Working with Addicted Populations

Introduction to Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Depression is defined as a mood disorder that is often associated with cognitive impairment, loss, sadness, and anger that disturbs everyday work activities. The condition can make life vulnerable, although quality treatment including therapy will support improving the emotional and mental wellbeing of the patient. Cognitive behavior therapy has been proved useful to treat depression my enhancing mood behavior and is based on the exchange of thoughts, feelings, and actions (Shortis et al.,2020). In some cases, CBT also minimizes the occurrence of relapse or reoccurrence that might help to replace the medication. The therapy will focus to identify the negative thoughts and actions triggering with depression which help to design a care plan to gain control of their feelings. The therapy plan will include different sessions that improve the thoughts influencing mood followed by engaging in social interaction and everyday activities (Paul et al.,2016). However, a reluctant patient will not receive adequate therapy owing to negligence. The study will focus to improve the mental and emotional wellbeing of the patient with depression (Shortis et al.,2020). The increasing number of depression patients will create a burden on doctors and nurses to make an intervention choice. The pharmacological way of treatment increases the risk for patients due to associated side-effects, although cognitive behavior therapy given for a standardized period will neutralize the issue. The therapy proved beneficial for all age groups including males and females as well.

Aim

The study aims to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy against depression for future study prospective

List of databases

Various journals and research articles have been included in the study before screening the abstract and the title of the relevant reference journals which also accomplish the inclusion criteria of this literature review. The major inclusion criteria included in the literature review include:

  • Only the journals and relevant articles that have been included in the study were included
  • The relevant articles and journals published from 2020 were included in the study
  • The articles and data that has been published only in EBSCOhost, ProQuest was included
  • The articles and studies based on randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis review in which the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on depression was included in the study

Search strategy

Different combinations of the keywords have been used to find the most relevant papers which have been used to evaluate the study

Keywords

Cognitive behavior, CBT, depression treatment, mood easing, psychological support, behavior improvement, social interaction

AND

Cognitive behavior therapy and depression

Cognitive behavior therapy and mood improvement

Depression and CBT and social interaction

Cognitive behavior and depression treatment

OR

Depression or Psychosis

 Cognitive behavior therapy or clinical interventions or psychological support

Mood improvement or behavior improvement

Mood-improving therapy or Mood easing strategy

AND, OR

Depression or Psychosis and cognitive behavior therapy

Mood easing or mood improving and depression

Cognitive behavior therapy or psychological therapy and depression

Cognitive behavior therapy and mood improvement or mood soothing

Literature Review of Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Literature citation

The method for use for study

The participant's count

Major results concluded from the study

Procter (2018)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for older adults with depression. Journal of Mental Health

(RCT) Randomized Controlled Trial

Number of participants=50

Comparative study for CBT and other therapy for depression

Cognitive behavior therapy based on mood improvement showed around 90%. However, no the therapy was not carried for a standard period

Folkvord (2018)

Cognitive therapy for mentally ill patients. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Meta-analysis study

N=37

(mental=10

counseling=15

combination=12)

Results were evaluated and assessed after 6 months

The percentage of cognitive improvement showed 48%. while counseling and combined showed 8 and 44% respectively

Rimland. (2017)

A systematic review of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions to treat behavioral disturbances in older patients with depression/dementia. The SENATOR-OnTop series

Randomized Controlled Trial

N=300

Sensory based simulations intrusion including cognitive-based therapy for depression

Results were evaluated after 4 months

The cognitive behavior therapy showed effective results with 90% improvement in patients with depression

Kok-wai. (2018)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be effective in treating anxiety and depression in persons with dementia. Psychogeriatrics.

Randomized Controlled Trial

Number of participants

Multiple cognitive factors were included for therapy

Results were evaluated 16 weeks

Mental statement score range 14 where 15 was considered maximum. However, no significant results were observed for mood improvement

The depression rating showed 11, where 10 was considered the lowest

Woodford. (2016Behavioural activation written self-help to improve mood, wellbeing, and quality of life in people with depression supported by informal carers (PROMOTE): Pilot and Feasibility Studies

Meta-static analysis

Number of participants-50

Music therapy effect on depression

The total time for therapy was 1 hour

The depression scale among older patients scale-12

The mini-state examination did not prove beneficial results

McDermott. (2018). Psychosocial interventions for people with depression. Aging & Mental Health

Meta-analysis study

Participants used-44

Mood improvement is cognitive therapy=24

Physiotherapy=20

The mood improvement scale= 4 where 5 was considered maximum

Moller et.,2020 Rumination-focused cognitive behavior therapy for non-responsive chronic depression: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

Systematic review

N=100

Rumination-focused cognitive behavior

Results were evaluated after 4 months

Rumination-focused cognitive behavior therapy showed effective results with 80% improvement

Smout et al.,2019 Outcome benchmarks for cognitive behavior therapy delivered by student psychologist training clinics. Australian Psychologist

Randomized controlled trial

Participants used-40

cognitive therapy based training

The mood was improved in patents, however, the relapse of the mood disorder occurred in some patients

Shortis et al.,2020

The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of antenatal depression: Journal of Affective Disorders, 272, 485–495.

Systematic review.

Number= 50

of cognitive-behavioral therapy for 4 months

Results showed effective for antenatal depression within the standardized period, Although 20% of patients did not continue the therapy

Tjjak., 2020

Explicit and implicit attachment and the outcomes of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. BMC Psychiatry

Systematic review.

