Social, emotional and psychological development in young children.
Early childhood education.
The root of early childhood education was bought by Martin Luther in the 1500s. He believed that education should be equally distributed in everyone so that they can understand their independence. In the first five years, children grow very rapidly and develop their senses. They develop physical, communication and language, cognitive, and social and emotional. It’s the time when the parents understand the habits of their children and the children understand themselves. Child emotional is important. It is when the child's confidence and ability to judge things develop. There are almost neutral or positive effects are found within the children during this age (Berlinski et al. 2019, February, Cascio, 2009, May, Felfe et al., 2015, Fitzpatrick 2008, Gormley et al., 2008, Havnes and Mogstad, 2011, Magnuson et al. 2007). The child recognizes everyone around him and the time of the child’s creativity. In this period both home and school play an important part in a child’s life to develop him or her during an early age. Many countries have formed plans and schemes that help children at an early age like providing necessary medication and checkups that are free of cost, free education in some countries, and so on. Early child care provides a chance for the children to meet other children which develops their friendship and happiness with the other. Children adopt the concept of social intelligence from the parents and teachers who are responsible to teach him the difference between right and wrong which have to work simultaneously (Zeniarti, et al. 2015). Early childhood is a process of growth of an individual when his guardians try to keep their roots strong and positive. Early childhood is specific and very unique because each child has its own new creation to develop physically and emotionally. According to Astuti, early childhood is a period of the development of the child and also an important part of any individual’s life. It has been found that modern children are most likely to play with gadgets than with friends which in result has less social interaction and make the growth of the children slow (Astuti, 2017).
Emotional and social intelligence are interlinked with each other. In this period child develops its brain and the way to respond the things. During this period the brain goes under the dramatic and the fastest change which affects social and emotional development. Social, emotional, and psychological development is the change of this time period which also changes the reaction of the child towards the world. In this time, the child responds to the situations differently, they form an emotional bond with the family and caregivers. It is the ability to monitor the feelings and thoughts within ourselves and in others. The process of socialization in every child begins at a very early age (Martindale, Ilan, & Schaffer, 2013). It refers to a process wherein the child learns from its family, neighbors, teachers, and friends. The child adopts the culture which is being practiced in his surroundings, as he learns language, values, behavior, and moral from whatever he sees and in from the environment he lives in. Social interaction is the interaction which a child has with its surrounding people wherein he learn skills like trust, empathy, anger, kindness, love, joy, fun, sadness, frustration, and a variety of mixed emotions. Many a program helps the child to develop his social and emotional senses like school camps and clubs, arts and sports, and so on (Visual Learning Science of Learning Center, 2016). Parents also help the child to form healthy relationships with friends and family as they knew that the child feels secure with them. Kids with healthy emotions always perform better in school and work and live a happy life. It is important that the child should not feel any burden, he can make any friends he wants to, he can gain his confidence during this team, he can resolve his conflicts on its own, he does not complain about the small things and is happy with it, he has the ability to manage with his stress and anxiety and does not get frustrated soon, he has the ability to make appropriate decisions, he learns to gain strength and to overcome his weakness are some things which a child will have if there will be no burden and with the friendly and healthy home and school environment. Social, emotional, and psychological growth needs time to develop and also continue in the adulthood (Taylor, Irine, 2005). The child learns from the experience of his family and caregivers which impacts their social and emotional development however, the child will shape or reshape anytime throughout his lifetime. From age 1 to age 5, a child goes through many social, emotional, and psychological changes that are-
0-3 months- The child begins to smile also called a social smile. He starting changing his expressions, and have fun and cry often. The child also make eye contact when sees someone interacting with each other.
4-6 months- In this period, the child is usually happy in the family and starts responding to them and start focusing on colors, shapes, objects, and toys.
7-9 months- Shows anxiety and fear in between the strangers and plays games with himself, respond when someone uses his name, and have a clingy behavior.
10-12 months- In this period, the child seems independent and avoids or accept food as per their taste, show fear with unfamiliar faces and objects, is an attention-seeker, enjoys his time.
