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  • Subject Name : Nursing

Anatomy and Physiology

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Normal anatomy and physiology of the system..

Disruption and restoration of Homeostasis.

References.

Introduction to Community-Acquired Pneumonia

This assignment explains the case study done over how the anatomy and physiology of a human body are effected that includes both the structural behavior as well as the functionality of the human body when disrupted by an attack from some external bodies like that of a disease. Moreover, it explains how the homeostasis keeping in view all the conditions a human body works typically on disorders and gets interrupted, leading to abnormal physiology and how the immune system of a human body responds to the encountered situation aiming to capture and resolve the factors that are involved in the met conditions and striving to restore the homeostasis. This assignment will explain the above factors in detail with the case study assigned that directs towards the effects of a situation that resembles that of pneumonia over a human body and how the following coded factors respond to when these symptoms are met. The disease pneumonia is infectious, mainly a lung disease that is mostly caused by intruding bacteria or antigens but through airways, primarily through breathing.

Normal Anatomy and Physiology of The System

The case study under observation states the conditions that resemble that of pneumonia. As classes and researches show, pneumonia affects the respiratory, immune system and cardiovascular system of a human body. Before diving into the effects of pneumonia over the social course mainly the three mentioned systems e.g. respiratory, immune and circulatory and the changed anatomy and physiology of the system, we investigate the actual and standard structure and functionality of these systems. The human body works upon the pumping of oxygenated blood throughout the whole network that further involves the cooperation of two methods that are the respiratory and circulatory systems, which work together to produce oxygenated blood that is the main requirement of the human body to stay active and alive (Mandell, Niederman, 2019).

The respiratory system is responsible for the exchange of gases between the human body and the outside environment. This system is a constellation of various organs and tissues that help to breathe, which is a process of inhaling and exhaling air through the nose (Hogan, Barkauskas & Chapman, 2014). The respiratory system includes many organs working along to produce the required functionality; thus, it is mainly divided into three main parts to get a better understanding of how the system is working. These three categories include the airway, lungs and muscles of the respiratory system. These further include multiple sub organs like the airway include nose, mouth, larynx, pharynx, bronchi, trachea and bronchioles that supports the process of carrying air into the body from the exterior environment and move the unwanted gases out of the body and leave to the outside environment. The air gets absorbed into your system that gets filtered and partitioned to be mixed with the blood to form oxygenated blood, which is the main requirement of the human body to work correctly. Along with that, it removes the unrequired waste gases from the body or, in some terms, can affect the human body in the wrong way. These gases mainly include carbon dioxide that is released out of the system while exhaling (Sarkar, Madabhavi & Niranjan, 2015).

In addition to the respiratory system, the immune system is composed of a lymphatic system that includes bone marrow, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes and ducts. It works to support the overall working of the human body (Parhan, 2014). Since the immune system is considered the backbone of the general human body, so it carries an important task to perform that the job of an innate immune system is to sense the arrival of any foreign substances that intrude and act to breach the security levels of the body. Such bodies are called antigens and thus trigger the immune system to recognize, generate and fight against the antigens resulting in their destructions.

Along with these, the third requirement of our case study is the knowledge of the cardiovascular system. This system includes a network of many organs that mainly consists of the heart and complete, crowded constellations of blood vessels that are divided into two main categories as arteries and veins. The task of streets is to carry the oxygenated blood from the heart towards the body for its proper functioning while the veins have the deoxygenated blood back to the meat from the body (Zheng, Ma & Zhang. 2020). The oxygenated blood includes oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells that are carried towards the various parts of the human body.

Disruption and Restoration of Homeostasis

As the disease called pneumonia is acquired, it affects these three systems the most in the human body resulting in the disrupted working of the human body, pneumonia is an infection that causes the small air sacs in our lungs to fill up with fluids such as pus, and the lungs become inflamed. This same condition causes the oxygen to block and hinders and prevents it from reaching forth and getting into our bloodstreams to form oxygenated blood (Walker, Rudan, & Liu, 2013). This condition causes inflammation in the lungs, making them hurt and cause pain while the respiration process takes place. The person fronting pneumonia is expected to come across symptoms like mild to severe fever sessions, chills, severe coughing as the disease spreads and of all, breathing problems. The anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system are affected very severely, causing quite an amount of damage to the lungs mainly. More specifically, if it is broken down to tracts, pneumonia affects the lower tract more because it involves lungs and functions being performed related to it. The physiology of the respiratory system is affected like the body cannot work correctly and leads to more severe problems like affecting the rest of the courses too; besides, the anatomy of the respiratory system is involved as the breathing becomes fast and ragged, causes unrequired sleep, skin and nails showing a bluish tone to the skin.

