Manage and Promote Diversity 

Answer 1. Organizations design diversity strategies to improve their overall quality of products and services. The quality of products and services can be improved only after detecting the weaknesses in the system. The weakness of the system can be improved by gathering information about the quality of products and services by a diverse range of customers. Group of the population that is mainly associated with using the product and services that are undertaken for analysis are focused. Different strategies have been designed to collect feedback from clients (Thangaiah, Sharma & Sundharam, 2018). Four strategies that can be used for collecting feedback from the clients are

  • Interview based feedback – The selection of people for forming the reference group is a crucial step as the quality of feedback provided by the reference group depends on it. The reference group is formed including the people who have a profound knowledge of the product and services of the organization. This enables them in providing accurate information regarding the product and services of the organization. The people of reference groups aim at providing impartial information regarding the services. The reference group can be engaged in the meetings with organization representatives to know the weaknesses. These meetings provide an opportunity for organizations to procure direct feedback from the people. This will avoid any intermediate loss of information or miscommunication of information between client and organization. Further organizations maintain the active involvement of the reference groups in designing strategies to improve their product and services. This results in the development of better guidelines which are focused on improved quality of product and services (Knuuti, 2019).
  • B2B based feedback – To ensure the quality of feedback for the client organizations aims at devising certain policies. These policies ensure that the clients provide impartial feedback regarding the products and services of the organization. The agreement is used in achieving the quality feedback by offering different benefits to the client providing the information. This method also makes sure that the client is specifically dedicated towards the organization. It enables both the organization and clients to achieve their common goal of interest. Agreements are designed in such a manner so that they provide clarity to the client towards the objective of obtaining feedback and future utilization of the information provided by the client. It ensures transparency of the consent of the organization and client for working towards a common objective (Zolkiewski et al., 2017).
  • Mobile application-based feedback – With the advent of technology the feedback system is also improving. The recent feedback methods are generating methods which are based on technology. They aim at procuring information from the client while offering them ease to prove the feedback and avail benefits from the organization based on their products. The incorporation of mobile technology in collecting feedback from the client makes the procedure simplified and fast for them. It helps the organization in improving their future products and better customizing the present ones. This method involves the use of the application in the mobile by the client to provide feedback (Mourtzis et al., 2018).
  • Real-time feedback – This method of feedback is based on real-time program that records the feedback of the client and processes it. The program is empowered by a network that records the feedback provided by the client and on the other end, it is connected to a feedback management system that responds to the feedback of the client. This system works more efficiently than the presently used methods of feedback as it offers a response to the feedback of the client in real-time. It works by creating a two-way communication system between the client and the server. It is a faster approach for analyzing the feedback of the client as it removes the intermediate steps involved in collecting feedback of clients that leads to unnecessary time delay (Cook, 2017).

Answer 2. Client feedback is known to form an important part of the development strategy of an organization. Organizations aim to actively involve customers in their strategies by different means to improve the quality of their products and services. But several barriers have been demonstrated that limit the participation of consumers (Gurung et al., 2017). These barriers limit the participation of customer and restricts the improvement of services of the organization. It led to compromise in the process of development of services of an organization at several points. These barriers also lead to a reduction in customer satisfaction. Five major factors that limit the participation of consumer in program planning are:

  • Time Constraint Barrier – Time limits the participation of consumer in the program planning. Consumers are busy with their lifestyles that they can not afford to spend time on program planning. The process of program planning is a time taking process and the limited time availability with consumer makes their availability scarce. It affects the development of the organization which in turn produces poor service to the consumer. Organizations can over this barrier by selecting time slots for program planning that ensures the availability of all the consumers. They can further offer benefits to the consumer to ensure their presence (Mandolfo, Chen and Noci, 2020).
  • Location Barrier – Location is the second factor that limit the participation of consumer in program planning. Locations at which program planning takes place are inaccessible to the consumer or they don’t have appropriate resources to reach the location. This led to the limited participation of consumer. Most of the organizations that encourage consumer participation organize their events at locations that are consumer-friendly and easily accessible to the consumer. They do not conduct program planning at their office workspace as it can be difficult to reach for some consumers limiting their participation. Locations which are difficult to access requires more time to reach, further discourages the participation of consumer (Vigolo, Sallaku and Testa, 2018).
  • TransportationBarrier – Another factor that can hinder the participation of consumer in the program planning is transportation. Each consumer arrives from a different location and they can have a transportation issue from their location to the location of the event. They might not have a direct route connecting the location of the event to their locality which can require more time and effort thus pushing consumer away from participating actively in program planning. It can also be a costly affair for some consumer to reach the location on their expense which might affect the limited resources available with them leading to barring their participation in program planning (Spaulding-Givens, 2018).
  • Communication Barrier – Communication is used to effectively fill the gap between individuals but when communication is lacking is acts as a barrier. It plays a role in limiting the participation of the customer. The communication gap can arise among organization and consumer due to the language barrier. Sometimes the lack of information regarding the importance of consumer participation in program planning can be a limiting factor. Miscommunication among the employee of the organization and consumer can also result in their limited participation. Cultural diversity is also listed in the communication barrier and it can also limit the participation of consumer (Sudhiir and Sudhiir, 2016).
  • Economic Barrier – Organization pays heir staff for the work that they accomplish for them. But the consumer is not paid for the participation they show in program planning. This can affect their participation as it will give them a feeling that their efforts are less valued. It will discourage them from further participation also. The participation of consumer in program planning also requires the utilization of their resources and time, and paying them stipend can also support them economically. Consumers feel demotivated for participation due to the non-recognition of their efforts. The feeling of demotivation due to the non-awarding of stipend or gift limits their participation (Reames, 2016).

