Introduction to Nervous System Structure

The nervous system is the main human body regulation and communication system, and it is an important field of study for all occupational health courses..

1-The nervous system helps to absorb and react to knowledge about the environment (sensation) (motor responses). The nervous system is split into physiological (sensory) and reaction (motor) areas (motor functions) However, there is a third function to consider. Feedback from senses must be mixed with other senses and memories, emotions and understanding (cognition). Terms used for describing regions of the nervous system are integration and combination areas. The integration process incorporates sensory impression, including memory, comprehension and a higher cognitive capacity, to create something.

1.1-The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system (CNS), which are covered by the so called meninges in three levels of protection (from the Greek word for membrane). The above dura mater is the outermost layer. The latter is the solid mother. As the Latin means, the main function of this thick layer is to protect the brain and backbone. The peripheral nervous system comprises nerves outside the cortex and the spinal cord.Examples of this are long nerve fibres and ganglia composed of neuronal cell bodies. By the peripheral nervous system the central nervous system (CNS) is interconnected with the various parts of the body. The principal role of the peripheral nervous system is to link the brain and the backbone to the rest of the body and the exterior. Face, ear, skin, nose, and tongue sensory receptors as well musculoskeletal stretching receptors and nociceptors and other internal organs give all the input to nerves.

1.2- The autonomous nervous system (ANS) consists of motor-neuronic units (ganglia) and axonal connections between the brain, back, thorax, abdominal and pelvis. The central nervous system (CNS) sends commands into skeletal muscle and neuroendocrine pathways through autonomous pathways to the rest of the body. CNS components, like the brainstem and the autonomous spinal neurons, also feature the ANS, This initiative for peripheral ganglia independent motor neurons. Preganglion's autonomous motor neurons vary from somatic motor neurons, as they project in particular from the CNS to the interior tissue (skeletal muscle). In autonomous ganglias, postganglion axon neurons pervade the organ and tissue throughout the entire body (eyes, salivary glands, heart, stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels, etc). The word "neurons of the postganglion" is used to describe motor neurons in autonomous ganglia. Given the confusion of the traditional terminology, we call autonomic motoneurons or final motoneurons ganglionic cells.

1.3- Pseudounipolar neurons most sensory. They have an axon and two extensions, dendrites and axons, isolated from the cell body.

The dendrites are where the external world impulses are received and the sensory neuron is "started." The signal is produced by the dendrites' branch projections. The sensory dendrites in the neuron appear very long.

The signal from the receptors of the dendrites passes through the NF before it In the nerve fibe lateral branch is found the cell body of the pseudounipolar sensory neurons reaches the cell body. The cell body is located in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cells.

The axon is the fibre that removes the signal from the body of the cell. The axon is weak in the sensory nerves. The axon connects to the spine and at the end of the axon the neuron ends. The dendrites and cell body are three components that shape a motor neuron's structure (soma). They have an axon and several dendrites that multiply them.

On one end of a neuron, dendrites are known as the branches. These are mechanisms which receive input and are carried from the other neurons to the cell body by transmitting signal and cell.it transmits the signal and activates the cell. The average number of dendrites is 5 to 7 per cell, but there are more than 1000more, such as pirkinji brain neurons . there are organelles inside the cell body it is responsible for all cell functions and is the area of most protein synthesis. The axon is a long cellular body projection. It is like a candult or a wire that transfer the data on the axonal terminal from the dendrities through the body of the cell to the other end of the cell. The information is then passes to a new neuron or effector, which may be like a muscle cell, to the next cell.

Although it can have multiple branches and ends which allow each neuron to communicate with different cells just one axon, axons can be very long particularly the low body temperature of the axons that from the sciatic nerve .

2-The spread of nerve impulses from one end of the neuron to another is triggered by electrical variations in the membrane of the neuron. The key contribution to the resting membrane (a polarised nerve) potential is its permeability to the sodium ions in the resting membrane. The resting membrane is much more permeable to potassium ions than sodium ions, which results in a somewhat greater net diffusion of potasium ion (from the inner part of the neuron to the outside) compared to the diffusion of sodium ions (from the outside of the neuron to the inside).The cell is home to negatively charged proteins and nucleic acids. These big, negatively charged ions add in comparison with the outside to the total negative charge on the inner cell membrane.

