and encourage them. Effective policies for the employees promote honest outputs and engages the employees to fulfil their commitment. The report also identified that the analyses have some limitations. The specific industry or organization is not defined in the report which does not provide enough information about the employees and management behaviour. Past performances of the employees and organization are not included for the analyses.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Background

Method

Literature Review

Analysis of issues and problems

Identification of solutions

Discussion of preferred solutions

Conclusion

Key learnings

Reference list

Introduction

Perception refers to the results of the human senses to manage the decision-making process by understanding the importance of a specific situation. Understanding the situation and managing decisions is a key element of perception (Gupta 2015). Personality refers to the feeling, understanding, thinking and behaving to express the attitude in a situation. It represents the behaviour of individuals (Young, Glerum, Wang and Joseph 2018). This research is based on the behaviour of managers and their contribution to employee engagement in the organization. Meaningful information is derived through perception which is based on the intellectual process of transforming stimuli. With the analysis of the managerial behaviour and its contribution to employee engagement, a relationship between personality and perception can be identified. This report emphasizes on employee engagement in the organizations. Scope of this report is limited to the internal operations of the organization and organizational behaviour.

Background

Employee engagement can be identified as the sense of purpose to reflect persistence and dedication in the work that promotes the organizational objectives. Mangers affect the employees through their actions and behaviour. Directions and guidance of managers help the employees to achieve desired objectives (Mone, London and Mone 2018). Employee engagement is a necessary element for the organization to focus on organizational performance and achieve desired outcomes. Level of commitment and involvement in the organization represents the employee’s values and beliefs. It affects organizational productivity. The behaviour of the manager plays an important role in establishing organizational behaviour and managing the employees (Gupta 2015).

Method

This research is based on managerial behaviour and employee engagement. A suitable research method is based on the selection of information gathering sources. Two major research methods are available which are quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative research method refers to the numerical data which can be collected through polls, questionnaires or surveys while qualitative data refers to the subjective data which can be gathered through focus groups, interviews, observations or textual materials (Quinlan, Babin, Carr and Griffin 2019). For this research qualitative data is identified as effective that explains the relationship between management behaviour and employee engagement.

Research data can be collected through numerous sources such as interviews, surveys, experiments, observations or documents. It can be divided into two major sources which are primary and secondary. Primary data can be gathered through interviews, experiments or surveys while it is a time-consuming and expensive technique. Secondary data represents the data collected by other sources which are already available and collected by other users. It can be based on organizational records, censuses, information collected by government departments and journal articles. This research is based on the secondary data sources such as e- books, journal articles and online sources to manage reliable information and maintain consistency in the findings (Quinlan, Babin, Carr and Griffin 2019).

A research technique of this report emphasizes on secondary qualitative data that provides accurate and reliable information which can provide an effective direction to the literature. Major sources of information are identified through Google Scholar. Recent scholarly articles are identified for the research which is based on the research topics. All the articles are between the years 2015 and 2020 to reflect on the recent situations and identify valid information. Factual data of the articles represent the needful information which defines the impact of managerial behaviour on the engagement of employees in the organization.

Literature Review

According to Chandani, Mehta, Mall and Khokhar (2016), several factors affect employee engagement which can be identified at the individual level, organizational level or micro and macro level. It represents that ethnic diversity, job characteristics, gender diversity and individual differences affect employee engagement. To maintain strong employee engagement, the policies of management and support is necessary that leads to a happy workforce. Organizational performance improves with employee engagement. In the opinion of Garza (2018), Administrative strategies affect the workforce engagement through different practices in the organizations such as supporting leadership behaviour, effective and honest communication and implementation of employee engagement policies which affects the organizational culture.

Positive social change can be identified with employee engagement strategies through developing mentoring and leadership opportunities to explore successful strategies and increase sustainable opportunities. As per Mercy and Choudhary (2019), in the education sector, engagement of employee affected by several factors which are based on the organizational behaviour, environment and management. Individual and organizational factors affect employee engagement and their work performance. Better management policies affect employee engagement and their behaviour at the workplace.