1-2 years- In this age, the child show a different behavior, and is independent, enjoys with other children, and play independently
2-3 years- In this period, the child starts copying others and everything which he sees in front of him, like he starting cleaning if his mom is cleaning or cooking, and so on. He acts selfishly at this period.
3-4 years- During this period he changes himself from selfishly to selflessly, he starts sharing his toys with the family, cousins or friends, starts communicating and screaming, and choose to have more independent activity.
4-5 years- During this age, the child form friendships and is more cooperative with family and teachers is very sensitive to emotions, understand the difference between a fairy life and a real-life and also start changing his attitude with time.
Parents can either boost them or hinder them. It is important to understand that the child is going through the development face, he will do a lot of wrong things in this tenure but it is important for the teachers and the parents to understand it, and to make the child understand the difference between right and wrong as the child is unable to understand it himself. It is important for the parents and caregivers to adopt patience in this tenure so that they could form a healthy environment for the children.
Social development can impact other sectors of development too. It is very important that the child should learn everything in a healthy way. Other children can also give their contribution to building their and his friend’s development with their fun and exciting experiences but it can be sometimes sad and frustrating (Anderson, 2017). A child’s development is a complex issue but parents impact maximum when comes to the child which is a good thing. It is important that parents should form a healthy relationship with the child as they are the first person in contact with whom the child can share all his feeling whether he is sad and happy, with this it is also important to form a healthy home environment. Only in a healthy environment, the child can grow positively. There are a lot of things a parent can do to love him through words or through physical affection which helps a child to express his or her emotions more freely. Development is always a process of change where human change himself continuously to become a better person or vice versa (Nurhabibah, 2016). The development of a child in an emotional, cognitive, and intellectual way is called developmental psychology (Gormley et al., 2008). Learning is started much before the child is ready to get a formal education. Cognitive, emotional, and social development is developed over a lifetime. There is no end to it but it starts from an early age and it is very important to form the root strongly. Emotional wellbeing provides a strong foundation for the child. Development is all about how your child grows, how he thinks, and what behavior he possesses. The first five years are very critical for the child’s development. It is important for the parents to understand their responsibility and to provide him the best atmosphere they can. With this, it is also important for anyone parent whether his mom or dad to be with him as the absence of love can also frustrate the child and somewhere stops his development. This affects all the stages of their development (Astuti, 2017).
Early childhood education refers to any type of educational programs or classes which gives education to the children in their early years for example school. Schools plays an important role in providing formal learning and a caring environment to the students as it is the place where students come learn for their future, play for their present, and so on. It is important to provide knowledge to all age groups that help them to attain education and achievement from early childhood to early learning. The childhood education plays an important role in any children life (Bethesda, 2015). Pre-school is related to playing so that the child feels comfortable in the environment, but kindergarten, it’s all about learning of a child who is in process to build him. The evolution of early childhood changes the views of adults and their guardians to understand education opportunities. Children attends pre-school in order to develop them in a positive way while before some years children use to have pre-school education from home only (Magnuson et al., 2016). Schools and organizations are organizing free learning programs for the children who are economically disabled to remove the barrier comes between them and their development. These programs can be funded by the government or by private institutions which also promotes the child safety and health. To analyze everything it is important for the parent to keep a track of their child’s assessments, homework and their teachers comment on their behavior (Empson, 2015). It is also important that teachers should be also trained so that they can create a fun learning environment and have the patience to understand and answer the student. Teachers have to be cautious to deal with pre-school children with care. Early education is a wide and interesting path. Early education is the foundation of all the education which a person receives in his lifetime. Early education is a combination of both education and care for the child wherein he have time to play and to learn, where there is no pressure to pass the examination and to score good marks which is also sometimes called educare (Sandra et al., 2019). New Zealand was one of the first countries in the world which integrate the early childhood services which shows that education and care are not separated but are interlinked with each other (Debra, 2019). Many of the research shows that there are long term benefits associated with the early childhood care and education in the early years (UNESCO, 2015). Every child has a right to receive education as it shows that it has long term effect on future and can be valuable for the growth of the economy in the country. No discrimination policy is introduced wherein it is said that no discrimination should promote between urban and rural, black and white, and between the rich and the poor (Maunganidzel & Tsamaase, 2014). Child protection, health safety of the child, early education programs and services for disabled children and to stop the child working in the country can help the economy to grow faster (Maunganidzel & Tsamaase, 2014).
