Components of Information System
Software Development Methodologies
Digital Technology Legal Issues
The client-server Architecture is the architecture of distributed applications. Split workload between client and server. The server is a provider of a resource or service, and the client is a service requester.
Clients and servers communicate with each other over a network on separate hardware. However, both the client and the server may reside on the same system.
The server machine runs one or more server programs and shares resources with the client. The client requests only the content of the service feature or server, and does not share its resources.
The client initiates communication by sending a request to the server, and the server waits for an incoming request.
There are many computer applications that use client server models such as World Wide Web, email, and network printing(Korneva and Khorev, 2018).
Fig: Client server architecture
Source - (Korneva and Khorev, 2018)
The diagram above shows the architecture of the client-server model. Three clients are connected to a single server through a communications network. Client requests to servers and servers respond to client requests which are two ways to establish communication between the client and the server.
Client/server architecture is a way to establish a local area network (LAN). It helps us overcome service restrictions on file servers. There are several advantages and disadvantages for the same. Below are the advantages and disadvantages –
It executes on the full centralized database so the change, recovery, security, and concurrent access management tasks are very fast.
At the lowest cost, it also provides a very good computational power.
If all the clients instantaneously demand data from the server, it may get weighed down.
If the server fails for any reason, then none of the requests of the clients can be fulfilled (Korneva and Khorev, 2018).
Protocols are the deployment of rules and rules to propagate data. Guidelines are characterized by processes that are communicating between at least two computers, and progress. The network must follow these principles in order to transmit data effectively.
The communication protocol is like the chief of the activity. While the computers are communicating with each other, they maintain their entire configuration. The protocols play a major role in communication; otherwise one computer cannot communicate with another.
The protocols in the network are defined as a set of rules that can perform various activities. The protocol specifies the interaction between communication entities. The protocol exists at several levels of network connectivity(Marchese and Mongelli, 2012).
The protocol for the Open System Interconnection model is divided into seven layers. Below is the image in which all the seven layers are mentioned –
Fig: OSI layers
Source - (Marchese and Mongelli, 2012)
For the data link layer, the protocols are:
Organize the bits in the physical layer into logical groups of information called frames.
Detect and correct errors.
Control data flow.
Identify the computers on your network.
For the network layer, the protocols are:
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.
User Datagram Protocol
For the transport layer, the protocols are:
Secure Sockets Layer
The application layer also has protocols.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
File Transfer Protocol.
It is unrealistic to address a man who doesn't speak any languages other than French? It is true, but despite the fact that we were able to try to speak with him non-verbally, we will again be worthy of attention to the fact that we have been told to him. To make it work, we need to learn French or know the dialect in which we are speaking.
This comparison relationship is suitable for Internet protocols. If a machine on one computer needs to retrieve or send data to another computer, both computers must complete the allocation using the same protocol (Marchese and Mongelli, 2012).
The term UML is used as the acronym for the Unified Modelling Language. The unified modelling language is:
As a standardized object-oriented language, it is used to break down systems into related use case models.
The UML is used to identify the use cases of the system being developed.
UML is also used to sketch the boundaries of the development system.
UML is used to identify the various actors that play various roles and the relationships between these actors(Viswanathan and Samuel, 2016).
The UML is used in software engineering and used to model the structure and behaviour of your applications. There are three main types of the UML diagram.
A UML diagram is a partial graphical representation (view) of a model in a system that is being designed, implemented, or already present. UML diagrams contain graphic elements.UML nodes connected to edges (also known as paths or flows)—Represents elements of the UML model in a designed system. The UML model in your system may also contain other documents, such as use cases, that are written as template text(Viswanathan and Samuel, 2016).
The system contains a set of components that work together to achieve the desired results. The information system takes some raw facts for a process called data and provides a meaningful, processed result called information. Data is a basic fact that is a raw material for the system. Information is transformed data that is meaningful to you.
People: are basically interested in information systems and known as interested parties. Stakeholders are not only supporting the top management that determines the need for the system, essentially end users who deal with or interact with the information system, and IT staff, programmers, and development managers systems such as system analysts.
Technology: IT includes hardware, software, and communications. IT is used by people for a variety of purposes, along with certain types of devices such as desktop computers, laptops, networks, tablets, cell phones, digital cameras, navigation systems, and sensors.
Process: are daily business operations, including IT staff, users, and managers. The process is the basic building block of the information system because it is a real-world task that leads to normal operation. Analysts need to understand and document business processes carefully to build successful information systems.
Data: is the primary information system. It will change to useful information. Data can be stored in a table. You can link these tables to extract specific information (Kurochkin, 2016).
The System Development Methodology is a way to standardize development processes and products by providing improved management and control of software development processes, structuring and simplifying processes, and specifying activities to perform the technique to use. Using systems development methodologies is often thought to improve system development productivity and quality.
The Software Development Methodology is a required framework with a set of rules to plan all stages of software development. This is the set of rules and guidelines used in the software product research, planning, design, development, and testing, setup, and maintenance processes. There are several software development management methods available. Choice is based to the one that's right for needs. The software development methodology was chosen based on the features and capabilities they have (Tegegne, Seppänen and Ahmad, 2019).
Most studies have focused on developing new methodologies, and comparing the framework and methodology for selection, rather than evaluating or actually using them. The number of methodologies has skyrocketed, but they have hardly been tested. It is not clear whether they are used, how they are used, how effectively they are used, or how useful they are. Many Information System development studies implicitly assume that methodologies are being used and that they are both useful and effective (Tegegne, Seppänen and Ahmad, 2019).
