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Industry Project Investigation

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Autonomous vehicles.

History of Automobile.

Future of autonomous vehicles.

Car-sharing services.

The future of car sharing.

Impact of Autonomous Flying Vehicles on car-sharing services.

Benefits of Autonomous Flying Vehicles.

Conclusion.

References.

1. Introduction to Future of Autonomous Vehicles

The automobile sector has emerged with the new technology to enhance the lifestyle of the people. Through the autonomy to big leaps, automobile companies are focusing on innovative approaches to meet the competitive advantage and allow the most convenient system for the global market (Yoder & Scherer, 2016). The automobile reflects a symbol of speed, power, individualism and freedom in the modern world that promotes changes over time for better technology adaptation (Nuske, et al., 2015). This paper will focus on the future of mobility to understand its impact on car-sharing services. Nowadays, car-sharing services are popular among individuals to bring a cheaper and reliable solution among individuals. Besides, the new technology for flying cars is dreamt off by automobile companies to reduce the travelling time, fuel and enhance the quality of life. Autonomous vehicles are a dream for many people to meet the potential futuristic system that can promote cheaper, safer, faster, cleaner and more integrated transportation system (Floreano & Wood, 2015).

The emergence of new technology in robotics and communication influences the daily lives of individuals wherein transportation technology is not exceptional. Increasing technology has given rise to vision autonomous vehicle technology that aims to decrease congestion, pollution, energy consumption and crashes. While the impression of driverless vehicles is approaching individuals from decades. The acceleration of research and development efforts in the autonomous vehicles given a new rise to develop technology for flying cars. The idea of vehicle automation is identified among the top ten disruptive technologies of future which can transform the business view (Nuske, et al., 2015). This report emphasizes the impact of autonomous flying vehicles on car-sharing services.

2. Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous vehicles are self-driving cars that can reach from the beginning point to the predetermined direction through their “auto-pilot” mode. It is based on sensors and in-vehicle technologies including active steering, adaptive cruise control, GPS navigation system and anti-lock braking systems. It can function itself without any human interference through its capability to work according to the surroundings. Identification of external conditions is easy for autonomous vehicles with its sensing ability that works as per the human driver (Floreano & Wood, 2015). Six different levels of automation can be identified with the increased technology and extent to control the vehicle's operation: 

  • Level 0, wherein no control of the system is identified and the human driver is responsible for all operations.
  • Level 1, The ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) is available in the vehicle to provide the necessary support to the driver based on accelerating or steering and braking (Nuske, et al., 2015).
  • Level 2, here some of the conditions are automatic while the human driver is necessary to remain attentive to the external conditions. Accelerating, steering and braking system are based on the ADAS.
  • Level 3, Advanced Driving System (ADS) is available to perform all the tasks in the presence of the human driver. Control can be easily regained by the human driver with the request in ADS while necessary tasks executed by the human driver (Rajasekhar & Jaswal, 2015).
  • Level 4, Independent tasks can be done by ADS in significant situations where human attention is not required.
  • Level 5, Complete automation is possible in the vehicles where all the functions are performed by ADS in all conditions. Here, no assistance is necessary for driving. With the application of 5G technology, full automation is possible that can help in communicating with the signs, traffic lights and roads (Law, 2017; Nuske, et al., 2015).

3. History of Automobile

The history of the automobile can be understood with the help of the following table. As through the invention of new technology, a change over automobile vehicles can be understood.

Period

Description

3500 BC

This period is based on the invention of the wheel which is considered as the beginning of the automobile industry by Mesopotamians.

1478

The first automobile design was sketched by Leonardo da Vinci. It represented the sketch plan for a self-propelled vehicle.

1886

The gas-powered automobile is invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Friedrich Benz who did not meet ever.

1908

An affordable vehicle is developed by Henry Ford named as Model T for the Americans (Bogost, 2016).

1956

Interstate highway system is approached by President Eisenhower through legislation.

1979

The United Auto Workers hired for the company with a peak size of 1.5 million. This company innovated the vehicle for a better quality of life of individuals (Bogost, 2016).

1997

First hybrid car was produced by Toyota which was introduced as Prius. It was the first mass-produced car.

2016

A self-driving car was identified in a minor accident which leads to creating several safety concerns for autonomous vehicles.

2050

It has been predicted that self-driving vehicles will remain in the world and traditional cars will become outlawed (Bogost, 2016).

