Table of Contents
Case Study 1: Site Works
Case study 3: Scaffolding (2)
Case study 5: Edge protection
Case study 6: Elevated Working Platform
Case study 8: Demolition
1. In this case, the drilling operator reported the incident to the supervisor. The excavator operator was instructed to resume work after inspecting the area and making sure there was no risk of direct damage to the excavator or electric shock. Power authorities and safety inspectors later instructed the miner operator to remove the miner to ensure that any measures agreed with the power authority to protect these overhead power lines from entering the danger zone were not effective at the time of the incident. Places for health and safety protection should be reviewed regularly to ensure that the controls are effective. Reviews should be done regularly and can be done using the same method as the initial risk identification process. They need to be able to easily read the Safe Work Statement (SWMS) here to understand what is planned to ensure risk management, control implementation, and ensuring work is done in accordance with SWMS (Borys, 2012).
2. The Australian Safety and Compensation Council haverecognized the following five principles (key elements) for safe design that could be applicable to construction and other industries. This Code of Conduct for Construction Work is a recognized practice under “Section 274 of the Work Health and Safety Act(WHS Act)”.
Safety design is the responsibility of every person - Safety design ensures that stakeholders or persons can control or impact on the design of a product, process or item.
Security design adopts life cycle concept - Security design applies to the renewal and settlement from the concept of each step of the life cycle, eliminating or minimizing risk as quickly as possible throughout the life cycle.
Safe design executes effectiverisk management. The risk assessment,identification, and management process enables a secure design for risk management.
Safe design needs skills and knowledge that anyone who should either access or demonstratewith influence or control over the design (BRESLIN, 2013).
Safe design depends on communication - Safe design approaches require the effective communication and documentation of design as well as risk management information among every individual involved in the stage of life cycle.
3. At construction sites, work activities often overlap and interact. This means that everyone in the work, for example, is liable for protecting the health and safety of workers. In such situations, everyone has responsibilityto share health and safety needs to coordinate consultation, cooperation and activities with each other. This is a gap in health and safety risk management that often occurs when there is a lack of understanding of how each person’s activities relate to the hazards and risks that others may disclose (Pillay, 2013).
1. Most scaffolds had guardrails over the majority of scaffolds (including the middle and top rails). However, if the scaffolds are tilted towards the complex adjacent to the work platform in front of the front door, there is a gap covered with the bricks that were the wooden boards. There was no rail above the scaffolds adjacent to void. An 18-year-old employee of PQR Plastering was on a scaffolding platform performing work on the rendering of the windows of the complex. As the apprentice tried to reach a window above void near scaffold, he stepped onto the piece of timber that gave way causing him to fall through the void a distance of approximately 3.3 meters.
2. OH&S R3.67 Scaffold etc to be erected, designed etc in accordance with standard p84
It indicates one who erects or dismantles a scaffold ought to perform according to the AS/NZS 1576 parts 1 to 6. In addition, it indicates that there are penalties for those who do not comply with the standard.
OH&S R3.70 incomplete scaffold, duty of employer etc as to p86
It needs to be ensured that the employer, large contractor or self-employed person in the workplace has installed scaffolding and is incomplete, using danger tags and warning signs for forgery with the sculpture. Moreover it indicates that unauthorised access should be blocked.
OH&S R3.72. Certain scaffolds to be inspected and tagged p86
It indicates that one needs a licenced person in relation to scaffold who holds a high risk work licence for scaffold.
In order to develop a useful as well as effective scaffold planone can consult with:
scaffolding designers for discussing about design loads and structural features to support additional loads.
The building contractor for assessing the location of Underground pits. Scaffolding Work needs to be planned so that excavation can be avoided through engraving or adjacent services.
Employees, the “Workplace Health and Safety Committee”, along with the “Workplace Health and Safety Worker (WHSR)” are interested in collecting, dismantling, maintaining, and modifying sculptures (Moon, et al., 2016).
3. The nature of the work along with the loads of the work and the height from which falls might happen should be allowed for the risk assessment. Also, person assessing the risk must consider two aspects of scaffolding work:
Possibility of injury during loading (unloading), lifting, use, removal or loading;
Potential injuries can be serious.
