(b) The considerations regarding the development of individual support plans are that counselling sessions, housing services, and a psychologist must be involved in this plan. This is because the psychologist will help the patient is dealing with the mental and social issues caused due to traumatic events. The housing services will provide a safe environment for the patient, which will improve the chances of recovery from trauma (NHISSC, 2009).
(b) The impact of programs and policies that lead to retraumatization can be minimized or reduced by using trauma-informed care for treating the patients. The aim of using trauma-informed care is to prevent flashbacks that patients can experience during treatment. Moreover, the use of such programs and policies should be minimized or avoided. These programs and policies should be replaced with evidence-based practices and trauma-informed care methods (Batemean & Henderson, 2013).
(b) The caregiver should try to handle the situation calmly and with care. The caregiver must not take any violent or harmful steps to control emergencies. Moreover, the caregiver can take assistance from other caregivers to manage the patient and to prevent the violent actions that the patient can take during these situations.
(b) The patient's distress reflecting a traumatic event can be managed by following the guidelines of trauma-informed care. The patients suffer from trauma-related depressions must be provided with a safe environment and trauma-informed care. Moreover, the caregiver should try to show interest in the patient's traumatic story as it will build trust between them.
The three ethical and legal considerations related to the given case study are as follows:
(b) These beliefs and negative attitudes that have a negative impact on the people who have cumulative trauma. This can cause depression and can worsen the well-being of the trauma patients. Moreover, the patients of trauma can find it difficult to access help and other services from the general community.
The three rights and ethical considerations related to this given case study are:
(i) The people are not supportive of the victims of sexual and physical abuse. Moreover, they discriminate against them due to these traumatic events.
(ii) The general community has a belief that people with experiences of physical and sexual abuse are unequal or inferior to them.
(iii) The general community does not provide respect to the victims of these traumatic events.
(b) These beliefs and attitudes of the general community can have a negative effect on the people suffering from physical and sexual abuse. This is because they are not able to get a safe environment around them. Moreover, they live in a state of fear and face discrimination and inequality. These beliefs and attitudes can cause mental disorders and can force them to attempt suicide and self-harming activities.
(i) Reading newspaper articles and reports related to physical and sexual abuse can cause flashbacks of such events, and this can result in retraumatization.
(ii) Viewing any form of sexual or physical abuse by the victim can also lead to retraumatization.
(I) Clients must be asked questions related to the community services that are provided.
(ii) The effect of community services must be checked through recovery rates. This helps the caregiver in understanding whether the services are effective on the patient or not.
(iii) Using trauma-informed assessment tools can identify whether the community services provided to the client are effective or not.
(i) James: He can be recommended to Phonix Australia, an Australian organization that provides care and support to the patients having mental health trauma. James has witnessed both physical and sexual abuse, which can lead to mental trauma. This organization can help James in recovering from mental health trauma as it is a centre for posttraumatic mental health. The victims of all kinds of trauma can take help from this organization (Phoenix Australia, 2019).
(ii) Sophia: Sophia has seen Bob physically abusing James, and this can cause mental disorders in her, such as fear and depression. Thus, Sophia can be recommended to the Australian Childhood Foundation, an Australian organization that provides care to the children affected by traumatic events. All children who have faced traumatic events or are facing such events are eligible to take support from this organization (Victoria State Government, 2017).
(b) It is important to follow up the referrals to track the recovery state of the patient. The caregivers must take feedbacks from both the client and referral agencies to identify whether the referral is a success or not. These referrals should be taken regularly to check the impact of referral services on the health of the client.
Bateman, J. & Henderson, C. Mental Health Coordinating Council (MHCC). (2013). Identify how general and mandated services can impact a client with triggering trauma and re-traumatising a person. Retrieved from https://www.mhcc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/nticp_strategic_direction_journal_article__vf4_-_jan_2014_.pdf
Blue Knot Foundation. (2018). Impacts: What are the impacts of child abuse and childhood trauma? Retrieved from https://www.blueknot.org.au/Resources/Information/Impacts-and-healing/Impacts
Good Therapy. (2017). How not to react when survivors of sexual trauma disclose. Retrieved from https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/how-not-to-react-when-survivors-of-sexual-trauma-disclose-0828175
Health Care Toolbox. (2016). When and how to refer to mental health care? Retrieved from https://www.healthcaretoolbox.org/what-providers-can-do/when-and-how-to-refer-for-mental-health-care.html
Mental Health Coordinating Council (MHCC). (2013). Trauma-Informed Care and Practice: Towards a cultural shift in policy reform across mental health and human services in Australia, A National Strategic Direction, Position Paper and Recommendations of the National Trauma-Informed Care and Practice Advisory Working Group. Retrieved from www.mhcc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/nticp_strategic_direction_journal_article__vf4_-_jan_2014_.pdf
National Health Information Standards and Statistics Committee (NHISSC). (2009). The National Health Performance Framework. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports-data/australias-health-performance/australias-health-performance-framework
Phonix Australia. (2019). Traumatic stress research clinic. Retrieved from https://www.phoenixaustralia.org/expertise/research/clinic/
Victoria State Government. (2017). Stress and trauma in young children - workshops. Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/childhood/professionals/profdev/Pages/expired/stress-and-trauma-young-children.aspx
Women's Health Research Institute. (n.d.) The importance of gender-responsive trauma-informed care. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.northwestern.edu/blog/importance-gender-responsive-trauma-informed-care#:~:text=Ensuring%20that%20trauma%2Dinformed%20care,to%20trauma%20in%20different%20ways.&text=This%20is%20because%20mental%20health,often%20co%2Doccurring%20among%20women.
Womens Health. (2018). Abuse, trauma, and mental health. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.gov/mental-health/abuse-trauma-and-mental-health
Yoo, Y., Park, J. H., Parl, S., Cho, J. M., Cho, J. S., Lee, Y. J., Choi, H. S. & Lee, Y. J. (2018). Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. PLoS ONE, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191198
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