4. Future of Autonomous Vehicles

A century ago, Autoplane is debuted by Glenn Curtiss who is known as an aviation pioneer. This place is based on a three-seat car cum aircraft with the facility of removable wings. Since the development of Autoplane, people dreamt of “flying cars” (Law, 2017; Nuske, et al., 2015). This is considered as an effective idea for people to save their time and energy around the globe and improve productivity. It also enhances the quality of life. However, several projects have been failed with the vision to achieve this dream into reality. The dramatic transformation of vehicles has changed the future of mobility. Development of flying cars and passenger drones are swiftly progressing with the new technology. Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) is the new type of vehicle which is popularly known as an aircraft that promotes the capability of flying cars with their hybrid designs. Currently, different projects can be identified based on the new technology to enhance the future of mobility (Hancock, Nourbakhsh & Stewart, 2019; Law, 2017; Nuske, et al., 2015).

  • Self-flying drones are tested by Ehang in China which is further named as 184. This is a quadcopter which is tested in Dubai for regular operations. Whereas, it requires an aviation license to get approved (Linenerger, Hussaid, Mehra & Pankratz, 2018).
  • Aurora Flight Sciences has focused on working on eVTOL which was acquired by Boeing in 2017. A prototype of the autonomous vehicle was tested by the company in 2017. Later on, it has announced a partnership with Uber to work on the concept of flying cars. It has been identified that Aurora is aiming to create 50 aircraft for UberAir until 2020 (Linenerger, Hussaid, Mehra & Pankratz, 2018).
  • AeroMobil has revealed a commercial design in April 2017 for the Flying Car. It is based on flown and driving both purposes rather than other companies to produce VTOL aircraft. This company will begin the deliveries soon to bring a change in the industry (Linenerger, Hussaid, Mehra & Pankratz, 2018).
  • Another project of City Airbus and the electric autonomous helicopter is identified at the advanced development stage. It can be used for cargo transportation and passengers as well. City Airbus is a vehicle designed for air taxi with the appearance of a small drone and multiple propellers. Uber ride can be booked by individuals on City Airbus (Hancock, Nourbakhsh & Stewart, 2019; Law, 2017; Nuske, et al., 2015).

5. Car-Sharing Services

Car sharing service is known as a model for car rental wherein individuals can rent cars for a significant period. It is different from traditional car rental service. Shared mobility is the new trend in the industry which is known as car-sharing as it enables the accessibility for different brands of vehicles. Users can opt for this service for personal or professional purposes. It has provided a benefit to the individuals to unlock their choice of car and pay the required rent. It is cheaper and convenient for individuals who need to travel regularly. With the new trends, people often find this service as helpful and effective for their reliability (Ferrero, Perboli, Rosano & Vesco, 2018).

6. The Future of Car Sharing

Future of vehicles is based on the transformation driven with effective accessibility and reliable solutions. The rapid development of autonomous vehicles can be identified with the connected, shared, autonomous and electric vehicles. As per Forbes, the infrastructure of cities and autonomous vehicles will be reported as 700 million until 2030 (Dias, Lavieri, et al., 2017). Autonomous vehicles will be completely based on 5G-enables services that lead to future innovation. Most of the cars can be seen as internet embedded technology to connect via a data connection, SIMs or smartphones. Several companies are investing in tech companies to provide next-level experience to their customers. It eliminates the use of USB connections or Bluetooth devices. Connected mobility impacts the infrastructure and public transportation used by individuals (Jin, Kong, Wu & Sui, 2018).

Automated vehicles are popular for their convenience which can be combined with long-distant radars and cameras to work as per the norms of self-driving cars. While autonomous vehicles are currently used for commercial purposes in Google’s Waymo taxi service. It is a popular provider of public transportation. Autonomous buses are planned by the government of Singapore until 2022 which distinguished plans in three districts. Additionally, Germany is also focusing on self-driving buses for passengers (Cheng, 2016; Dias, Lavieri, et al., 2017). It has increased car-sharing services opportunities. It has been estimated that approximately 2.8 billion vehicles will be available on the planet until 2036 which will be privately owned. With the expansion of care sharing facility, a reduction in car ownership can be identified which can help in managing parking spaces in the public areas and improving traffic congestion. Growth of shared mobility services enhances the market growth and quality of life for people. It can also help in managing the negative impact on the environment (Richert, 2020).

It can be noted that plenty of space is available which is not used by aircraft. Thus it has promoted the concept of flying cars. Urban mobility revolution has established a trend for car sharing with increasing environmental issues. Multiple technologies are available to successfully achieve the target of autonomous flying cars. Self-driving vehicles are at the momentum of encompassing technology in the automobile industry (Richert, 2020). The potential benefit can be identified for car-sharing services through low expenses and faster services. The safety concern is at the top of the companies and individuals while managing autonomous vehicles. Wherein the future of car sharing can be identified with a change in technology. Lower space will be available in the future which leads to more expansion towards car-sharing services. A minimal of new car sales is assumed in future due to the trend of car sharing in urban areas (Cheng, 2016; Dias, Lavieri, et al., 2017).