The larger the probability or harshnessevaluated will result in abigger risk that somebody could be wounded. This precaution ought to be appropriately detailed in the safety statement or in the health and safety plan. General prevention policies must be considered throughout the risk assessment procedure. It is included in “Schedule 3 of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005”. These overall principles determine the classification of control systems applicable to all workplaces. Without the appropriate standards for design, planning, equipment, supervision,training, and examining to make sure safety, the most enjoyable emergency, use, and elimination risk assessment shows a high level of risk (Hou et al., 2017).
1. This case study found that a roof contractor was working on the roof about two and a half meters above the edge of the roof and slipped. Around the same time, another employee of the roof contractor was working on the roof from a height of about 500 mm to 5 m above the edge of the roof. The edge on which the employee worked was not protected by edge protection and there was no fall injury prevention system. The reason is as follows.
Deficiency of WSH-related training when working at heights and does not accurately identifies perimeter risks.
Adequate failure to provide adequate training to employees to work safely (Borys, 2012).
2. In this case, the task at hand is to conduct a roof survey to ensure that the proposed risk management measures proposed by the RA have been properly implemented and strictly followed. Make sure one have a safe work method suitable for working on your roof, taking into account the roof's characteristics (such as roofing material, profile, operation, height) and work duration and frequency. If one uses a fall protection system, one should check the presence and appropriateness of all anchor points and lifeline before starting any related work activities.
3. Edge protection has to be able to endure the impact of the person lying on the other side. The company must make and execute a secure work process (SWP) for framework related activities and emphasize the requirement for employees to always anchor staff safety responsibilities to secure lifelines or anchor points when working at heights. Also, all staff involved in the framework activities (including the formwork supervisor and staff) must provide adequate protection and be prepared for training. It provides edge protection where people are at risk of falling from the outside. For guardrail systems, they are always in good condition and in good condition, capable of withstanding a person's weight (at least 100 kg, “SS 567: 2011 Code of Practice for factory layout – Safety, health and welfare considerations”)implemented in any way at any point (Loudoun & Townsend, 2017).
1. This case study shows that it found that the rigger was fitting bridging ties (steel joining brackets binding the roof purlins together) in the front building entry. Also, a rigger remained in the EWP till it hit the concrete, falling about 6.2 meters. rigger grieved a perforated right lung as well as fractures to his ribs, femur, pelvis, and L1 vertebrae.
The guideline explains how safe EWP can be used and protected and helps workers perform their duties under the “Health and Safety in Regulations 1995 (HSE Regulations)” and the “Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (HSE Act)”. Besides, the duty holders include employees, employers, principals, manufacturers, and designers, suppliers, and hirers involved in EWP work.
2. All practical measures described in the “Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992” and The “Health and Safety in Employment Regulations 1995” are related to achieving results in any situation; having regards to:
The nature and severity of the damage that can suffer if results are not achieved
A present state of knowledge in regards to injury of that nature
A present state is now aware of the potential damage to nature and its severity would be agonized if results are not accomplished
A current circumstance of acquaintance about the ways existing for achieving the result, and the possible efficacy of everydirection
The availability and cost of all techniques. To avoid hesitation, people needed by this Act to take every workable step is essential to take these steps only with regard to conditions that the person recognizes or have to practically to know about (Nadhim, et al., 2016).
3. The organization must plan a safe way to do a work can help recognize the risk of work using EWP. Safe work planning includes risk management processes. First, try to eliminate the risks and if that is not possible isolate them and try to minimize the damage caused by the threat.
Develop hazard control methods using “group control” (edge protection) that protect some employees from harm. In this way, group control is better than “individual control” that protect only one person (i.e. fall restraint). In this section, some major threats of using EWP are also covered accompanied by the proposed control measure. EWP compatible with AS/NZS 1418.10 will have the following safety feature (Chen et al., 2012).