Answer 3. The individual service receiver impacts the quality of service by showing adherence to specific services. Organizations also target the individual service receiver as they also have a major role in developing their services. The choices they make are influenced by several factors. Organizations continuously focus them and try to study the factors that influence them in order to turn their choices in their favor by using these factors. The individual service receiver generally aims for the organization that offers services which are economically fit for them and provides quality service (Giovanis and Athanasopoulou, 2018). The factors that influence their needs, issues, and priorities are:

  • Psychological factor – Psychological factors through motivation and perception affect the need and priorities of individual service receiver. The need of an individual becomes their way of satisfaction then the person aims to fulfil that need. It is responsible for initiating a need-oriented behavior in an individual. Motivation acts as a catalyst that activates a force that enables the individual to fulfil his need. The needs arise due to psychological factor is associated with issues of an individual. It is a way of an individual to overcome his issues by fulfilling their needs. This ultimately leads to developing their priorities. The priorities are to fulfil their needs at the present moment (Torrico et al., 2018).
  • Social factor – Individuals like to socialize so; their behavioral components are affected by people around them. The behavioral components include the likes and dislikes and based on them they design their needs and priorities. Individuals develop priorities based on the judgement of other people in order to get acceptance in the society and end up having priorities which leads them to problems. One of the social factors is family. Family influences the power of making a decision by an individual in fulfilling their needs. They have major influence on the priorities defined by an individual. Individuals usually form reference group with other people and association with these people also effect their decisions (Juaneda-Ayensa, Mosquera and Sierra Murillo, 2016).
  • Cultural Factor – The behavior of an individual is majorly affected by the values and ethics they learn while growing up. This implicates into their decision making. The practicality of needs of an individual are directly dependent on the personality and behavior. The culture also influences the priorities of an individual by defining their standard of living and lifestyle. Culture is formed by the beliefs of an individual that arise due to the values that they have learned. The social and economic environment of the individual also plays a deciding factor (Jamali and Baloch, 2019).
  • Economic factor – Economic factors is also a major factor that influences the decision of an individual. These economic factors include personal income of an individual, their family income, expected income of an individual, amount of savings they have and all the other commodities acquired by an individual. It influences the needs, priorities and financial issue of an individual negatively as well as positively. Personal income, family income and savings hold the influence upon needs of an individual. An individual creates that they can afford using their savings, personal and family income. Expected income play a role defining the priorities of the individual. People create their priorities and based on the salaries they are expecting to get in future (Bujari and Kerim, 2017).
  • Personal factor – personal factor is another that has influence on the decision and behavior of the individual service receiver. The personal factors include age, job and salary. Needs of the individual depends on the age as people with different age group target different need and priorities. They have different issues based on their age groups. Nature of the job plays a key role in differentiating the needs of the individuals. The salary provides credibility to the individual set priorities for their goals (ur Rehman et al., 2017).

References for Knowledge Activity

Bujari, S. and Kerim, S. (2017) The economic explanation of customer behavior, UBT International Conference, 237, p.30-34. DOI: 10.33107/ubt-ic.2017.237

Cook, A. G. (2017) Real-time customer feedback at point-of-sale. Google Patents.

Giovanis, A. N. and Athanasopoulou, P. (2018) Consumer-brand relationships and brand loyalty in technology-mediated services, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40, pp. 287–294.

Gurung, D. et al. (2017) Service user and care giver involvement in mental health system strengthening in Nepal: a qualitative study on barriers and facilitating factors, International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 11(1), p. 30.

Jamali, M. and Baloch, S. (2019) The influence of culture and personality on impulse buying, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2(1), pp. 20–37.

Juaneda-Ayensa, E., Mosquera, A. and Sierra Murillo, Y. (2016) Omnichannel customer behavior: key drivers of technology acceptance and use and their effects on purchase intention, Frontiers in Psychology, 7, p. 1117.

Knuuti, L. (2019) Customer satisfaction in a small health care unit: Analysis of customer feedback and personnel attitudes towards the feedback process, p. 4-54.

Mandolfo, M., Chen, S. and Noci, G. (2020) Co-creation in new product development: Which drivers of consumer participation?, International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 12, p. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/1847979020913764

Mourtzis, D. et al. (2018) Customer feedback gathering and management tools for product-service system design, Procedia Cirp, 67, pp. 577–582.

Reames, T. G. (2016) A community-based approach to low-income residential energy efficiency participation barriers, Local Environment, 21(12), pp. 1449–1466. doi: 10.1080/13549839.2015.1136995.

Spaulding-Givens, J. (2018) Participants’ goals, resources, and barriers: Person-centered assessment and planning in self-directed care, American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 21(1), pp. 115–140.

Sudhiir, M. G. and Sudhiir, R. G. (2016) Communication challenges in a multicultural organization, International Journal of English language, Literature and Humanities, 4(8), pp. 94–102.

Thangaiah, I. S. S., Sharma, V. and Sundharam, V. N. (2018) Analysing of customer feedback on critical quality parameters to improve productivity in manufacturing–a case study, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 23(3), pp. 349–368.

Torrico, D. D. et al. (2018) Images and chocolate stimuli affect physiological and affective responses of consumers: A cross-cultural study, Food Quality and Preference, 65, pp. 60–71.

ur Rehman, F. et al. (2017) Determinants of personal factors in influencing the buying behavior of consumers in sales promotion: a case of fashion industry, Young Consumers, 18(4), pp. 408-424.

Vigolo, V., Sallaku, R. and Testa, F. (2018) Drivers and barriers to clean cooking: A systematic literature review from a consumer behavior perspective, Sustainability, 10(11), p. 4322.

Zolkiewski, J. et al. (2017) Strategic B2B customer experience management: the importance of outcomes-based measures, Journal of Services Marketing, 31 (2), pp. 172-181.

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