The purpose of this study is to find out how the development methodology is used in the organization. The specific issues covered are the type of methodology used, the level of adherence to the methodology details, and the level of organizational satisfaction with the methodology. There are many approaches to software project management, known as the software development lifecycle model, methodology, process, or model (Tegegne, Seppänen and Ahmad, 2019).
One of the examples is the waterfall model.This is a traditional way of developing software, and also called the Classic Lifecycle. This is a linear approach in which requirement analysis and design is performed first, then development and subsequent test processes is performed. It begins with the specifications of the customer's requirements, and the progress of planning, modeling, building, and implementation. Each stage of development has a goal, and once the stage is complete, you cannot visit again. There are no duplicates between stages. This is the oldest paradigm of software development (Tegegne, Seppänen and Ahmad, 2019).
Another example is agile method: share many of the same principles and practices. Close collaboration and frequent face-to-face communication between business experts and development teams is essential to successful agile projects. To become agile is to participate actively. This Agile methodology is the methodology that has a high level of involvement between customers (software recipients) and the development team. Customers can drive development by prioritizing the most important features as user stories. The development team repeatedly delivers user stories through continuous programming, testing, planning, and close collaboration (Tegegne, Seppänen and Ahmad, 2019).
There are many examples of the system development lifecycle model for software engineering, but themost popular version: is leandevelopment method. There are clear goals for each phase of development, customer’s happiness is also greatright of way, it is a line-up effort, you can never thrust it away from its limits, etc…
The major legal and ethical issues arising from the use of internet are as follows:
The technology used by the marketers for gathering information.
The pace of regulation brought for keeping the rapidly growing digital and internet technologies.
Online frauds committed by the cybercriminals through fraudulent conduct of deceiving the consumers.
Collecting information which is private from the website visitors without their prior permission.
Using intellectual property of others without prior permission from the creator (Koval, 2019).
Policymakers can address these issues by collecting information and keeping tab on every fraudulent activity or deceitful sites and blocking them. They can step in as a controller who can check the authenticity of the websites and put control while creation and running of these sites. They can bring in rules for punishing the people who are guilty of fraudulent activities or making use of intellectual property without permission. Measurement systems can be created for keeping a track on various sites visited and their functioning (Koval, 2019).
The media consumption is affected by the passing of the Big Data Law (Copyright Notices) in the United Kingdom (also Digital Millennium Copyright Act, DMCA in the United State of America or USA (2018)). For example, in the sense from the DMCA Takedown Notices the end users who use the digital content such as audio, video, images, documents and other multimedia files now think over to use them to first determine if it is a legitimate content posted by the original owner who created it. If they found it not from the owner, they decline it to use them, download them as the digital content may have malware and other threat attached to it. They encourage the actual owner to benefit profit and get credit for their work.
The end users using the digital content published by a copyright user or company (who does not own or is the original creator of the content) can be penalized.The end users using or consuming the digital content published by illegitimate users can also be considered to be supporting copyright users and can be punished (Koval, 2019).
Due to the passing of the DMCA Act (USA), it may affected the end users around the globe in the easy accessibility of such pirated digital content, thus making the original owners of the content profitable in the market and stopping illegitimate users or companies from recreating the digital content which is not theirs.The users now would need to subscribe or pay for certain digital content (owned by the actual owners) to access them which is good for the content creators where they get profits and credits for their work.The end users do not get to use any free digital content which are not supposed to be freely published by a random user who recreated, modified or simply used the content actually created by the original owner.
Credit is given to the labor for the creation, invention or innovation of the digital content property. Everybody else in the society should respect that and should not try to own for their monetary gains in a wrong and illegal way and this includes any company's or individual's intellectual property if those are registered, trade secrets, creations, just employee know-how are equally valuable as their physical assets and property.Everyone should have the right to own their one's genius or creations in the society. However, when it is about digital content, it is harder to control one's intellectual property (Koval, 2019).
Illegal possession of other's digital content is as same as one illegally possessing other's physical property and this is how it is considered in a networked world.DMCA helps the companies or users whose work, creation or invention and their other intellectual property have been posted on websites in the Internet to be published around the world without their permission to be taken down processing their copyright claim.They take down the websites (or the content which are intellectual property of someone else) at the Internet Service Provider. DMCA has helped the society in shaping the Web (WWW, World Wide Web) in a constructive way with takedown notices which can quickly remove pirated content and still the companies hosting those content such as YouTube, Google, etc.service without being liable for damages (Koval, 2019).
DMCA exists and functions to educate the society on Intellectual Property and its infringement on how to stop the same by submitting take down notices implement and practice the same (Koval, 2019).
Korneva, L. and Khorev, P., 2018. Development of framework secure application with client-server architecture. Informacionno-technologicheskijvestnik, 15(1), pp.112-119.
Koval, O., 2019. Some problems of creation and use of the holograms: legal issues and modern digital technologies. Legal position, 4, pp.107-113.
Kurochkin, V., 2016.Study of informative colored image components in the information system Ranger. Actual problems of automation and information technology, 20(0).
Marchese, M. and Mongelli, M., 2012.Simple protocol enhancements of Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol over ring topologies. Computer Networks, 56(4), pp.1131-1151.
Tegegne, E., Seppänen, P. and Ahmad, M., 2019. Software development methodologies and practices in start-ups. IET Software, 13(6), pp.497-509.
Viswanathan, S. and Samuel, P., 2016. Automatic code generation using unified modeling language activity and sequence models. IET Software.
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