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Evidence Based on Practice

Table of Contents


Selection and Argumentative Discussion.

Synthesis of Chosen Literature.

3 qualitative articles.

3 quantitative articles.

Compare and contrast findings.

Comparing 6 article.

Contrasting 6 article.

Research Rationale.



Introduction to Cardiovascular Diseases

In Australia, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) has been the second leading cause of death, which accounts for 15% of the total disease burden. As in the past few years, this chronic disease has run through a significant proportion of health expenditure in Australia i.e., around $5.0 billion. One person dies every 12 min due to CVD in Australia. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) under the Australian Government has highly explicated the essence tracking information on the relative incidence, prevalence, hospitalization, and deaths from cardiovascular disease comprising heart failure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. The related information is updated systematically regularly on the website of AIHW to ensure the most current information and trends and those are easily available and accessible by anyone. To find the best working healthcare model for Cardiovascular Diseases there are two approaches to investigate, one is qualitative research in clinical practice and another one is qualitative analysis of public healthcare. Both of them have their own merits and demerits, but both are capable of defining the current statistics of the CVD spread in Australia and also can provide the respective solution.

Selection and Argumentative Discussion on Cardiovascular Diseases

In the case of English speaking people, 57.1% of females have Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and for males the percentage is 42.9%. For people whose primary language is not English, about 53% of females and 47% of males have Cardiovascular Diseases. In the case of retired people, 50% of English speaking retired Australian people have CVD and 33.3% of non-English speaking retired people have the same. The three main events for the groups participated were sudden cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular disease continues to have a great impact on the health of Australians which may lead to death. For this reason, analysis has been made on this chronic disease. The comprehensiveness of tasks of general practice is being illustrated by the diverse and complex tasks, and thereby further magnified in Indigenous settings.

Synthesis of Chosen Literature

3 Qualitative Articles

This Analysis is based on two kinds of patients - English Speaking and people having other languages like Arabic as their primary language, living in Australia. For English speakers 35.7% of employed people have CVD and for non-English speakers 33.3% of employed people have CVD. In the case of unemployed people 14.3% of English speakers and 13.3% of non-English speakers have Cardiovascular Diseases. Most of these non-English language speakers belonged to foreign countries especially from the middle east and it has been found that they have a very low literacy rate, that's why they do not know about the Cardiovascular Diseases (Abdelmessih, Simpson, Cox & Guisard, 2019). These diseases are common mostly in the age group of 70-79 and least in the age group of 40-49. Research shows that English speaking Australian housewives are not affected by CVD, whereas 20% of Australian non-English language speaking housewives have CVD.

Ethnicity affects a lot in disease management, illness, and health-related matters. The construction of proper health-oriented services takes this a major factor. In Australia there is a large number of South Asian migrants who have Type 2 diabetes and along with that have major Cardio Vascular Diseases. To compare and examine these chronic diseases like CVD among the South Asian community in Australia, a qualitative in-depth interview seemed to be the most effective process (Jin, Gullick, Neubeck, Koo & Ding, 2017). That's why 57 participants were chosen from Victoria, Australia for analysis thematically and theoretical sample collecting. In Australia the clinician's choice is seen by South Asians as unnecessary, costly and as part of their culture it is optional, however, these factors are considered most important by their counterpart, the Anglo Australians.

Here comes the analysis of the associations between socialization and risk-factors of the cardiovascular disease and consequence among the Chinese immigrants in Australia. And it has been found that the level of enculturation which has been measured by age at migration and the period of the residence, was also associated with the worse cardiovascular risk-based profiles, specifically obesity and diabetes among the Chinese immigrants. Mostly the children and teens were amenable to cardiovascular risk factors (Labrosciano, Air, Tavella, Beltram & Ranasinghe, 2017). These have led to a major portion of the immigrants in Australia to be affected by these kinds of chronic disease. These immigrants have some changes in their lifestyles after immigration with increasing the adoption of an unhealthy diet.

3 Quantitative Articles

The death rate due to cardiac disease in the Australian population is comparatively higher. Young ladies with end-stage kidney disease have a higher relative risk of dying from heart disease. In trials of the hemodialysis, sudden cardiac death and myocardial infarction are being considered as core outcomes of cardiovascular disease and are supported by professionals related to health, patients, and caregivers (Sarink et al., 2018). The challenges presented by taking measurements were recognized by the participants and the implementation of the mentioned outcomes and further task needs to be carried out to ensure practical and feasible use in the trials of hemodialysis, and therefore strengthen the base of evidence for making decisions. Cardiovascular disease bestows to high mortality and morbidity for people on hemodialysis trials. The main part of this analysis is to identify the priorities of professionals related to health and patients/caregivers for heart disease outcomes to be recorded in all the trials of hemodialysis.