The operator ought to:
be informed about the risks of working on the structure and surrounding structures to get stuck or installed between the platform and the structure.
wear hardhats with a chin strap
be aware of the work environment all the time
1. A safety pin is provided to ensure that the attachment cannot be easily lost if the safety pin of the hydraulic pin fails. However, in this case, it was discovered that DEF Demolitions decided to forever remove the safety pin from the quick hitch. During the demolition of the house, as they were used the excavator without the safety pin in the site. Besides, the quick hitch and bucket fell off the excavator as well as hit a worker on the upper back resulting injuring with a severed spinal cord. Employee was taken to the hospital. After treatment in the rehabilitation hospital, the employee was seriously injured and is now paralyzed (Park & Tucker, 2017).
The risk assessment is not required for this demolition case study in accordance with WHS regulations. In this case, risk assessment will help in deciding what control measures need to take. This will help:
Recognize which employee is at a risk of exposure
To identify the sources and processes that create this risk
Find out what kind of control measure need to implement
Test the functionality of an existing control measure.
2. This Code of Practice to manage Health and Safety Risks related to demolition work is a legal code of practice u/s 274 of the WHS (Work Health and Safety) Act. The authorized code of practices is a functional guide to meeting the required welfare, health, and safety standards under the Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations and Act. Besides, the WHS regulations consist of specific obligations for individuals to be liable for doing business or for managing risks related to their demolition work. These responsibilities include:
Prepare SWMS for the recommended work or making sure a SWMS has previously been made by someone else before starting any High-Risk Construction
Accepts a copy of the asbestos register on behalf of the organization before the demolition work is done.
If there is no asbestos register, the project manager cannot use it until the structure or plant has been reviewed to regulate if asbestos or asbestos comprising materials (ACM) are fixed to or installed in the plant or structure.
Assured that the asbestos that is expected to be hampered by the demolition work has been removed just as it was before the demolition.
Confirm that the purpose is started by an experienced person if asbestos or ACM are presumed or determined to be present, notify the occupier and the owner of the buildings (if domestic premises) as well as the organization with management or control of the workplace (Yuan & Shen, 2011).
For the determinations of this Code of practice, any business that conducts demolition work is sometimes referred to as a “demolition contractor”.
3. According to Regulation 297, any person doing business must manage the risks related to construction work. There must be a task to manage the risk in accordance with WHS regulations, the duty holder should:
Find rationally foreseeable risks that could increase the risk
Remove the risk that is reasonably workable
If this is not rationally possible to minimize or remove the risks, it is rationally possible by applying control measure in keeping with the risk controlhierarchy.
Borys, D. (2012). The role of safe work method statements in the Australian construction industry. Safety science, 50(2), 210-220.
Borys, D. (2012). The role of safe work method statements in the Australian construction industry. Safety science, 50(2), 210-220.
BRESLIN, P. (2013). What are the benefits and costs of developing, implementing and reviewing Safe Work Method Statements for high-risk works in the Australian construction industry?. Journal of health, safety and environment, 29(5), 269-283.
Chen, G., Zhang, G., Xie, Y. M., & Jin, X. H. (2012). Overview of alliancing research and practice in the construction industry. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 8(2), 103-119.
Hou, L., Zhao, C., Wu, C., Moon, S., & Wang, X. (2017). Discrete firefly algorithm for scaffolding construction scheduling. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 31(3), 04016064.
Loudoun, R., & Townsend, K. (2017). Implementing health promotion programs in the Australian construction industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
Moon, S., Forlani, J., Wang, X., & Tam, V. (2016). Productivity study of the scaffolding operations in liquefied natural gas plant construction: Ichthys project in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 142(4), 04016008.
Nadhim, E. A., Hon, C., Xia, B., Stewart, I., & Fang, D. (2016). Falls from height in the construction industry: a critical review of the scientific literature. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(7), 638.
Park, J., & Tucker, R. (2017). Overcoming barriers to the reuse of construction waste material in Australia: a review of the literature. International Journal of Construction Management, 17(3), 228-237.
Pillay, M. (2013). Exploring resilience engineering through the prescription and practice of safe work method statements in the Victorian Construction industry. University of Ballarat.
Yuan, H., & Shen, L. (2011). Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management. Waste management, 31(4), 670-679.
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