Economic growth is basically inflation in the economy in terms of market value, and products and services being produced. It encompasses all factors including Technology, Infrastructure, capital formulation, and socio-political factors. The construction industry forms a cardinal pillar of economic growth of any nation and drives the economy forward. Infrastructure and real estate development fall under the construction industries. The construction industry is a broad sector that makes an appreciable contribution in the uplifting economy of a nation. Being a diversified sector it offers numerous employment opportunities which have resulted in an improved global image of labour and employment opportunities (Lu, Cui amp Li, 2016). With an increase in construction output, GDP proportion increases due to which economy is also accelerated. In terms of gross domestic product, economic growth is basically the monetary measure of final goods including the total income of people. The construction industry aids economic growth by improving the living standards of people by providing the basic need of shelter, roads, bridges, harbors and buildings which are indispensable. The infrastructure of a nation including transport, health, and education are quintessential for the prosperity of any nation, and all such structural developments are segments of the construction industry. The construction industry stimulates fixed capital formulation and thus certifies substantial economic growth. Vigorous construction industry is thus regarded as both mandatory input and outcome of economic development.. It plays a pivotal in hastening economic growth by significantly contributing to the gross domestic product and by employing a large portion of labours, skilled and semi-skilled and uplifting employment figures. It stimulates other sectors by forming a central affiliation and thus accounting for a palpable figure in capital formulation. In developing countries, construction industry can be regarded as a sector vital in developing, planning, construction and maintenance of buildings and workplaces which in turn helps in driving the economic activities.
Product quality management is essential so that products and goods align with the requirements. It comprehends a set of methods that undertake comparison of product quality with that of pre-defined standards. It basically revolves around contrasting the variances between the obtained results and anticipated results. In construction projects, even a minor manipulation can result in result in failure of the project. It requires precise and accurate calculations and methodologies to operate. Product quality management ensures that the project works in construction are operating as per the requirement. Such processes usually include drafting of a quality plan which meets the objective of the project. It involves smearing the companys global system to the specific venture. Plan is drafted by the contractor before the commencement of the project. Project is monitored by the contractor and the team until the project is accomplished. Company prepares execution documents in compliance with ISO guidelines. Execution documents include work training, inspection schemes and action plans. Quality of the project is not only dependent on the superintendent and volunteers but the workforce is equally responsible for the same (Rumane, 2017). A product quality Management process for construction project usually includes reviewing of quality standards and informing the project management information to the staff. Two cardinal procedures involved in the quality management process are quality control plan and quality control process. A quality control plan is concerned with the definition of guidelines during project management. Quality assurance control is concerned with application of the management process by the contractor so as to ensure quality of the product. It determines if the work practices are robust enough to meet the quality standards. It also ensures if products used in the construction project are of high quality. Product quality management also involves tracking of work until satisfactory results are obtained.
Quantity take-offs of a construction project incorporate labour, equipment and material costs. Overall expenses of a project undertake all supplementary and secondary costs that aid the construction project. Secondary costs sometimes form a substantial requirement for the construction project. Estimation of work cost for any construction project involves estimation of costs of labour, equipment and input materials. A complete analysis of the project requirements and specifications is essential so as to compute the overall cost. Accuracy in estimates of engineering services in construction projects possesses great significance in estimation of overall cost. Bill of quantities is an important aspect related to construction projects which provides estimated quantities of items of work. Completion of design specification is a major prerequisite of preparing bill of quantities. It provides a justifiable system for tendering. Work-item relationship in construction projects is easily stimulated by constraints. The granularity of this relationship depends upon number of contractors, tenders, and parties involved in the project. Cost analysis is a vital aspect concerned with construction management. While estimating the activity costs it becomes an important factor to include all wastage of materials as well. Value of waste materials usually ranges from 1 to 10. Since contracted projects involve multiple teams, it becomes important to track progress of the project (Towey, 2017). Cash flow estimates provide a baseline for monitoring of project. It involves cost control on a project and construction plan. Apart from cost amounts, information regarding the material inputs and labour form an important component of activity cost analysis. With the provided information, a comparison can be made with idealized cost estimations regarding material and labour. This helps in calculating swarming of expenses, which will further help to exactitude in future projects. Cost activities and BOQ, work-item relationship is thus an important aspect related to contracted projects.
