The following paper presents a network system designed of 3 modems , 3 switches and 3 computers in end, arranged in a PKT file. The modems are devices drawn from the toolbox in Cisco Packet Tracer Program and enabled on the dashboard. The switches with id’s 2964-24 are displayed between laptops and routers. On the dashboard, in terminal three computers are arranged that receive internet signal from routers. The intermediary gadgets, the switches , are useful to connect other laptops with a router. Out of a switch, there can be other routers that can start on. The linkages between all these elements are wires in V- shape and connectors of black color that join gadgets according to one’s wish.
The purpose of the project is for one to see how Cisco Packet Tracer can be used to create PKT files and elements such as :routers ,switches and computers can be made use of to depict several models in networking. This paper will be useful for research purposes too and it can be used to exemplify a situation of “de facto”, as the pkt file when opened reveals a networking that can be used as example.
The routers through the switches emit internet signal to the final computers.
To a router , one can assign a public IP address , a private IP address , a Subnet Mask and a Default Gateway Mask . The public IP address is the IP that a house might possess being given that this is provided by an Internet Service Provider. The private IP Address is the IP address specific to a laptop or computer that can be seen in the interface of the modem accessing in browser the following IP: 192.168.0.1. This Private IP Address has a number x after the hex = “ / ” , meaning that in the subnet mask ip there will be x of 1’s from left to right and then zeros. Then the default gateway mask is the XOR – logic between Private IP Address and Subnet Mask.
Public IP Address : 79 . 35 . 67 . 45
Private IP Address : 192 . 168 . 0 . 1 / 24. Notably is the number 24 that means that in the Subnet Mask there will be 24 of 1’s from left to right and apart from these, there will be spaces filled in with 0’s.
Subnet Mask : 255 . 255 . 255 . 0
Default Gateway : XOR ( Private IP Address and Subnet Mask ) .
Two states are specific to a router: wireless and modem and these can be applied from the interface of it while accessing the main page at 192.168.0.1. The systems most known are DHCP. To a Public IP, many systems – laptops – can be assigned, but what differentiates these are the Private IP Addresses.
A DMZ Host is a demilitarized zone where all ports are open. This means, that a neighbor through Nmap function can see files and folders that another person shares.
The following functions can be applied on one’s computer to reveal information about another person’s laptop or system.
a.Nmap -p N1 IP1
This syntax is used to interrogate or query the neighbor’s IP1 and to see if port N1 is opened.
b.Nmap -p- IP2
The above syntax is used to query or to see what ports from IP2 are opened.
c.Nmap -p N2 N3 IP3
The above syntax returns the status of the ports from the N2-N3 interval of IP3.
It is used to be seen if the IP is valid, available.
It returns the names of the hops and their subsequent IP’s between an user and a terminal.
It is used to enter a new folder X from absolute path , this command being run in the RUN CMD of the user’s laptop.
The above command is used to exit a folder from the absolute path in RUN CMD.
This command is used to create a folder F in another folder G or Desktop.
This command is used to display all the files from a folder X.
Problems experienced and solutions to resolve them
The above whole issue started from the Nmap function that is the key point to all our discussion and deign of being mentioned is that it is accessible in a more complicated manner.
To sum up, the PKT files along with commands that are being run from RUN CMD using a laptop are useful to depict elements of networking. In a network, one might see routers,switches and laptops geo - positioned such that all this arrangement is agreed with the user’s wish. Not only PKT files are available for saving, but PKZ too. On the screen, the cursor of the mouse is positioned such that (X,Y) coordinates are revealed in the top left corner. As it could be seen, several functions could be used to query the one’s SYSTEM and the system itself.
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