In the opinion of Chandani, Mehta, Mall and Khokhar (2016), organizational and individual factors create a happy workforce which also promotes better individual performance. Sharma and Garg (2017) suggested that the drivers of employee engagement in the organization are based on the psychological empowerment and psychological contract. Positive psychological contract enhances the organizational connection and empowers the industry to seek for employee engagement. The positive attitude of employees influences the employees to work in their environment and maintain effective performances, however, Garza (2018) explains that honest communication and supportive behaviour enhances the engagement of employees in the organization to attain better outputs.

While in the views of Popli and Rizvi (2016), leadership and employee engagement are directly linked in the organization. Leadership style is the major driver of employee engagement that affects the service sector employees. A culture of engagement is developed through the leadership style of management. Human resource practices and suitable leadership styles impact the engagement of employees in organizations to drive performance.

As per Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya (2019), transformational leaders influence their workers to work beyond their capabilities and direct towards the achievement of organizational goals. Employees’ commitment and transformational leadership are two variables of the research which shows a positive relationship through findings. The employees find inspirational values and rational views to work in the organization. It affects their commitment towards organization and manages effective engagement through transformational leadership. Although, Popli and Rizvi (2016), states that a culture of engagement is developed in the organization through appropriate leadership style.

Tod drive employee’s performance and engaging them for the commitments, an effective leadership style is appropriate. In the suggestion of Tuffour, Gali and Tuffour (2019), the poor performance of employees is a reason behind the leadership style. Employee’s commitment has an impact on leadership style. Transactional leadership is identified as most suitable in the banking sectors which leads to reduce employee’s performance. Transformational leadership styles and laissez-faire style reflects the positive impact on employee’s commitment. It leads to promote effective change in employee commitment. The right style of leadership improves the commitment level among employees that subsequently improve their performance.

According to Turner (2019), the organization of work is a result of the leadership, management, workforce engagement and organization’s structure. The implementation of several policies and procedures in the organization is based on the application of its operational environment. High level of commitment is a result of employee engagement which improves the regular operations and provide a strategic direction to the organization. It represents that employee engagement and organizational alignment are interdependent. As per Tuffour, Gali and Tuffour (2019), employee commitment is based on the leadership style which improves the operational environment and enhances organizational performance.

The policies and procedures of management affect employees. Bardhan (2020) said that organizational transformation and employee engagement are based on the appreciative inquiry. Minimal hindrances in the organization can be removed through organizational development which is based on effective employee engagement. A vision-based approach focuses on the positive aspect of the organization and leads to employee engagement by using collaborative efforts. Job satisfaction enhances employee engagement which is based on different elements. In the view of Gupta and Sharma (2016), employee engagement is identified as a management-focused activity. It is organization-specific that integrates several behavioural components such as energy, attachment, involvement, commitment, psychological presence, energy and discretionary efforts.

Employee performance is positively linked with the employee’s potential and success of the organization. In the opinion of Turner (2019), employee engagement is based on the psychology of work in the organization. It represents the psychological state of the employees. Alignment in the goals and objectives affect the individual employees to work in the organizations. Through effective support and values, the positive output can be identified which can create a positive attitude and positive relations at the workplace. It influences the engagement and motivation of employees to work in the organization.

Analysis of Issues and Problems

Employee engagement is necessary for the organization to manage its development and performance. The literature represents different issues of the organization which are based on the perception of the employees. Management in an organization works towards better performance and achieving higher growth while some issues with higher growth can affect the employees. Lack of communication, ineffective organizational environment, ineffective leadership style and lack of support impacts employees and their performance (Ruck, Welch and Menara 2017). The engagement of employees become a complex issue that promotes the needs of favourable policies and procedures for the employees.

