Adversity, Restoration and Compatibility theory defines about the conceptual framework for living with and beyond cancer (Boutillier et al., 2019). Cancer is a common problem in United Kingdoms, around 2.5 million are diagnosed with cancer and half of them were getting treatment for this disease. Literatures and international policies provide evidence about the concept of living with and beyond cancer. This is to support and understand the people going through these complexities of cancer and challenges associated with it. Living with and beyond cancer means the requirements and experience of those people who are under treatment or those who have completed the primary cancer treatment. This concept is important to understand because it would improve the quality of life for people going through or beyond cancer, as well as it also develops person-centred model of care (Linden et al., 2016). Moreover, the theory of Adversity, Restoration and Compatibility (ARC) synthesize the terms as realising about cancer, readjusting life with cancer and reconciling cancer respectively. The aim of this assessment is to develop person-centred model of care and understanding about those who have experienced or affected by cancer. This assessment is about a narrative story of Mr. A who have experienced dealing with cancer in his life.
Mr. A acts as the consumer of this narrative. He was 70-year-old patient who fight with cancer. He was under observations of nursing and healthcare staff to deal with cancer. During initial stages of cancer, he denies to accept the fact that he is suffering from this illness. After few months, he started accepting this condition and took treatment to get cured. He had faced several issues of society behaviour, physical and emotional changes, financial distress, adversity, and reduced functional independence. As the time passes, he started readjusting and reconciling his life with cancer. Mr. A started feeling cancer as a part of his life and accept to live with this rather than focusing on what he had lost. This positivity and confidence start getting his health condition more improved. Moreover, his self-esteem, self-awareness and appreciation for life has also been improved. He started sharing his experience with others who are dealing with cancer.
Before diagnosis, Mr. A had expressed adversity with the healthcare system for treatment. It has been a challenging situation for Mr. A while he diagnosed with cancer, and he feels the sensation of mortality and needs care and support of the clinical system to cure his illness. Nursing observations, interventions and care are the sophisticated part of the cancer treatment. Social support and communication are the major part of nursing care while dealing cancer patients. Healthcare system should stay confident and participate in the treatment planning and changes in lifestyle of patient. Adequate knowledge and experience of cancer leads to positive outcomes. If the nurses and other healthcare staff has not proper knowledge about the disease, then they should take information from available sources for better treatment. Moreover, social support from friends and family is also important while dealing with cancer (Boutillier et al., 2019).
In the narrative study of Boutillier et al., (2019), the outcome was based on three themes, namely adversity, restoration and compatibility. Adversity defines the experience of Mr. A while dealing with the cancer diagnosis, symptoms and treatment process. Adversity can be physical, social or emotional while handling the outcomes of treatment. Living with symptoms of cancer includes adversity as well as other physical and emotional changes, less social-interactions, financial distress, and reduced functional independence. These symptoms indicate the need of reliable support by the person living with and beyond cancer (Harley et al., 2015). Mr. A had also experienced adversity by the healthcare system due to limited time and healthcare professionals. Moreover, during post treatment phase, he feels adversity because of loss of social support and healthcare. It is better to provide social support and properly communicate about the diagnosis of cancer with the patient, as the communication style of clinicians will eventually satisfy or dissatisfy the patient (Ding et al., 2015).
Another theme of the theory results indicates restoration, which means readjusting the life with cancer and recovery. Mr. A during this stage of restoration, face social attitudes and stigma related to his illness. Society and people whisper about the situation of Mr. A in public, which may affect his readjusting abilities. It can be maintained by appraising the illness and enhancing the values in life with social and healthcare support. Social support including the family and friends are important for the patient to readjust life with cancer (Beynon et al., 2015).
Lastly, the third theme of this theory is about compatibility, which indicates the reconciling or rebalancing stage of an individual. At the end stage, Mr. A started feeling cancer as a part of his life and accept to live with this. Reconciling refers to the situation where an individual turns towards the positive aspects of life while maintaining his daily life priorities. Mr. A also started focusing on what he has rather than what he lost. This cause several benefits in him such as improved self-esteem, sense of connection, improved appreciation for life, improved self-awareness, and a positive feeling of connection. At this stage, people started sharing their experience and peer support to others affected by the same situation (Appleton et al., 2015).
As a nurse, while dealing this situation various things has been observed that would contribute in my future nursing practices. It has been seen that Mr. A was dealing with several difficulties, even he denies to accept that he had cancer and he need treatment for that. This observation can lead to improve my future nursing interventions of increasing hope in patients. Along-with regular care and hospital treatment, it is important to give higher hopes to the patient to get better recovery from cancer (Li et al., 2018). Moreover, some other nursing practices that has been learned to follow-up from this scenario is shown below:
Overall, it is clear that there are three themes that explain the experience of an individual living with and beyond cancer, that is adversity, restoration, and compatibility. This constitutes to form an ARC network, which provides ground for future nursing practice or researches. These practices can help in providing support and care for cancer patients. Living with and beyond cancer means the requirements and experience of those people who are under treatment or those who have completed the primary cancer treatment. This concept is important to understand because it would improve the quality of life for people going through or beyond cancer, as well as it also develops person-centred model of care.
Appleton L, Wyatt D, Perkins E, et al. (2015). The impact of prostate cancer on men's everyday life. European Journal of Cancer Care, 24(1):71‐84.
Beynon T, Selman L, Radcliffe E, et al. (2015). We had to change to single beds because I itch in the night: a qualitative study of the experiences, attitudes and approaches to coping of patients with cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma. British Journal of Dermatology, 173(1):83‐92.
Boutillier, C. L., Archer, S., Barry, C., King, A., Mansfield, L., & Urch, C. (2019). Conceptual framework for living with and beyond cancer: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Psycho-Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.5046
Ding Y, Hu Y, Hallberg IR. (2015). Chinese women living with cervical cancer in the first 3 months after diagnosis: a qualitative study. Cancer Nursing, 38(1):71‐80.
Hammer, M.J., Cartwright-Alcarese, F., & Budin, W.C. (2019). Theoretical frameworks and philosophies of cancer. ONS. https://www.ons.org/sites/default/files/2019-02/0673_sample.pdf.
Harley C, Pini S, Bartlett YK, Velikova G. (2015). Defining chronic cancer: patient experiences and self‐management needs. BMJ Support Palliative Care, 5(4):343‐350
Li, P., Guo, Y.-J., Tang, Q., & Yang, L. (2018). Effectiveness of nursing intervention for increasing hope in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis. Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem, 26. https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.1920.2937
Linden, D., Love, P., Bowman, E., & Maher, J. (2016). Managing the consequences of cancer in primary care. The British journal of general practice: the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 66(648), 348–349. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp16X685789
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