Since pneumonia can reach and spread from the lungs to our bloodstream, this can cause severe complications since the infection can spread rapidly and infect various organs and systems of the body and can lead up to the death of the person (Musher, Thorner, 2014). And since the cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system that is mainly composed of organs that help in transporting blood throughout the body like heart and blood vessels. This essential task leads to a faster spread of the disease. Since the blood is being pumped throughout the body to all parts and organs, any disease through it spreads faster, keeping in view the circulatory system, heart attacks can also occur at some advanced stages of pneumonia, production of infectious bad blood. Thus, it affects the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system producing bruised and rotten muscular tissues and distorted cells as a result. Pneumonia is recorded to increase the chances of heart attacks and strokes in people suffering from this infectious disease by causing inflammation. As well as a bit of swelling of infected tissues that eventually walks us to the stage where blood clots are formed, thus disrupting the normal blood flow and causing higher chances of heart diseases.

Keeping in view the upper facts and findings, the immune system, the third crucial factors which get affected in this condition, it gets weakened by the continuous attacks at first. Still, once the immune system recognizes the type of antigens intruding into the system, it starts to develop and produce antibodies against the antigens or the infectious cells. Thus the antibodies create a hindrance between the intruding antigens and the design and stop them from moving further damaging the human organs (Prina, Ranzani, 2015). The antibodies fight and destroy the antigens that are also called pathogens resulting in their weakness to erupt and then capture and engulf the antigens processing further to their digestions by macrophages. When B lymphocytes get signalled and triggered, they act and release antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, that are a type of proteins that lock onto the intruding antigens. Either macrophage is the one to destroy the antigens, or white blood cells produce chemicals that act as a weapon that helps the antibodies to fight against the antigens. These chemicals are called antitoxins that stand against the toxins that made the intruding bacteria. The immune system boasts with the help of certain antibiotics and medicines prescribed that help to restore the original anatomy and functionality of the system to its place. The process of restoration takes time and can vary from person to person, depending on the level of damage done and the number of resources to cure it back. Since pneumonia usually does not weakens the lungs permanently so the original structure and physiology can be restored, and the person can get back to normal as before. Once the pneumonia infection is encountered, the antibodies formed against it stays in the body just in case the condition is discovered again later, and this is the very reason why some people who get sickened by such infectious disease, if once cured, do not acquire it also. And eventually, the homeostasis is restored that is the power and tendency of a system to achieve the stable equilibrium between the organs keeping in view the different types of fluids running through a human body.

References for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Hogan, B. L., Barkauskas, C. E., Chapman, H. A., Epstein, J. A., Jain, R., Hsia, C. C., ... & Rock, J. (2014). Repair and regeneration of the respiratory system: complexity, plasticity, and mechanisms of lung stem cell function. Cell stem cell, 15(2), 123-138.

Mandell, L. A., & Niederman, M. S. (2019). Aspiration pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(7), 651-663.

Musher, D. M., & Thorner, A. R. (2014). Community-acquired pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(17), 1619-1628.

Parham, P. (2014). The immune system. Garland Science.

Prina, E., Ranzani, O. T., & Torres, A. (2015). Community-acquired pneumonia. The Lancet, 386(9998), 1097-1108.

Sarkar, M., Madabhavi, I., Niranjan, N., & Dogra, M. (2015). Auscultation of the respiratory system. Annals of thoracic medicine, 10(3), 158.

Walker, C. L. F., Rudan, I., Liu, L., Nair, H., Theodoratou, E., Bhutta, Z. A., ... & Black, R. E. (2013). Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. The Lancet, 381(9875), 1405-1416.

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