Psychological and personal factors affect the engagement of employees in the organization that can affect organizational development. Workforce engagement is based on the organizational structure (Tuffour, Gali and Tuffour 2019). Regular operation and strategic direction approach the employees towards organizational development while the issues with the management’s attitude, policies, procedures, organization environment and communication barriers lead to impact the employees negatively. Values and beliefs of the organization lead to affect the intellect of the employees and their level of performance (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019). This research focuses on the behaviour and attitude of the management that affects its employees and their engagement to work in the organization.

Irresponsive behaviour or a dominant role in the organization leaves a negative impact on the thinking of the employees. Individual differences, ethical diversity, job characteristics and cultural diversity affects the perception of employees regarding the work culture which makes them stressed and unsatisfied. Lack of satisfaction in the job impacts their performance which is a barrier for the organization. The role of managers and their defined mode of communication defines the behaviour of employees in the workplace. Security and safety at the workplace increase job satisfaction while ineffective policies reduce employee engagement (Tuffour, Gali and Tuffour 2019).

Identification of Solutions

The issue of employee engagement can be resolved with management policies and procedures. An effective leader can manage employee engagement and promote better opportunities for the employees. The literature review provides an understanding of different solutions for the management to enhance employee engagement and influence their perception through positive behaviour. The performance of the organization is based on the behaviour of management. A transformational leader directs the employees to achieve the desired objectives and manages their goals.

Effective policies and procedures impact the functioning of the employees (Ruck, Welch and Menara 2017). Thus it creates a need for effective communication in the organization. Regular interaction in the organization helps to maintain beneficial contact with the employees and make changes in the organization by constant feedbacks gathered by the employees. Rich communication by the management motivates the employees and changes their attitude towards the organization in a positive manner. SMART solutions are:

Specific: Regular interaction with employees.

Measurable: Regular feedbacks need to be taken by the managers to seek for the improvements.

Attainable: Employee engagement can improve business performance.

Realistic: Performance appraisal and satisfactory policies implemented by the organization to increase motivation among employees.

Time-bound: The performance of employees can be identified within 6 months.

Regular communication with managers helps to maximize the engagement of employees. The motivation of employees increases and builds useful relationships that provide satisfaction among employees through care (Yohn 2019). Performance appraisal and compensation reviews provide an "intelligent platform" to manage the performance of employees and modify their behaviour to engage effectively at the workplace (Ruck, Welch and Menara 2017). Positive feedbacks to employees and better motivation encourages the performance of employees. A constructive environment in the organization represents the organizational culture. It promotes the commitment of employees towards work and bring positive experience in the organization. A behavioural theory of management promotes the understanding of human behaviour to improve productivity. The behaviour of management affects the actions of employees (Schlüter, et al. 2017).

Discussion of Preferred Solutions

Several solutions for employee engagement are identified while some of the solutions are preferred by the organizations to manage their effectiveness and enhance productivity. Employees are the key to the business which impacts business performance at most. Satisfaction among employees is necessary to maintain organizational commitment to fulfil the organizational goals (Chandani, Mehta, Mall and Khokhar 2016). Appropriate leadership style in the organization affects the operations of the employees and defines the organizational structure. Each employee requires satisfaction in the organization to attain success and manage the outputs. A leader provides direction to the employees and provides them with constructive feedback to make improvements and ensure organizational success.

Communication and respect for the employees enhance their motivation. Through regular interaction and motivation, employees feel valued and manage their responsibilities to perform the activities with their best support and thoughts. Decisions of the management for the benefit of employees promote care for employees which can create an effective relationship of employees with the management. Regular feedback from employees helps the employees to seek their interest in the effectiveness of the organization and engage with the work. Effective engagement efforts of the employee are based on the benefits of employees and the commitment of the employer.

Preferred recommendations for the immediate, medium-term and long terms are:

Immediate: Feedback from employees

Medium-term: Performance appraisal policies and positive environment promote by the manager.