The Australian Medical Association (AMA) thereby launched an annual report on new cases of Rheumatic Heart Disease(RHD). Rheumatic fever is one of the symptoms of RHD. of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Mainly these symptoms are found in young masses— results in fevers and various skin-related symptoms, heart and brain. This compounds the effects of RHD on Young Indigenous women mainly got affected by RHD who obtain considerable risks from valvular heart diseases during their pregnancy period and labor. RHD is among the top 21 causes of death for Indigenous females in Australia (Drager, McEvoy, Barbe, Lorenzi-Filho & Redline, 2017). The forepart of this chronic disease are in primary care, firstly sore throat and sores of the skin are cured, ARF diagnosis is done, secondary prophylaxis is being delivered, monitoring of anticoagulation and thereafter health education is provided. A steady as well as well-established primary care workforce can fulfill these targets — for RHD. Now, they are trying to breach the gap in cardiovascular health. Actions are being taken to end the new cases of RHD in Australia and it is a feasible target.

In this analysis, the relationship between the cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss have been examined. The objective measures taken into account are lipid profile, body mass index, blood pressure, and haemoglobin. Hearing loss problems have been diagnosed with considering the family history of the participants (Kompa, Nguyen, Edgley & Kelly, 2019). The risk factors essentially associated with the audiometric factors were arterial disease, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. It has been inferred that the higher the risk of cardiac arrest, the more will be the risk of hearing loss.

Compare and Contrast Findings

Comparing 6 Article

The main reason behind the spread of these Cardiovascular diseases in Australia is poor or no access to health information. This has been confirmed from the inputs provided by both English and non-English speakers. In many cases wrong information is conveyed to the pharmacists since they do not ask for proper tests and provide medicines based on verbal communications. There is always a barrier in terms of language and culture between the South Asian patients and the clinicians. Therefore, the interaction of these South Asian patients in Australia with the doctors is often poor, as a result effective medications and treatment are not provided to them. But these South Asian people take this as incompetency of the clinicians and thus lose trust in them.

Thus cultural barriers are viewed as lack of competency of the clinicians by the South Asians living in Australia. Comparison between Chinese women living in Australia less than 10 years, and those of greater than 30 years were more likely to have been suffering from cardiovascular disease. This kind of approach always helps patients to get proper health information and to improve their health conditions and take correct medications. In total, around 680 people from different 60 countries participated in the survey, including 143 patients and caregivers. The mean rating and mean preference marks were also analyzed. In total, there were about 6900 cardiac deaths, of which 86.9% were from ischaemic heart disease (O'Lone, De La Mata, Rosales, Kelly & Webster, 2019).

Approximately 4,302 living registered RHD cases recorded in Australia. Australia combined. 87.5% of registered cases of RHD were reported by indigenous people. (3,690 diagnoses).During the past few years, there were about 1,800 diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) among Indigenous Australians. Within the same period, there were approximately 1,000 in number who were diagnosed with RHD among Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, Western region of Australia, and combined (Tan et al., 2018). Due to the increasing prevalence of the conditions regarding age, the analysis has been limited by the small age range and the specified geographical setting. It may lead to a biased form of data collection (Sanchez, Salamonson, Everett & George, 2019).

Contrasting 6 Article

Research has found that only 19.1% of non-English speakers received proper medical guidance from HCP. A group of Australian researchers found in a study that the information required and needed by the patients within the same group is different from one another largely because this dependent on the English speaking capability, knowledge on health issues, and literacy. Australian clinicians can increase their trustworthiness by becoming competent with the cultural diversities and needs South Asian people are searching in them. Unlike treating the Anglo Australians, Clinicians have to be more sensitive and thoughtful about the cultural sensitivity of South Asians and have to be respectful towards it. They have to be experts in clinical knowledge as well as cultural sensitivities. Only then the relationship between patients and clinicians will be effective and fruitful. This requires a lot of training of the Australian clinicians to overcome these cultural boundaries.

After examining the association between the indicators of socialization and the cardiovascular risk among the Chinese immigrants, the risk factors were of moderate to vigorous. The mean age of the Chinese participants was 58.9 years (Aroni & Gupta, 2018). In only 13% of trials in hemodialysis, there are cardiovascular outcomes, and are measured inconsistently which is one of the drawbacks. The trial duration was between the range of three weeks and one year. The median age was 50.8 years. For most of the studies, Methodological reporting was incomplete. There are approximately 60% of cases below 25 years of age at diagnosis and more than two-thirds of new RHD cases diagnosed among Indigenous Australians were female (AIHW 2019). 83.6% of the total RHD burden was dominated by mortality burden. Moreover, further research is needed to explore the potential reason for hearing loss due to cardiovascular disease. And proper medications should be found out to reduce hearing loss.