Certainly, the car-sharing service will change the system of urban driving, business models of OEMs, driver behaviour and the entry of new companies. It will get a higher exposure from young drivers. The business approach through self-driving vehicles will change through car-sharing services that lead to a lower cost of ownership. This can be considered as a period of accelerating change (BCG, 2020).

7. Impact of Autonomous Flying Vehicles on Car-Sharing Services

Autonomous flying vehicles are considered as a beneficial element for car-sharing services. Through lower expenses, a better quality of life and improved productivity, people will promote the use of car-sharing services. However, the actual cost of these vehicles might be high in future based on their new technology (HAO & Yamamoto, 2018). Joining drones and planes are identified as effective as autonomous flying vehicles which can touch the sky. Reduction in traffic, time saving and improvement in order deliver are distinguished benefits can be identified from autonomous technology. It can promote a better transportation option to individuals and companies. An autonomous vehicle created by Ehang describes the electric autonomous vehicle and its first look wherein two persons can easily cover 22 miles with a speed of up to 80mph (Fu, Rothfeld & Antoniou, 2019).

With the increasing population, a key concern of air population is recognized. Transportation emissions are highly responsible for around 25% of greenhouse gases. Affordable mobile technology can allow individuals to connect to the internet from anywhere and anytime. As a result, it also promotes urban transport which is highly recommended with the adoption of shared mobility services. Mass autonomous cars are still not a reality while it can be possible shortly. With an increase in autonomous vehicles, the popularity for shared services will also increase with the improvement of traffic congestion, quick and faster transportation facility. Update in technology is a benefit for car-sharing services that can enhance its opportunities shortly (HAO & Yamamoto, 2018).

Ride-hailing applications available on smartphones are just started which can lead to better future service providers with the adoption of the new technology of autonomous flying vehicles. As per the research, the investments made by different companies in carpooling, car-sharing and ride-hailing services were highest with $20.6 billion (HAO & Yamamoto, 2018). It represents the demographic shift of the population available in urban areas. China is identified as highest in this trend to raise more than 70% capital for rental and sharing schemes. It depicts that car ownership will sooner reach an end in the urban areas wherein people mostly prefer car-sharing services. Innovation in the automobile industry provides significant benefits with a lot of transparency. It has been expected that over the next ten years, the automobile sector will be at the peak point for investment by the traditional players. It will help in improving the infrastructure and bring a change in society with greater affordability (Fu, Rothfeld & Antoniou, 2019).

8. Benefits of Autonomous Flying Vehicles

Autonomous flying vehicles provide several intrigued benefits for stakeholders including different environmental benefits. It can help in transforming the lives and working situations based on technological advancement (Duarte & Ratti, 2018). With relation to car-sharing services, significant benefits of autonomous vehicles can be recognized as follows:

  • A reduction of approximately 90% in traffic deaths: As per the predictions of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), driverless vehicles will reduce the number of traffic deaths drastically. In a report, it has been identified that 37,133 people died due to vehicles crashes wherein around 94% of the accidents were based on human errors. So, autonomous vehicles will reduce traffic deaths by saving more than 30,000 lives each year (Apur, 2018).
  • 40% reduction in travelling time: Autonomous vehicles will increase productivity by $20 billion and help the individuals to consume their time for better use. As per the survey of KPMG, autonomous vehicles will reduce the expected travelling time by 80 billion hours which will save around US$1.3 trillion for the economy (Apur, 2018).
  • Increase in demand for public transport: Due to the high costs for autonomous flying vehicles, the overall demand for public transport will increase which will enhance the opportunities for car-sharing services. As per the overall expenditure in a single ride, people will prefer sharing in the transportation that can benefit in cost-saving, time reduction and promoting environmental friendly solution (Duarte & Ratti, 2018).
  • A new experience for air taxi service: Uber has partnered with an automobile company to take the benefit of infrastructure and technologically developed vehicles which can enhance the future path for car-sharing services. In the upcoming future, the demand for air taxi services will rise with the safety features provided by the companies (Apur, 2018).
  • 60% drop in harmful emissions: A reduction in traffic deaths can lead to lower traffic congestion. It also reduces harmful emissions thus promotes environmentally friendly solutions.
  • Expansion opportunities for car-sharing service: Autonomous flying vehicles can promote distinguished benefits for car-sharing services with an opportunity to expand the business through air taxi service. A new and innovative technique is mostly preferred by individuals that can help them in reducing the travelling time and cost (Duarte & Ratti, 2018).
  • Improvement in fuel economy: Autonomous flying vehicle can reduce the fuel by 4-10% with lower congestion benefit. These vehicles can also be run through electricity which can help in saving more than 3.1 billion gallons of fuel (Apur, 2018).