ECCE service is been focused in many a countries like Europe and Australia which means to provide long day care for the families who are working so that their children can remain safe and to provide good education program for the students under the age of five (Tayler & Irvine, 2000). These services include formal services like preschool and outside school hours care and other services (Tayler & Irvine, 2000). These formal services are provided by the government as an assurance to the working parents that their children are safe and secure while the informal services refers to the care which the child receives in home through their grandmother, grandfather, neighbor, friend, and so on. In previous years many children was raised in home only but now the preschool system for the child has given benefit to many parents that they can earn for their children without worrying about them. Many countries need better level of economic development for which they want the people to work, this system can help not only parents but the government as well to grow in the socially, economically, cultural and in political aspects (Mwamwenda, 2014). Early childhood programs also support the learning of the world through toys wherein child can have fun and can also practice important skills. There are many educational toys for the children wherein the child can play and learn together for example playing with blocks and connecting them, recycling pots and other material, drawing, number and alphabets games, all these games can attract child towards them and to make them learn.
We need to understand the child care is a diverse subject and it is very important to deal with it carefully. There is also an overlap between the care and education in many of the child care centers which again can affect development. Childcare is a problem for almost every private family who wants to give good knowledge and grow their child perfectly and also managing thei professional life simultaneously. It is even more complicated for single mothers here pre-school programs is a boon for these parents. Here, parents can leave their child in proper supervision of the teachers whom they can rely on as compared to any neighbor, or any other friend. The most important thing is their child is not alone there he is with many other kids who can play with him also bring happiness to the child’s time (Astuti, 2017). The child always thrive the warm and the supportive environment wherever he spends his time in. In preschool children are more curious to with different colors, different shapes and sizes, and so on. Here, children are given an opportunity to explore and to discover new things in context to human, social, and cultural world. In this period, they form an ability to construct, modify, and broadly range of concepts and ideas. It is important to have a moderate learning environment for the needs of the children and also to focus on the children who are investing the time in their learning.
The age group between the age of 3 and 6 is known as the time of cognitive development that helps the learners to develop the sense of thinking strategically, to learn, to handle different problems, and so on. In this period, children develop their thinking process and experience. It gives a good start and care to the children in a safe environment (Empson, 2015).
It is also important to hire good teachers who can handle different natures of the children at one time. A poor or irresponsible teacher can also result in many critical situations. The teacher plays the responsibility of a teacher as well as the guardian at the same time. The teacher develops the growth of the child in physical, communication, social, emotional, and in cognitive way. It is also important for the teachers to have good salary and benefit as low teacher salaries and high turnover can result in lack of coaching and supervision. It is also find that there is very less study related to the kindergarten teachers which can also affect the child’s growth and safety. As a teacher, has to take care of each and every child as no child will follow his or her instruction because they do not develop their sense of understanding, they are in process of the development part. It can be solved if there is more than on teacher which together handle all the children and can overcome the practices and challenges of Early Childhood Care and Education (Egzeabeher, 2014). Kindergarten is not a perfect place for many a children because of the high fee or great number of children in the class or may be the lack of knowledge which the teachers hold to care the children (Egzeabeher, 2014). In many developing countries, the existence of early childhood is still unknown and is driven by rationales (Firehiwot, 2016). Many countries focus on the development of the child health and to provide a safe environment to the child to reduce poverty and increase the schooling (UNESCO, 2015).
Early childhood education and care is a very complex part wherein it is very important to handle the child with patience. Within the age of 0 months to age 5, a child has to go through many phases of development. It depends on the family that the child will have pre-school education or not but preschool education helps the child to grow fast as compared to other children as in this period he develop himself or herself socially, emotionally, and psychologically.
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