Research Rationale on Cardiovascular Disease in Australia

HMR and other kinds of pharmacies in Australia have chronic disease monitoring services which may help pharmacists to help patients to give proper health-related information that suits the needs of each patient. The result and information which is provided to patients is thus customized and tailor-made for every individual and thus ensuring proper medications for every different person (Tooher, Thornton, Makris, Ogle, Korda & Hennessy, 2017). Based on the mortality and hospital records. The research estimates that the implication is underestimated to a vast number of undiagnosed cases in the remote areas of Australia. 53% of the cases in Northern Australia are identified as a fault in the screening study since they have never been diagnosed properly.

Conclusion on Cardiovascular Disease in Australia

Our approach to this investigation is qualitative research and it is best suited for this kind of scenario because this analysis helps in building an efficient healthcare model that can properly address all the requirements of the patients. It is indicated in this analysis that all the participants be English speaking or non-English speaking, be South Asian or Anglo Australian or be young or old, they have a vast range of healthcare requirements and they face lots of challenges in terms of treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. To overcome these challenges Austrian health agencies need to focus on effective communication with HCP patients, approachable care, and empowerment of patients. This will in turn stop further spread of Cardiovascular Diseases and will improve the management of other diseases and will thereby improve the overall health conditions of the Australians. Therefore, one can say that the choice of qualitative research is more useful in healthcare practices as articles with evidence though quantitative research have shown more limitations than its counterparts.

References for Cardiovascular Disease in Australia

Abdelmessih, E., Simpson, M. D., Cox, J., & Guisard, Y. (2019). Exploring the Health Care Challenges and Health Care Needs of Arabic-Speaking Immigrants with Cardiovascular Disease in Australia. Pharmacy, 7(4), 151.

Aroni, R., & Gupta, S. (2018). 3.5-O7 Perceptions of competence and trust in the interactions between clinicians and patients in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease management among South Asians and Anglo-Australians in Australia. The European Journal of Public Health, 28(suppl_1), cky047-115.

Drager, L. F., McEvoy, R. D., Barbe, F., Lorenzi-Filho, G., & Redline, S. (2017). Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: lessons from recent trials and need for team science. Circulation136(19), 1840-1850.

Jin, K., Gullick, J., Neubeck, L., Koo, F., & Ding, D. (2017). Acculturation is associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk-factors among Chinese immigrants in Australia: Evidence from a large population-based cohort. European journal of preventive cardiology, 24(18), 2000-2008.

Kompa, A., Nguyen, C., Edgley, A. J., & Kelly, D. J. (2019). P3493 Uremic toxin induced endothelial dysfunction can be restored by inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor: implications for cardiovascular disease treatment in chronic kidney disease patients. European Heart Journal40(Supplement_1), ehz745-0360.

Labrosciano, C., Air, T., Tavella, R., Beltrame, J., & Ranasinghe, I. (2017). Readmissions After Hospitalisation for Cardiovascular Disease in Australia: A Systematic Review. Heart, Lung and Circulation26, S300.

O'Lone, E., De La Mata, N., Rosales, B., Kelly, P., & Webster, C. A. (2019). SUN-046 CARDIAC MORTALITY IN PEOPLE WITH END STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND; A COHORT STUDY FROM 1980 TO 2013. Kidney International Reports, 4(7), S172-S173.

Sanchez, P., Salamonson, Y., Everett, B., & George, A. (2019). Barriers and Predictors Associated With Accessing Oral Healthcare Among Patients With Cardiovascular Disease in Australia. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing34(3), 208-214.

Sarink, D., Nedkoff, L., Briffa, T., Shaw, J. E., Magliano, D. J., Stevenson, C., ... & Norman, P. (2018). Trends in age-and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease in Western Australia. European journal of preventive cardiology25(12), 1280-1290.

Tan, H. E., Lan, N. S. R., Knuiman, M. W., Divitini, M. L., Swanepoel, D. W., Hunter, M., ... & Santa Maria, P. L. (2018). Associations between cardiovascular disease and its risk factors with hearing loss—a cross‐sectional analysis. Clinical Otolaryngology, 43(1), 172-181.

Tooher, J., Thornton, C., Makris, A., Ogle, R., Korda, A., & Hennessy, A. (2017). All hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Hypertension70(4), 798-803.

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