Among the management control processes used for construction, Line of balance is a cardinal process wherein project work is segmented into a number of repetitive activities. This technique originated in the 1940s and was primarily used for programming the repetitive and non-repetitive projects. A line of diagram comprises of a set of tending lines which exhibit a relationship between working operations in a construction project. It is often referred to as repetitive scheduling method. It depicts the amount of work being done in a particular area at a specific time of the project. It optimizes resources for a large number of repeated activities. It also aids time optimization analysis, as information for each activity of the project is available. It assists project management by contrasting pre-defined goals with actual goals. It gives an account of any deviations from the explicit plans and identifies the problematic areas where remedial action may be desired. Forecasting of future performance is another important function of line of balance technique (Su amp Lucko, 2016). It enables project managers to evaluate if their methodologies to work are correct or not. It is widely employed in construction projects so as to assist with conception of output and efficiency. Reduction in complexity of resource management is another advantage of using line of balance as a management tool. Usually, Line of balance technique is preferred for those construction practices which are exceedingly repetitive. A software tool is essential so as to support the implementation of Line of balance as a modeling technique in construction industries. It is basically a graphical scheduling technique which uses location as an unambiguous tool. Large construction industries are changing and are growing in terms of technology, Line of balance is an important tool which serves as a better way to schedule and control projects.
The workforce is a key element of the organization as it is responsible for performing the operations. Manpower planning is used so as to determine size of the workforce which performs the given tasks of the company. Manpower planning is an important aspect of a construction organization this is so because construction industries have a massive workforce as compared to other industries. It thus becomes an important aspect to plan the construction manpower. It assists in the decision-making process and also provides insights. Manpower planning is important as it makes an organization more manageable and uniform. It is a vital part of construction industries as it helps to have an adequate number of employees at right time. Planning makes it easier to group employees as per their skills. This not only results in homogenous cataloging but also helps in easy access to employees whenever a new project is to be started. It also acts as a screen for filtering employees. Organization reaps benefits of good planning by having the right manpower (Illingworth, 2017). Another cardinal benefit of manpower planning is that it helps in motivating employees to make them more productive. It is mainly employed so as to continuously monitor staff, employees and other members defined in the system. Certain software management tools are also employed for integrating and managing the workforce. Construction organizations cannot flourish until and unless right numbers of skilled employees are available at right time. And can be achieved by planning of constructive manpower. Two major objectives of manpower planning include utilizing skills and talent of current employees and achieve future manpower requirements. Manpower planning basically aims at anticipating the number of employees required in a workplace for different tasks at a particular time. It is beneficiary for both employees as well as for the organization.
Construction industries owe an exclusive nature to every project and this is the major reason why it is challenging than other industries. ABC analysis of construction materials branches them into three categories. A stands for 20 items that account for 80 of the annual consumption of value items. B stands for 30 items that account for 20 of annual consumption of value items and C stands for 50 items that account for 5 cost of the inventory. It is commonly referred to as the 80/20 rule. It forms the basis for management of materials, especially in construction industries. It helps in categorizing materials according to their values. It is an analytical management tool. ABC analysis catalogs different items according to their sales. It helps a construction organization in allocating direct expenditures. It helps an organization in outlining those materials which generate high profit. High-priority inventory is aided by improved controlling through this analysis. It incorporates the use of effectual resources to prioritize control of inventory over the final result (Kaspar amp Vielhaber, 2016). ABC analysis helps construction organization to efficiently manage materials. This technique can be implemented in construction industries and releasing of materials can be accordingly regulated. Another cardinal benefit of this analysis is that it enables constriction industries to properly schedule, manage and program the activities. In a construction environment, it becomes a pivotal aspect to maintain a balance between output and incoming stock and thus deflating the inventory cost. ABC analysis not only aids in the management of the construction material but also assists in managing both raw materials as well as the finished product. Class A items undertake components such as sand, steel, and flooring. Class B items constitute of the materials such as cement, doors, and fittings. Class C comprises of glass, railings, and pipes.
Lu, Y., Cui, P., amp Li, D. (2016). Carbon emissions and policies in Chinas building and construction industry evidence from 1994 to 2012. Building and Environment, 95, 94-103. Rumane, A. R. (2017). Quality management in construction projects. Boca RatonCRC Press. Towey, D. (2017). Construction quantity surveying a practical guide for the contractors QS. HobokenJohn Wiley amp Sons.
Su, Y., amp Lucko, G. (2016). Linear scheduling with multiple crews based on line-of-balance and productivity scheduling method with singularity functions. Automation in Construction, 70, 38-50. Illingworth, J. R. (2017). Construction methods and planning. Boca RatonCRC Press. Kaspar, J., amp Vielhaber, M. (2016). Cross-component systematic approach for lightweight and material-oriented design. Trondheim Proceedings of NordDesign, 332-341.
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