• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : COU204A
  • University : Jansen Newman Institute
  • Subject Name : Social science

Reflective Report: Advanced Counselling Skills

Counselling process is an intentional, structured negotiation among a counsellor and a consumer. It is a supportive process in which a qualified professional assistances a person named the consumer to recognize sources of problems or anxieties that he or she remains facing. The counseling procedure is an incessant, cyclical sequence of connections in which the analyst (counselor) and consumer collaboratively traditional goals, express and implement exploit strategies, and assess growth to the goal(s).

Counselling is talking therapy where counselor and clients sits together and solve their problem. Counselling helps the client to solve problems and through this client see different things more clearly. Counsellor focus on client feelings and emotions so counsellor can solve consumer problems efficiently. Professional counsellor and the person who have counselling skills are different because professional counsellor defines their policies and rules on confidentiality. Giving advice to any client and being judgmental and also looking for client problem is not a part of counselling. Psychotherapy is not as same as counselling but their process of being help to people are same. (Laungani, 2000) Counselling is one of the helping approach and know the feelings of client that what he/she feels and what are the resources to solve their problems.

Here we define the first impression of counsellor and client in their first interview. It apprehensions itself with the first interview that are held between counsellor and client. People gain knowledge in their field even if they have very little knowledge. For they remain often embarrassingly aware that notwithstanding what they distinguish, here are vast parts within their individual chosen anywhere their information is uncertain, smooth quite instable. (Laungani, 2000). The person who have a good knowledge and also have skills often might be took mistakes and the person who have a knowledge often claim to dependability.

Counselling interview is similar a game through its personal set of instructions. Nevertheless that one is a game through an alteration. First interview is very important both for client and counselor. It give an opportunity to client and counsellor to learn something new and innovative for an interview. For Example an unexperienced client go first time for counselling interview and quite conscious about it. They cannot distinguish what is predictable of them or whatever to assume. Each consumer will incline to observe the psychotherapist in his/her own personal ways.

The counsellor moreover is aggressively involved in starting impressions of the consumer. Experienced counsellors study to nurture an ‘expert face’ once dealing by their customers. Three main problems that rise in the procedure of forming imitations; 1) preserving impartiality and objectivity, 2) training intellectual control, and 3) communicating empathy. These three main problems are discussing below;

Objectivity and neutrality aren't certainly the equal. Objectivity mentions to pleasing an opinion or place on the accessible evidence. Neutrality mentions to pleasing a view or place that is smooth handed. They are successfully synonymous if and single if the question under enquiry has valid places together for and alongside. The impression of actuality neutral and objective appears to be the seal of an expert counsellor. It has undisputable merits. Many Counselor said that they are neutral and objective and listen carefully to their clients. The idea of neutrality introduced in Bacon in 17th century. Bacon argued that the confidence in the neutrality of insights has changed down finished the eternities and has originate to obtain the rank of a legend. But the impression, as we will see, is incorrect.

Every Counsellor percept their own ideas about the client but in the Book of Conjectures and Refutations (1963) Popper has argued that Not very perception is neutral. You might have perfect neutral perception theory but it includes no pre-dispositions, not any premonitions, no suppositions whatsoever, on your portion. (Bem, 1972)Popper said that every person see the black dots in white background. But that Popper phenomenon is wrong this is all about the concept of colors. When single person turns to observing people, the problematic becomes even extra intricate.

The guesses may be learned labels. ‘Red controlled women consume a fiery temper’. ‘Fat persons are jolly’. ‘Persons with suspicious looks have somewhat to hide’. The principal impressions let us to mix and synthesize info into an expressive pattern, smooth reconciling contradictory and inconsistent information. Counselor may be honest but they can’t get rid of client first impression. There is nope opinion in pretending that one’s insights of a consumer are neutral. That would remain a distant more honest formerly impartial way of commerce by first impressions than repudiating their being, as numerous tend to fix. (Bem, 1972)

Cognitive control is the procedure by which boxes or tactics influence performance. When you go anywhere for interview you should control your actual emotions and feelings. The expert needs continuously to remain in control, seems to be the supervisory philosophy of greatest counsellors. The consumers may need to be sad and even cry but consumer control all the situation and remain calm. Descartes (1632–1677), who stood one of the utmost rationalist truth-seekers of the 17th century and he defined that counsellor can continue peaceful and calm in the expression of expressive outbursts through the consumer. Such a method also licenses the counsellor to endure, modification, change and uniform dismiss the interview, uncertainty it hovers to grow out of indicator.

Cognitive control is the ability to control you mental powers your abilities to thought, your mind’s ability to thought about a specific considerable topic or behavior. Cognitive control is very much beneficial when there is struggle for limited psychological resources, a comparatively common condition in the brain. Cognitive control helps to decrease in decision-making, at several levels, by controlling what evidence reaches focused responsiveness. Work and activity is the centered exercise of the cognitive control in the western society. In such society people tends to activate on a cognitive approach, where the importance is on rationality, logic, judgment and control. Public words of feeling are mainly harmful or negative feelings and passions or emotions are often frowned upon.

