• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : COU103A
  • University : Jansen Newman Institute
  • Subject Name : Human Development

Assignment - Essay

As a student of Bachelor of Applied Social Science, I have learned that the Psychological development, the growth of the behavioral, psychological, intellectual and social capacities of individuals and their working throughout a lifetime, from early stages to old age. It is the central topic of the practice recognized as psychology of development. Psychology is the standard subject of study, but much regarding childhood and adolescence have been discovered until the mid-20th century. I have understood with my experience and the study conducted during my course that psychology in an adolescent, often known as development, the analysis of adolescent mental processes and, in general, how we differ from that of a child, it evolves from completion of childhood till becoming an adult (Johnson, & Jones, 2011). Adolescence is the development and growth of physical, social, emotional and psychological transition stages among childhood and adulthood. An adolescent is an individual within 10 and 19 years of age as described and identified by the World Health Organization.

In this essay when I was in my schooling phase and adolescent period of my development. Development theories describe that adolescents from previous life experiences grow their character and how they still understand how to respond to others. Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson had detailed growth theory studies. An individual develops in phases as per their speculations, which has an important contribution to a process of change, of instance, if a child effectively finishes a stage of development; he/she grows a stronger personality as well as leads to his / her ability to produce healthy association and connection with one another. Whereas if a person failed to complete a phase effectively, their identity and association with others be affected.

I have understood in the course that I have taken up and the lectures provided that Piaget (1936) was a cognitive constructivist, he claimed that training continued through the interaction of integration, adapting new things to match previous principles and adaptation shifting notions to accommodate new experience. In contrast to brief-term training, such mechanisms lead to long-term developmental improvement. The lengthy-term advances are the analytical concept of Piaget. His psychological development explains how well a child is building a globe fundamental understanding. He did not agree with the concept of intelligence to be a fixed characteristic and considered cognitive development as a system resulting from genetic maturing and engagement with its surroundings.

Piaget developed a behavioral and psychological philosophy. He claimed that mental systems were being created to help us work in reality. He understood that perhaps the philosophy of a 7-11-year-old child is taking big leaps forward with the construction of new internal workings, like sustainability and class integration, but it is still connected to the world at the time. I could respond to this directly, as I was in school and 11 years old, whenever I moved to Australia from India It took me 5 months to adjust in the new country, later I started school, and I didn't expect any fundamental changes that had a definite impact on my psychology. I was brought to the attention by their coarse statements because I had a different background and I was not like the other students. During adolescent, a child undergoes tremendous changes in the effect of psychological development (Dumas, Ellis, & Wolfe, 2012). When peers, educators, social connections, etc share their real experience interpretations, the person reacts by expanding his thoughts and imagination. I have further observed throughout my study that Even though the quickest mental changes take place throughout childhood the mind develops across puberty and into the twenties (Weinberger, Elvevag, & Giedd, 2005). The subconscious mind begins to create new neural pathways throughout puberty, but it also cast off inactive nerves and connections (Blakemore, 2012). Accountable for rationale, making plans, and problem-solving, is also developing as adolescents mature (Goldberg, 2001). Adolescents frequently tend to be behaving impulsively instead of thoroughly, and this could be partial since prefrontal cortex development is generally slower than the development of the brain's emotional components, including the limbic system (Blakemore, 2008). Also, the hormonal rise connected with adolescence, which influences mainly emotional reactions, can build strong thoughts and feelings and result in impulsiveness (White, & Renk, 2012).

 I have always been an introvert and therefore I could not connect with the people easily. It let another series of issues, as the school students felt I was not engaging in school sufficiently. This did not help if my accent was criticized by the educators as well. Some might find it intimidation and that this' might have led significantly to creating persistence in me. I had no friends in my neighborhood as there were fewer children in the locality as well as they had their circle own children and were not exactly willing to introduce a child from a different origin and ethnicity. I had switched my schools and locality multiple times until I was 15 and every time it was difficult to adjust in a new atmosphere. I was in what is called' Formal Operations' in Piaget's paradigm, so at this point, a child could not only tend to the concrete and the actual, and also think conceivably and think vaguely. The element of this process with the use of logical and deductive reasoning which is the ability to draw reasonable inference through information. Solving problems is already starting to become more comprehensive and logical than that of the prior experimentation method of simple activities so that I could then hypothesize and figure out what's been going in and sort about possible reasons for other occurrences instead of checking the scenario to see outcome and impact. 

