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  • Subject Name : Management

Case Study 2: Health and Place

Q.4 Based on the table above, which picture (A or B) displays the design which is likely to result in poor health outcomes? Explain your answer

Answer 4:

From the above pictures, picture A display the design for poor health outcome. Picture A depicts that people are using cars to move from one place to another instead of walking, or cycling. Walking and cycling is another set of exercises which help the person to be physically fit. The individuals inside the car were less exposed to fresh air, while inside the car they are exhausting their lungs with the bad pollution as inside car the pollutants being reluctant. The green plants are less cultivated in the first picture, which affect the quality of air, a green plants help in reducing the harmful gasses from the environment and provide fresh oxygen in the surroundings. These plants work as a natural pollution sinker by intercepting dust and pollutants. The picture also depicts the lower interaction with the surrounding people and society, while the second picture shows people gathering and social interactions. Social interactions help the individual to interact and share their thought, feelings, and emotions. The interaction helps the person to grow positively through boosting the immune system, sharpens the mental capability, and cognitive development.

Q.5 Recommend at least one (1) strategy to improve the design in your selected picture. Discuss the concept of walkability and using examples of walkability scores in Sydney list the variation of scores found

Answer 5:

The picture can be improved by using cycles, wheelers instead of cars. Cycling, walking, or wheeler movement help the person to be physically fit and also interact the person with the fresh air, which otherwise not possible for one using cars. Walking helps in reducing the implications associated with cardiovascular, pulmonary, respiratory problems. It reduced the risk of diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, and muscular stiffness. Other than a health concern, walking and cycling also provide possible mental fitness with a deep level of concentration among individuals. According to Walk Score, (2019), Sydney rank a score of 63 in walking as compared to other cities. The variation in the score is due to the pedestrian walking design infrastructure, parks, and public places availability, awareness among people with respect to walking benefits.

Case Study 3: Gender, Sexuality and Place

Q.6 What is the difference between how women and men are represented in the memorials displayed in these pictures?

Answer 6:

Women memorial pictures depict only the names of women who participated in the war, while men memorial depicts the statue of men who participate in the war. This however determines the discrimination between men and women and leads to gender inequality. The statue of men represents the art of courage, vision, tenacity, and strong ability. The women memorial nameplate represents only the names of women fighter that lacks the visual characters of women fighter in terms of brevity, tough, courageous, and strong. The picture of men's memorial depicts the physical strong vision of men as a war worrier while it is not for the women. These illustrative pictures show a deep inequality among women and which can lead to long-term destructions in humanity and human well being.

Q.7 Explain how these representations of women and men in memorial landscape can contribute to gender inequality in Australia? Use any other example of where gender inequality is particularly noted and discuss the significance of this for the current debate.

Answer 7:

The difference in pictures depicts gender inequality and also how the gender was symbolized differently without the fact that both have to struggle the same, and went to the same situation during the war. In Australia, gender inequality continues to reach upward and causing a disadvantage to women's personalities. For instance, in Australia, the pay scale for women is lesser as compared to men in the same working industry. From a case study (Oxfam Australia, 2019), it was found that the full time working women earn on average 85 cents for every dollar earned by men in Australia in the same industry. 65% of women work more than five hours a week without pay while 60% of men work less than five hours a week without pay. The gender inequality affects socio-economic outcomes and thereby affecting the personality, belief, respect, and self-esteem among women. Similarly, the above picture also affects the self-respect, self-esteem, and self-determination towards work or any other life goal.

Q.8 What is the significance of the ‘Keep Newown Weird’ campaign, and why is it important to maintain Queer spaces?

Answer 8:

Keep Newton Weird is a campaign implemented in Newton street Sydney. In the campaign, thousands of people were dressed colorfully and walked in the street of Newton’s kings street by dancing, and hula-hoop. The people march in response to the brutal assault made on a few people in late-night in Newton Street. The main motive of the campaign is to give respect to lesbian, queer communities, bisexual, gay, queer identities, and transgender.

The campaign looks like a show of defiance in the front of anti-social, anti-political, anti-cultural behavior. The rally was an act to be a protest against increasing homophobic, transphobic, transgender violence beginning to infiltrate the community

Case Study 4: Cultural Inequality and Place

Q.9 What impact do you think that the kind of reporting outlined in the graph above might have on people’s perception of Muslims? How can we use the ‘five faces of oppression’ to describe this kind of representation?

Answer 9:

From the above chart, it can be demonstrated that a higher percentage of the negative portrayal of race is faced by the Muslim community. The positive scenario is still higher in the case of indigenous people. These people witnessed by the aboriginal and Torres strait, the positive scenario is maybe due to social acceptance and started awareness of the indigenous people of Australia.

Five force of oppression can be used to describe this kind of situation (Anti-racist discourse on Muslims in Australian Parliament.).

  1. Violence – In Autralia, Muslims community faces verbal and misbehaviour violence rather than physical violence

  2. Exploitation – It is the act in which people’s effort, work, and labor are used but they were not compensated with the profit, or they are not paid fairly.

  3. Marginalization - It is the activity in which a confined group was addressed towards a lower standing or outer limit. In the Muslim minority community, people have faced exclusion practices, exploitation, and social discrimination. In Australia, Muslims were faced with islamophobia characteristics and distant marginalization.

  4. Powerlessness – Muslim community experience in relation with respect to the capacity, culture, political empowerment, and education. People of the Muslim community face discrimination in political participation, local government, traditional community leadership campaign, and other constitutional body.

  5. Cultural Imperialism - Nazer, (2017) opined that cultured national organization causes a degraded effort on the less powerful society in the region. It culturally affect the hegemony of minority people in terms of industrialized, political, and economical sub-factors.

Q.10 What is Islamophobia? In what ways does Islamophobia impact and shape Muslims’ access to both public and private spaces?

Answer 10:

Islamophobia is a way of actions toward a minority community in the region. It is speculative, hostile, affective distrust, and false perception towards the Muslim community in Australia. Islamophobia tends to cause illogical fear, inexplicable fear, hatred, hostility, negative stereotypes, discrimination, marginalization, and biasness among Muslims in the region. This further ten to cause social discrimination, illegal practices, and cultural misbelieve in society.

Due to these conditions it implicit the sense of fear among the Muslim community. Muslims feel disrespect, differences in cultural, and political interest in public and private places. They also feel exclusion from economic, social, and cultural life along with the feeling of citizenship expiration. It acts as a tool that dehumanizes, creates violence, and structural racism against the Muslim community. The Muslims in Australia face discrimination in education, profession, health care, and other societal benefits. The majority of attacks witnessed by Muslims are verbal rather than physical, this further leads in the development of mental illness and other psychological implications.


Anti-racist discourse on Muslims in Australian Parliament. (n.d.).

Oxfam Australia. (2019). The inequality that dived us. Retrieved from: https://www.oxfam.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/2019-Davos-factsheet.pdf Iner, D. (2019). 

Poynting, S. & Briskman, L. (2018). Islamophobia in Australia: from far-right deplorables to respectable liberals, Social Science, 7, 1-17.

Walk Score. (2019). Living in Sydney. Retrieved from https://www.walkscore.com/AU-NSW/Sydney.

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