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Introduction

The most important element of career management is Human resource management which holds a major impact upon the organization. There are various ways through which organizational career management can be analyzed as it is the major department that holds the employability of employees in the organization by looking at the opportunity e of selecting high skilled performers. It is important to know that the skills and knowledge regarding the task and work have involved in a large sense for many years. This is the reason why the career management has become a process where the involvement of various specialists like the human resource managers, line specialist managers, feedback of career progression, and assessment of skills activity as well as support from the management also becomes an integral part for the career management of an individual at the workplace.

Therefore the research will focus upon various aspects regarding different approaches and processes of career management used by the organizations (Mackowiak, 2017). The present research will mainly focus on providing information related to various approaches that are used in the career management of the employees and how it is different from the process used under career management. It is important to know that there are various anchors and elements which are directly as well as indirectly related to the career management process and approaches. Every element will be thoroughly discussed in the present research.

Career management is a plant process which is carried out by an individual with the help of others. The process of career management can help the individual to maximize their success. The ultimate aim of the career management process and approaches to meet the objectives of the policies related to talent management to ensure a talented pool of employees in the organization. Career management helps to meet the objective of the organization without compromising the expectations of the employees from the employer. Career management helps the employees to tune their ambitions and talents following the potential required by the organization which will ultimately help the employees to develop their career within the organization. Career management also helps the organization to achieve retention of the employees by making employee-centred policies without jeopardizing the objectives of the organization (Mackowiak, 2017).

To promote the management of a career it is important to go under the self-assessment process by understanding the needs, interests, and values associated with the set goal. This must be done by formulating a strategy to achieve a plan in life. The employer shares and holds the ultimate responsibility for the development of a career through various approaches like making the employee aware of the constants and providing them with a job structure. The career management process must work to meet the basic expectations of the employees without compromising with the goals of the employer. The research will focus upon various processes and approaches of career management adopted by various countries and organizations to maximize the success of an individual in the long run.

It is important to know that career management involves an active process of self-assessment and setting of goals with the help of various techniques of career management. Various young professionals are generally referred to as generation Y and are also called as millenniums. These groups of individuals are more tend to become restless in regards to various aspects of life, especially within the organization. The values of work are usually differently perceived by generation Y. Career can be referred to as employment with wage and many authors associated the career management process with a belonging tour professional group occupation (Baruch, 2015).

Various scholars had interpreted that the perception of an individual towards his or her career is highly dependent upon the attitude and different kinds of behaviour attached to the experience related to tasks and work throughout the life of an individual. Within various decades the definition of career management has been changed where some had associated the phenomena with the behaviour of an individual and some had associated the same with the experiences. It must be noted that since the year 1990 a growth was observed in corporate social responsibility along with the intensification of employees' performance in the organizations operating under the civil society. This is the major reason why the inclination of generation y can be observed in the career management process. It is important to note that the perspective of the management of the company also plays a crucial role and had become a major element of the analysis of the career management process.

Different Processes of Career Management

The zeal of performing better in the career which is related to the performance in the organization plays a significant role in being a motivational factor to the employees within the organization. This is the reason why most of the organizations are ready to offer diverse development spaces to their workers to understand better regarding the professional abilities and possibilities of the employees (Baruch, 2015). This development space is given by the organization to help the employee to channel their efforts to improve productivity. It is important to know that there are various processes and approaches related to the career management protean career, a boundaryless career as well as the organizational career. The protean career management is a process where more than one individual is managing the work in the organization.

This process is completely independent of any other external influence and is majorly based upon the psychological and self-management variables. This process is helping the individual to shape their career by themselves without any assistance from the organization. Boundaryless career is a process under which an individual is responsible to maintain his or her career. Under this process, the individual focuses upon gaining knowledge by the constant search of the same and apart from this every information is also extracted from the external sources by the individual. The major idea behind this process is that the career of an employee moves through the roadway of the boundaries set by the employer (Baruch, 2015).

The mobility of this process ranges from physical and psychological. Also, the organizational career works as a process under which an individual or the employee works for the organization until the time of his or her retirement. Under this process, the seniority of the individual is valued. The management of career and this process is usually linked with major organizations where a stable environment is expected along with the interdependency of the employee and the company. Under this process, the learning takes place internally in the organization where the knowledge is transferred from one department to another. These are few comparisons of different kinds of process of career management adopted by various organizations as well as the individuals. By looking at the different process it can be inferred that the notion of employment has been inherited from the industrial society where a worker devotes himself for working their best in the organization with utmost loyalty to the company in return for rewards, security as well as stability.