Number= 42

of cognitive-behavioral therapy given for 6 months

The continued therapy showed effective results with more than 70% effectiveness

The strengths that have been identified while conducting the study include:

  • Improved mood attribute in patients with depression

The study evaluated that around 90% of the patients suffering from depression recovered from impaired mood as compared to other psychological therapies (Procter,2018). Other studies showed the mental score examination score range 11-15, which comes under the effective range (Kok-wai,2018). The effectiveness of the mental wellbeing scale-12 referring to positive behavior and patient wellbeing. Most of the studies were carried for 6-9 weeks while few last for only 4 weeks.

  • Effective therapy

 The studies included in the study concluded that cognitive behavior therapy proved effective for depression and among all the therapies, family and music therapy proved beneficial as compared to other psychological therapies for depression. (Woodford,2016). Cognitive therapy has been proved ad compared to medication which is often associated with other side-effects.

  • Role of training for effective results

The effective interventions by nurses for encouraging patients to continue therapy has been proved beneficial for patient wellbeing and safety. Nurses adopted all the clinical processes to encourage patients to remain socially interactive for their soothing mood. Knowledge sharing, providing training for effective communication proved beneficial for the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (Carrion and Kok-wai,2018). Training and seminars will support nurses to improve both their practical and theoretical skills.

Research Gaps Identified During the Study

Various gaps were identified while conducting the study which can be improved to balance the effect of cognitive behavior therapy and patient outcome. The less use of statistical tools could have been given well-quantified data regarding the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (Smout et al.,2019). This could impact the validity of the research in the future.

  • Different cognitive factors

Various factors were considered while considering cognitive behavior therapy and include physical exercise, emotional therapy, along with psychotherapy which has increased complexities in the studies.

  • Quantitative approach

More use of statistical tools to quantify the validated data regarding the effect of cognitive behavior therapy to treat depression

Limitations Identified

The cognitive behavior therapy showed effective results for improving mood in patients with depression. On the other hand, some people do not respond to the treatment owing to reluctant behavior Few patients showed improvement within the standard period while others showed late effectiveness. However, the results also state modest results and the relapse of chronic mood disorder might occur which impacted the effectiveness of the therapy (Moeller et al.,2020). There is a lot of scope of improvement in terms of CBT including both search quality and therapy outcomes (Kraus et al.,2015).

Conclusion on Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive behavior therapy has been proved useful to treat depression my enhancing mood behavior and is based on the exchange of thoughts, feelings, and actions. The therapy plan will include different sessions that improve the thoughts influencing mood followed by engaging in social interaction and everyday activities. The age-related depression will be treated using a training session provided by proficient nurses. CBT for mood soothing attributes will target risk factors triggering the illness like drug abuse, smoking, alcohol, and others. The nurses with skills of clinical practice will provide effective treatment by encouraging patients to participate. The non-pharmaceutical including CBT proved beneficial although some patients did not follow the complete therapy which later developed a relapse of chronic mood disorder.

References for Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Folkvord, F., Anastasiadou, D., & Aymerich, M. (2018). Cognitive therapy for mentally ill Patients: A Systematic Review. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 46, 1–26

Kok-wai, T., Subramaniam, P., & Oei, T. P. (2018). Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be effective in treating anxiety and depression in persons with dementia: A systematic review. Psychogeriatrics. 43(4), 1-10.

Kraus, C. A., Seignourel, P., Balasubramanyam, V. (2015). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Patients With Dementia: Two Case Studies. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(3), 186–192.

McDermott, O., Charlesworth, G., Hogervorst, E., Stoner, C., Moniz-Cook, E., Spector, A., Orrell, M. (2018). Psychosocial interventions for people with depression: A synthesis of systematic reviews. Aging& Mental Health, 1–11.

Moeller, S. B., Austin, S. F., Hvenegaard, M., Kistrup, M., Gran, S., & Watkins, E. (2020). Rumination-focused cognitive behavior therapy for non-responsive chronic depression: An uncontrolled group study. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 48(3), 376–381.

Procter, N., Phoebe, J.,., Harrison, J., Skelton, K., Hampel, S., Draper, R., & Deuter, K. (2014). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for older adults with depression: a review. Journal of Mental Health, 24(3), 168–171.

Rimland, J. M., Trotta, F. M., Dell’Aquila, G., Cruz-Jentoft, A., Petrovic, M., Cherubini, A. (2017). A systematic review of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions to treat behavioral disturbances in older patients with depression/dementia. The SENATOR-OnTop series. BMJ Open, 7(3),1-27.

Rohan, K. J., Meyerhoff, J., Ho, S.-Y., Evans, M., Postolache, T. T., & Vacek, P. M. (2016). Outcomes one and two winters following cognitive-behavioral therapy or light therapy for seasonal affective disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(3), 244–251.

Shortis, E., Warrington, D., & Whittaker, P. (2020). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of antenatal depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 272, 485–495.

Smout, M. F., Harris, J. K., & Furber, G. (2019). Outcome benchmarks for cognitive behavior therapy delivered by student psychologist training clinics. Australian Psychologist, 54(4), 272–291.

Tjak, J. G. L., Morina, N., Boendermaker, W. J., Topper, M., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2020). Explicit and implicit attachment and the outcomes of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. BMC Psychiatry, 20,1-12.

Woodford, J., Llewellyn, D., Anderson, M., Venkatasubramanian, S., Ukoumunne, O. C., Dickens, C. (2016). Behavioral activation wrote self-help to improve mood, wellbeing, and quality of life in people with expression supported by informal carers (PROMOTE): A study protocol for a single-arm feasibility study. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 2(1),1-10

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