Erikson believes creation is the product of disputes guided by' communication among inner forces and social expectations' (Bee & Boyd, 2002). In terms of developing a stable attitude, an adult needs to address the psychological and social problems at each of the life stages. Erikson saw the conflicts as ideas that were resisted. I will concur with that as I finished my last two years of training at a Canada high school and I was happy and content at that High-school. Because I had prepared to adjust to new societies and since "learning theories like Skinner believe that experience has led to growth. The repeated essence of behavior is based on the person obtaining from such a behavior some desired result. An unpleasant result, though, is the consequence in certain instances, and the person discovers to reduce or eliminate this behavior.  I assume that my self-awareness, understanding of future choices and respecting the beliefs of everyone else enable me to adjust and evolve in a new environment (Newton, Havard, & Teesson, 2012).

Criticism of Piaget's philosophy is that outside of formal operations, there may be a thoughtful step in the process. In improving our thought, logic, rationale, or other mental abilities, we may not plateau at 12 or 13. In reality, Kaczynski indicates that two modes of rationality, i.e. intuitive and empirical, tend to live side by side instead of the Piagetian concept of replacing intuitive science (Sigelman & Rider, 2003). If Piaget is right, people should establish a consistent method of thought. There are also constraints and critiques of Erikson's philosophy that has been discovered through studies.  One shortcoming in psychosocial ideology was that the underlying mechanisms are not well defined or established to resolve issues and pass through one the phase to the next (Sokol,2009). To solve disputes effectively and proceed to another level, the theory is flawed to explain just what kind of interactions is required on each level (Cherry, 2018).

Through raising awareness of one's strengths and shortcomings as physiological development blends with school and family atmosphere to cultivate skills and experiences, children and adolescents acquire the requisite training for achieving goals. The idea of identity is a perception of which we are what separates us apart from others. Earlier in life, this sense of identity starts to form and develops throughout the whole. The optimal identity is compared to Freud's structure superego component. It is centered on other people's internalized perceptions as well as our self-expectations.

As I reflect on my teenage years, I see discrepancies in my growth to be able to educate inconsistencies and to see a multitude of directions concurrently to a circumstance. Whether or not something persists in my adolescence depends on how much social engagement there is then simply a maturity level-related issue. described the following issues from either several recent studies which influence the retention of greater-level societal-cognitive skills, such as being socially engaged, being deeply invested in positive social positions, having opportunities to speak to many other citizens about the issues they face (Sigelman, & Rider, 2003).

In summary, in human life, growth is a complex interaction of several variables. I may contribute to Piaget and Erikson's cognitive development speculations in this article of a projection of my developmental years. Piaget takes a constructivist approach and assumes that in the experience, students are not inactive. Piaget's theory states that just by studying principles and practical measures, learners need a program that promotes their cognition and psychological skills He often indicates that only in particular phases of developmental, adolescents can learn particular content. One of the advantages of psychosocial philosophy offered by Erikson is that it offers a specific context through which progress can be interpreted across the lifetime It also enables us to stress the relational nature of the human beings and the significant developmental impact of social connections.

Reference

Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2002). Social and personality development in middle adulthood. Lifespan development, 429-455.

Blakemore, S. J. (2012). Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain. Neuroimage, 61(2), 397-406.

Blakemore, S. J., Burnett, S., & Dahl, R. E. (2010). The role of puberty in the developing adolescent brain. Human brain mapping, 31(6), 926-933.

Cherry, K. (2018). Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved Juny, 5, 2018.

Dumas, T. M., Ellis, W. E., & Wolfe, D. A. (2012). Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviors in the context of peer group pressure and control. Journal of adolescence, 35(4), 917-927.

Johnson, S. B., & Jones, V. C. (2011). Adolescent development and risk of injury: using developmental science to improve interventions. Injury Prevention, 17(1), 50-54.

Newton, N. C., Havard, A., & Teesson, M. (2012). The association between moral disengagement, psychological distress, resistive self-regulatory efficacy and alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents in Sydney, Australia. Addiction Research & Theory, 20(3), 261-269.

Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D., & Blakemore, S. J. (2010). Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain and cognition, 72(1), 134-145.

Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2003). Human development. Delhi: Wadsworth.

Sokol, J. T. (2009). Identity development throughout the lifetime: An examination of Eriksonian theory. Graduate journal of counseling psychology, 1(2), 14.

Weinberger, D. R., Elvevåg, B., & Giedd, J. N. (2005). The adolescent brain. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

White, R., & Renk, K. (2012). Externalizing behavior problems during adolescence: An ecological perspective. Journal of child and family studies, 21(1), 158-171.

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