It must be noted that the career management process includes three steps which are inclusive of self-assessment, setting up goals and the planning of the career path by the individual. Self-assessment is probably the most important element of career management because without adequate introspection regarding the self-assessment the other two steps cannot be completed (Trevisan, 2017). Self-assessment is the most important element of career management is also the most difficult to be adopted by most of the people as it requires a better understanding of the interest and abilities of the self. Analysis of oneself is much more important than that of choosing and occupation because the self-assessment is also required to develop a plan for the progression of the chosen occupation. The person must use various methods from different sources to generate data about him to strengthen the validity of the findings of the data.

Once the self-assessment is completed by the individual the next step is to set goals by understanding the responsibilities attached and associated with the selected occupation. Targeting a particular job is not the ultimate aim of setting a career goal but it is also important to investigate the social, political as well as organizational responsibility associated with it. Other factors like benefits and salaries will also play a major role in determining the career goal. The next step is planning for a career path, it is important to know that mere setting up of goals is not sufficient because the goals require deliberate action to achieve the goals. Establishing a career path will help an individual to set and formulate strategies to achieve the particular goal by setting out directions, the timing required as well as the discussions with the authorities related to the chosen occupation.

Different Approaches to Career Management

Apart from various processes, different approaches are used by the organization for helping the employees in their career management. The approaches revolve around different categories of employees and one of them is the engaged employees who are very passionate about their work ok and are highly committed to achieving their goals for the organization. The Gallup organization had conducted research where they had found that these categories of employees are highly productive when compared to the different sets of employees (Mackowiak, 2017).

Apart from this the study conducted by the Gallup organization had also inferred that the organizations that hire a high level of engaging employees are more likely to experience 2.6 times of growth as compared to any other organization within the same industry. This is the reason even the Human resource department where are also recognized the importance of engaged employees to maintain the overall performance of the organization in various departments. Apart from this even the labour market had also recognized the engagement of engaged employees more than ever.

After the entrance of generation y with a higher set of attributes, they are likely to have higher expectations from the organization and less loyalty to their employees. This generation is more likely to work for their fulfilment rather than achieving the goals for the organization. This generation is highly inclined towards their self-interest where they consider the objectives of the organization as a second priority. Due to the profound shift in the labour market in Civil society, there is a high demand for career management practice to stay competitive in the market. This is the major reason why the traditional approach of improving the career management and employee engagement had failed because of the profound shift in the labour market as the traditional approach has become outdated and is no longer in effect.

This is the reason why the upcoming organizations are focused upon adopting and formulating better strategies for the development of the employee and their retention. This is the reason why leading organizations have also adopted a different career management approach more philosophically to change the focus of the policies of the organization. Under this approach, the recruitment is not based upon the evaluation of job performance based on the needs of the organization. The leading organizations are adopting the approach where the expectations and objectives of the employees, as well as the employees, can both be balanced by understanding and aligning the strength of the employees as well as the organization . The workers or employees in the organization have higher expectations from the organization apart from their job.

The employees expect the organization to build their skills by providing diverse experiences to them so that they can explore their ability by creating more options. The research has shown that this approach had significantly worked better than the traditional approach in the retention process of the organization. There are many career and performance management programs that help the employees to build their career paths and help them to stick to their particular track (Sutton, 2016). However, this approach is different when applied in a practical sense because the interest of the employee is likely to change with time and the major reason behind this can be when they discovered their lack of competency to succeed in the selected area.

The career management process is much more than that; it is more about matching the interest and competency of the employee along with the opportunities in the organization so that the employees can fit their abilities without compromising the contentment regarding their job. It is important to understand that the career management process is a unique interrelationship between the organization, management, and the employees. Under the changed career management process unlike the traditional approach, it is the ownership of the employee to look out for their professional development but on the other hand, under this approach, the facility of the process is managed and provided by the management of the organization where the organization is ready to provide every possible support to the employees.