The future of urban transport market is based on innovative techniques. Based on autonomous vehicles, significant benefits can be identified than can enhance its market in the industry. Air taxi service is the future of car-sharing services. Autonomous flying vehicles will promote business expansion opportunities with the adoption of new technology (Cheng, 2016; Dias, Lavieri, et al., 2017).

9. Conclusion on Future of Autonomous Vehicles

In conclusion, it can be said that innovation and technological advancement leads to enhance the benefits for different companies available in the automobile sector. Increasing the operational efficiency can promote several benefits for customers, companies and society. With the introduction of autonomous flying vehicles shortly, better opportunities for car-sharing services can be identified which can promote the developmental benefits for the companies. Uber is focusing on its air taxi service which can use autonomous flying vehicles for their car-sharing service. Thus it would be right to say that autonomous flying vehicles did not replace car-sharing services but provide business expansion opportunities for the companies through its less energy consumption, time-saving and cost-saving benefits. Shared mobility is the new trend in the industry which is known as car-sharing as it enables the accessibility for different brands of vehicles. This trend will be continuing in the future as well because of its significant benefits for individuals. With the expansion of care sharing facility, a reduction in car ownership can be identified which can help in managing parking spaces in the public areas and improving traffic congestion. Growth of shared mobility services enhances the market growth and quality of life for people. Through lower expenses, a better quality of life and improved productivity, people will promote the use of car-sharing services. The future of car-sharing services can be seen through the development of autonomous flying vehicles. Due to the high costs for autonomous flying vehicles, the overall demand for public transport will increase which will enhance the opportunities for car-sharing services.

References for Future of Autonomous Vehicles

Apur. (2018). Impacts and potential benefits of autonomous vehicles. Retrieved from: https://www.apur.org/sites/default/files/documents/publication/etudes/impacts_potential_benefits_autonomous_vehicles.pdf

BCG. (2020). Self-driving vehicles, car-sharing and the urban mobility revolution. Retrieved from: https://www.bcg.com/industries/automotive/self-driving-vehicles-car-sharing

Bogost, I., (2016). When cars fly. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/05/when-cars-fly/476382/

Cheng, M. (2016). Sharing economy: A review and agenda for future research. International Journal of Hospitality Management57, 60-70.

Dias, F. F., Lavieri, P. S., Garikapati, V. M., Astroza, S., Pendyala, R. M., & Bhat, C. R. (2017). A behavioral choice model of the use of car-sharing and ride-sourcing services. Transportation44(6), 1307-1323.

Duarte, F., & Ratti, C. (2018). The impact of autonomous vehicles on cities: A review. Journal of Urban Technology25(4), 3-18.

Ferrero, F., Perboli, G., Rosano, M., & Vesco, A. (2018). Car-sharing services: An annotated review. Sustainable Cities and Society37, 501-518.

Floreano, D., & Wood, R. J. (2015). Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones. Nature521(7553), 460-466.

Fu, M., Rothfeld, R., & Antoniou, C. (2019). Exploring preferences for transportation modes in an urban air mobility environment: Munich case study. Transportation Research Record2673(10), 427-442.

HAO, M., & Yamamoto, T. (2018). Shared autonomous vehicles: A review considering car-sharing and autonomous vehicles. Asian Transport Studies5(1), 47-63.

Hancock, P. A., Nourbakhsh, I., & Stewart, J. (2019). On the future of transportation in an era of automated and autonomous vehicles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(16), 7684-7691.

Jin, S. T., Kong, H., Wu, R., & Sui, D. Z. (2018). Resourcing, the sharing economy, and the future of cities. Cities76, 96-104.

Law, C. M. (2017). Restructuring the Global Automobile Industry (Vol. 4). US: Taylor & Francis.

Nuske, S., Choudhury, S., Jain, S., Chambers, A., Yoder, L., Scherer, S., Chamberlain, L., Cover, H., & Singh, S. (2015). Autonomous exploration and motion planning for an unmanned aerial vehicle navigating rivers. Journal of Field Robotics32(8), 1141-1162.

Rajasekhar, M. V., & Jaswal, A. K. (2015, August). Autonomous vehicles: The future of automobiles. In 2015 IEEE International Transportation Electrification Conference. IEEE. 1-6.

Richert, J., (2020). CASE: the current state of connected, autonomous, shared and electric mobility. Retrieved from: https://www.intelligent-mobility-xperience.com/case-the-current-state-of-connected-autonomous-shared-and-electric-mobility-a-909917/

Yoder, L., & Scherer, S. (2016). Autonomous exploration for infrastructure modelling with a micro aerial vehicle. Berlin: Springer.

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