2.1-In Since myelin increases the fibre thickness, it accelerates its spread. In addition, myelin makes a saltatory conductivity of action potential as only Ranvier knots depolarise and myelin nodes hop over. Un myelinated fibres require depolarization of any portion of the axonal membrane, slowing propagation significantly.

2.2-The hypothesis is that, regardless of the power of the stimuli, the frequency of a nervous cell or muscle fibre response. If a stimulus reaches a certain threshold, a nerve or muscle fibre may burn. There would be either a full answer or no response for a single neuron or muscle fibre. Stimulus is sufficiently high, action potential is present and a neuron transfers information to the synapse and away from the cell body. The signal spreads down the length of the axon due to changes in cell polarisation.

The opportunity for action is always a complete reaction. There is no "solid" or "bad" opportunity for intervention. Rather, it's a complete phase or nothing. This reduces the likelihood of knowledge being lost in the way.

2.3-The key task of Myelin is to protect and isolate these axons while improving the capacity to transmit electrical impulses as well. When myelin is thin, the spread of such impulses is delayed, as is seen in severe neurological conditions, including MS. Myelin circles and isolates the axon. It produces unique molecular configurations at narrow, open holes in the sheathing known as the nodes of Ranvier. The nerve momentum (action possibilities) flows in unmyelined axons through the axon. Currents will only arise where the myelinated nerve fibres at the Ranvier nodes are exposed to the axonal membrane.

3-Asynapse is a narrow opening at the end of a neuron that causes a signal to pass from one neuron to the next in the central nervous system. Synapses are the points of communication between the nerve cells.

3.1-A miniature transducer is a cholinergic synapse which converts the electrical signal of a presynaptic into a chemical signal (acetylcholine) the synaptic break then diffuses and interacts to activate the electric signal on the post synaptic side with the acetilcholine receptors.

A physiological valve, the synapse along with its NT is a valve that directs nerve impulses in regular circuits and avoids random or chaotic nerve stimulation. The nerve fibre ending or terminal swell into a knoblique, separated from the fibre, the neighbouring neuron's fibre, called postsynaptic fibre, by a microscopic area. 0.02 micron wide synaptic kefts are currently available. As a nerve impulse approaches the preynaptic ends, membrane bundles or synaptic vesicles merge and spill a chemical agent called a neurotransmitter into the presynaptic membrane .

3.2-From infancy to adulthood, synaptic repression induced by GABA and glycine has a significant impact on mammalian neuronal networks. The intracellular concentration of chloride ions in the target cell determines the postsynaptic action of these neurotransmitters on GABAA and glycine receptors. In adult healthy neurons, activation of glycine receptors and GABAA activates the inner flux of Cl and membrane hyperpolarization potential. This reduces the action potential for glycine and GABA by the dissipation of incoming excitative currents and the removal of membranes from the action potential threshold.

References for Nervous System Structure and Function

Deber, C., & Reynolds, S. (1991). Central nervous system myelin: structure, function, and pathology. Clinical Biochemistry, 24(2), 113-134. doi: 10.1016/0009-9120(91)90421-a

Illis, L. (1999). The Central Nervous System Structure and Function. Spinal Cord, 37(4), 310-310. doi: 10.1038/sj.sc.3100793

Widmann, D. (1972). Structure and Function of the Nervous System (Organ Physiology). JAMA: The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 222(2), 213. doi: 10.1001/jama.1972.03210020059023

Snider, R. (1967). The Human Nervous System: Basic Elements of Structure and Function. Neurology, 17(10), 1023-1023. doi: 10.1212/wnl.17.10.1023-

: Chu, C., Zhong, G., & Li, H. (2020). Structure and function of subcortical periodic cytoskeleton throughout the nervous system. Stemedicine, 1(1), e9. doi: 10.37175/stemedicine.v1i1.9

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