Long term: Motivational policies and procedures for employees including transformational leadership style should be used by the management.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that employee engagement is based on the behaviour of the management and its defined structure. Effective communication, regular feedback and encouraging motivation to enhance the engagement opportunities among employees. It can be interpreted through the research that behaviour of management plays an important role in setting expectations and goals for the employees. Organizational development is based on the effective policies and interactive engagement of the management. It represents that ethnic diversity, job characteristics, gender diversity and individual differences affect employee engagement. Supporting leadership behaviour, effective and honest communication and implementation of employee engagement policies enhance the opportunities for employees to seek for better growth and engage in the organization.

Key Learnings

Key learnings from the research are:

  • Management behaviour and employee engagement provide an understanding of the behaviour theory of management.

  • Different factors influence employee engagement such as gender diversity, leadership, communication, job characteristics and individual differences.

  • Management can control employee’s engagement through transformational leadership style and encouraging employees’ motivation.

  • The personality of the management affects the perception of the employees.

  • Regular feedback from employees and regular communication with the manager increases employee engagement.

  • Employee engagement is a management-focused activity which integrates several behavioural components such as energy, attachment, involvement, commitment, psychological presence, energy and discretionary efforts.

  • The direct relationship between employee engagement and managerial behaviour can be identified which leads to affect the organizational performance.

Reference list

Bardhan, S 2020, Engaging Employees With Positivity: The Role of Appreciative Inquiry in Employee Sustainability. IGI Global, US.

Chandani, A, Mehta, M, Mall, A, and Khokhar, V 2016, ‘Employee engagement: A review paper on factors affecting employee engagement’, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, no.15, pp. 1-7.

Chaturvedi, S, Rizvi, I A, and Pasipanodya, E T 2019, ‘How can leaders make their followers commit to the organization? The importance of influence tactics’, Global Business Review, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1462-1474.

Garza, C 2019, Leadership strategies to increase employee engagement’, Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. ProQuest Information & Learning, [Online], Available at: https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7307&context=dissertations [Accessed on: 30th April 2020].

Gupta, M 2015, ‘A study on employees perception towards employee engagemen’, Globsyn Management Journal, vol. 9, no. 1/2, pp. 45.

Gupta, N and Sharma, V 2016, ‘Exploring employee engagement—A way to better business performance’, Global Business Review, vol. 17, no. 3_suppl, pp. 45S-63S.

Mercy, R J and Choudhary, J K 2019, ‘An exploratory study on organizational factors affecting employee engagement’ CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, vol. 10, no. 1.

Mone, E M, London, M and Mone, E M 2018, Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers, Routledge, New York.

Popli, S and Rizvi, I A 2016, ‘Drivers of employee engagement: The role of leadership style’ Global Business Review, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 965-979.

Quinlan, C, Babin, B, Carr, J and Griffin, M 2019, Business research methods, South Western Cengage, London.

Ruck, K, Welch, M and Menara, B 2017, ‘Employee voice: an antecedent to organisational engagement?’ Public Relations Review, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 904-914.

Schlüter, M, et al 2017, ‘A framework for mapping and comparing behavioural theories in models of social-ecological systems’ Ecological Economics, vol. 131, pp. 21-35.

Sharma, N and Garg, P 2017, ‘Psychological contract and psychological empowerment as employee engagement drivers in Indian IT sector’, International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, vol. 15, no. 1.

Tuffour, J K, Gali, A M and Tuffour, M K 2019, ‘Managerial Leadership Style and Employee Commitment: Evidence from the Financial Sector,’ Global Business Review, pp. 0972150919874170.

Turner, P 2020, The Organisation of Work and Employee Engagement, Employee Engagement in Contemporary Organizations (pp. 167-192), Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Yohn, L 2019, ‘Employee feedback is good for employee engagement; action is better, [Online], Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/deniselyohn/2019/08/06/employee-feedback-is-good-for-employee-engagement-action-is-better/#731902c174cc [Accessed on: 30th April 2020].

Young, H R, Glerum, D R, Wang, W and Joseph, D L 2018, ‘Who are the most engaged at work? A meta‐analysis of personality and employee engagement’ Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1330-1346.

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