Major Comparison Between the Career Management Approach and Processes

The major difference between the career management approach is that it is solely focused upon recruiting the engage employees in the organization where they are highly passionate and committed to achieving the objectives of the organization. Under the career management approach employees perceives the goals of the organization as a means of their fulfilment but on the other hand, the process of career management is not exhaustive like the approach of career management (Baruch, 2015). There are various roots under which the process of career management works to achieve the ultimate goals of the organization.

Figure 1 shows different areas and process of career management

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows different areas and process of career management. The first food is to analyze the policies of career management where the organization has to decide upon category and skills required to achieve the goals of the organization. The major question that needs to be asked by the management of the organization is whether to promote their internal policies of the organization or whether the organization must solely depend upon the external recruitment to obtain the goals of the organization. Policies must be formulated in such a way that high performers are recruited in the industry and based upon that they will be promoted in the organization (Yamamura, 2017).

This process will work for the organization as well as for the employees without compromising with the interest of both of them. Another process is to order the already available talent in the organization so that the assessment of their potential can be made (Lance, 2016). The ultimate assessment of the potential and performance will help the organization to learn about providing the possible directions of the employees regarding their career opportunities to help them in the direction of the promotion. Assessment must be done by the managers according to the guidelines.

Next comes the planning of the career, it is important to understand the exact definition of career paths as it is the ultimate rule which is taken by the employees to advance their career in the organization. it is the responsibility of the employees to assess the requirements of the organization so that the self-assessment of the ability of employees can be done accordingly. Career progression can be defined where people are required to know about their responsibility so that they can progress in the organization buy highly utilizing their competencies (Strauss, 2017). Employees must recognize their competencies to progress in their careers and therefore they can able to plan their development with the help of the guidelines provided by their management in the organization.

So, therefore, the career management process revolves around four criteria which are the self-assessment, reality check, setting up of goals, and bringing the planning into action. The ultimate use of information by the employees to identify their attitudes and interest regarding the occupation along with the psychological test will help the employees to build up and develop their career management. It is important to know that it is not the sole responsibility of the employee to work and achieve the career management through various processes and approaches but the career management is a shared responsibility between the employee, organization, and Human resource department. However, it is important to note that there are various implications associated with career management.

As various anchors like the employer and the other authorities departments of the organization are usually 10 to differentiate between the traditional employees as well as the generation y. So the organization must keep itself away from any source of bias and influence. Therefore the process and approach of career management refer to the fact that the success of the career of an individual does not solely depend upon the fate of the person but the success is in the control of the individual (Gade, 2015). The employee must get themselves aware of their choice, needs, and expectations from the future. Apart from this, it is the responsibility of the managers and the supervisors to provide opportunities and support to the employees to develop their career within the organization so that the retention can also be possible at the same time.

To plan career path career competencies must be also been identified by the employees where a proper analysis regarding the experience required to perform a particular job is known to the employee. Apart from this, all the risks associated with the occupation must also be known along with all sorts of specialization needed to provide quality to the job. All these tests and stretching the boundaries of the employee's overtime are essential requirement which helps the employee to achieve the ultimate understanding of entering into a particular occupation. For example, any occupation which is related to medical care is usually associated with certain requirements of specialization to meet the ultimate requirements. Moreover, the occupation related to medical care also requires a certain amount of experiences and there is the various risk of life attached to the same. So the employee must get himself aware of all the scenarios and circumstances which made likely to occur with the associated occupation chosen by the employee.

References

Mackowiak, J. (2017). Career management: An active process. American journal of hospital pharmacy. 4(2), 54-60.

Trevisan, L. (2017). Generational perceptions and their influences on organizational commitment. Management Research: The Journal of the American Academy of Management, 13(1), 5-30.

Sutton, D. (2016). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new Millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 363-382.

Baruch, Y. (2015). Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1542-1571.

Yamamura, J. (2017). Generational preferences for work environment fit: Effects on employee outcomes. Career Development International, 12(2), 150-161.

Lance, C. (2016). Generational differences in work values: Leisure and extrinsic values increasing, social and intrinsic values decreasing. Journal of Management, 36(5), 1117-1142.

Strauss, W. (2017). The next 20 years: How customer and workforce attitudes will evolve. Harvard Business Review, 85(7), 41-52.

Gade, P. (2015). Generational Differences in Work-Related Attitudes: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(4), 375-394.

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