Such type of displays are seem to be bad and vulgar. The society where there is a high level of negative feelings and emotions then there is need of arising of professional counselling system. The counselling system must be established there for the need of individuals. The counselling setting must be ensured that which document the legitimate appearance, emotions of feelings and emotions by clients and their supervision by experts trained in that area. The expert trained must be there for the handling of the client. Trainers must be have constant personality that he/she easily able to handle the clients. He/she must be calm in nature.

Counsellor need to be alert any time during exercising their job of counselling. When counsellor is directly exposed to the client in the exercising of cognitive control there is a solid or strong probability that the client may come to recognize the counsellor as being cold, emotionless and uncaring or unfeeling. ‘Here I am, crying my bloody heart out, and he (or she) just sits there, doing nothing!’ might become the client’s lament. So in this sort of situation counsellor need to be constant, strong and calm. Contemporary research on therapeutic outcomes points out that the therapist must be warmth and it has influenced positively. It is general thinking that client need a person who is warmth and reciprocate our feeling and are indifferent, if not hostile to persons we see as being cold. As we know that warmth is emotional dimension but it is not a cognitive one.

Empathy is the ability to share and understand the feelings and emotions of an individual. In counselling empathy is an expression or emotion and respect of counsellor. Therapist have to understand the feelings of client. And client should respect the counsellor. The client need to feel held and understand and as well as respect. For successful therapy empathy is an essential and important ingredient. Empathy allow Counsellor to step up with the client and share their things so it will help to make a strong bond and relationship between client and counsellor. Closely related to warmth is empathy. Empathy is a complex method it is regulated by two factors that is cognitive and affective.

(Hoffman, 1982) These two components are very important for the better understanding between client and counsellor. This interaction is a systematic manner interaction which help to produce emotional understanding. When a counsellor is truly empathic with his/her client he need to be sensitive about the feelings of his/her client. Counsellor would need to identify the client’s feeling, status and personal and present position. If you were a psychoanalytically concerned with counsellor, you would see empathy as an affective important and understanding of another person’s emotional state reached through momentary identification.

In other words, we can say that empathy includes the facility of a different to ‘crawl’ into the ‘skin’ of another person and construe the world from their perspective. (Hoffman, 1982) To feel what the other individual feels, to see the domain or world as the additional person sees it, to experience in a symbiotic way the emotional experiences of the other person may be needed as empathy. It must however be highlighted that for a given expressive and emotion.

Pittu Laungani work on cognitive and point out the empathy and is affective response, it need to be perceived as such by the recipient. Empathy is contribution back unspecified feelings which you are selected up from body linguistic or voice tone. This is much more commanding than basic empathy as you may not be consciously conscious of these emotional state. It is therefore best used uncertainly and it build more established relationship between client and counsellor.

Several research workers have research on the topic of empathy and give their own ideas and views about the understandings between counsellor and client. It is clear that no one is born with an infinite basin of empathy. It is a educated emotional reply, which grows in circumstances where the parents are helpful, responsive, supportive, calm, warm, and accepting of their children’s emotional reactions.

Hoffman argued the parents that it is the mistake of our society that our parents not allow their children to expose with the feelings and emotions with the others. It is the bad factor of our society, if we allow our children to go ahead and expose to other individuals then there is no difficulty will be faced by our children. We should allow our children to expose the feelings of other it will give a broad range of experience regarding understanding of others emotions and feelings. By preventing our children not to exposed with others by doing this we are making destroy the mental health of our children.

We should pass out our children with distressing experiences such as death in a family, or serious illness these revision will make a counter productive and it will be the advantage of our children. But parents think that these experiences might traumatized the child, but this is not so. Exposure to the distress situation might strong the mental health of the child. If a child is not exposed to distress situations then child will have face serious difficulties acquiring the psychic maturity to emphasize with others.

Empathy is very important and also has been identified as a necessary condition for fruitful counselling. Counsellor must give a high degree of cognitive control he/she know the advantages or disadvantages of the mental health. He/she must know about the development of cognitive ability and how to control or counsel the clients. He/she must have constant personality and should be cool and calm while emotional turbulence. A good counsellor need to have caring and nurturing personality. Effective counsellor must have very good and excellent communication skills. He should have acceptance in his personality, empathy, flexibility and problem solving skills. He should have self-awareness.

The main summary and objective of this article is to define the nature of counselling interview. It examine the expression with the first interview among the counsellor and the consumer. When both counsellor and consumer held the interview very first time there are some problems that faces the consumers and counsellor. Three major problems are discussed briefly that are neutrality and objectivity, cognitive control, and empathy. This article written to promote some serious issues while counselling and this article has been define the awareness that are related to counselling.


Laungani, P. (2000) Death: The Final End or a New Beginning? In A. L. Comunian & U. Gielen (eds) International perspectives on human development (pp. 637—662). Zagreb: Pabst Science Publishers.

Hoffman, M.L. (1982) Development of prosocial motivation: empathy and guilt. In N. Eiservberg (ed.) Development of prosocial behaviour (pp. 281–313) New York: Academic Press.

Brown, R. (1987) Social psychology, second edition. London: Free Press.

Bem, D.J. (1972) Self perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. London: Prentice Hall.

Heider, F. (1946) Attitudes and cognitive organization. Journal of Psychology, 21, 107–122.

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