• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : CPCCBC4011A
  • University : Swinburne University of Technology
  • Subject Name :

Engineering Essay


Task 1

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background 6

1.2 What is low rise commercial building?

1.3 Tilt panel frame structure in low rise commercial building

2.0 Parts of a low-rise tilt panel commercial building

2.1 Typical footing system used for the tilt panel and the portal frame

2.2 Detailed concrete panel construction/ framework method

2.2.1 Form Building Objectives

2.2.2 How framework affects the quality of concrete

2.2.3 The causes of the failure of a framework

2.2.4 Form development

2.3 Temporary methods for wind bracing

2.3.1 What wind bracing is actually?

2.3.2 Temporary bracing

2.3.3 Designing slabs

2.3.4 Brace connections

2.3.5 Sequencing braces

2.3.6 Structural principles – Loads

2.3.7 Structural principles - Forces

2.3.8 Structural principles - Properties

2.3.9 Structural principles - Structural members

2.3.10 Structural principles – Demolition

2.3.11 Methods of Demolition

2.4 Roof system

2.5 Different cladding Systems

2.6 Emergency Protection services

Task 2

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Importance of BCA standards and its clauses

2.3 Stepping up in stories and efficient height

2.4 Construction type

2.5 Requirements for building Bushfire

2.6 Construction requirement for high wind

2.7 Specific requirements for construction in earthquake prone areas

2.7.1 When the coefficient of acceleration lies between 0.12 and 0.15 30

2.7.2 Coefficients of acceleration above 0.15

2.8 Provisions for technical advancement

2.9 Material stability

2.10 BCA standards for fire response

2.11 Standard exit points

Task 3

3.1 Autoclaved aerated concrete types and uses

3.1.1 Aerated concrete properties

3.1.2 Types of autoclaved Aerated Concrete

3.1.3 Applications of AAC

3.2 Rammed earth and mud bricks based earth wall

3.2.1 Rammed earth wall

3.2.2 Mud bricks wall

Task 1

1.0 Introduction

The low-rise tilt panel commercial building is the most famous type of light industrial and low-level business construction worldwide and includes an important part of the country's current construction. This popularity is motivated mainly by the building velocity and cost-efficiency of the inclined building. As tilt board building has adjusted to the requirements of large structures with stronger aesthetics and uneven designs, more glass and accent solutions, the architectural adoption has become more common. For office structures, assembly stations and even colleges, Tilt Panel building becomes more prevalent.

This report provides a detail report on the low rise commercial building having tilt panel type frame structure, highlighting the footing system used in the construction of tilt panel, concrete panel construction method, cladding system used, safety installation made and the Australia standard and BCA clauses used in this type of construction. 

This report presents a scope that can be used by the small and newly emerging construction company dealing in low building structure, guiding them how tilt panel can be used and what are the norms that are required to be followed while construction takes place.

1.1 Background

To understand the details of low rise commercial building having tilt panel type frame structure, it is first important to understand what low- rise commercial building structure are and also details about tilt panel frame structure. 

1.2 What is low rise commercial building?

A low-level building is a tiny building or a structure that is less than a high-rise building but other buildings include a medium-level structure. Sometimes low-rise buildings provide greater comfort and use than high-rise buildings, but they may provide less comfort and flexibility with rents. Fires can also be made easier in low-rise constructions. Australia's low metropolitan crises, due to legal, financial and modern viewpoints, are luxurious rather than high-rise. Because of decreased expenditures and greater space, companies now prefer low-cost buildings. Productivity also improves with all employees on one floo

1.3 Tilt panel frame structure in low rise commercial building

In Australia, Tilt-up building is a prevalent building technique. Tilt board is a construction form and concrete construction technology. Though a cost-effective method with a lower completion moment, bad earthquake efficiency in elderly structures required important adjustment demands. With the tilt-up process, concrete elements are formed on a horizontal concrete sheet (walls, columns, structural supports, etc.) which usually require the floor as a structural shape but which can be a temporary concrete cast surface near the footprint of the building. The elements are "turned" vertically by a crane after the wood has healed and tightened up until structural parts of the other construction (towers, intermediate layers and walls) are maintained.

And hence a Low-rise tilt panel commercial building provides many benefits and are preferred in Australia for low construction of the building.

Tilt-up buildings require substantial organisation and cooperation on the site. For a tilt-up project, chronological steps are: site assessment, design, footing and flooring design, shape of tilting boards, steel installation, embedding and inserting, concrete placing, panel buildings, and panel finishing.   

2.0 Parts of a low-rise tilt panel commercial building

2.1 Typical footing system used for the tilt panel and the portal frame

Footing is a key element in the building of the base. They usually consist of rebar strengthening concrete that is poured into an excavated trench. The basis is supported and resettlement is prevented. In regions with troublesome soils, footing is particularly crucial. The building of footings is best left to the pros, who can evaluate the groundwater circumstances and identify the appropriate size, size and positioning for footings. The dimensions and the sort of building to be constructed also rely on the magnitude of the base. Placing the foundations is critical if the basis and the framework are to be properly supported. 

The base scheme for a tilt-up construction does not need a few additional factors in a steel frame, or a structure with a wood frame. The basis of a typical Tilt-Up building is composed of inner foot pads that support pillars, inner footings that support frames of the bearings, and boards or pads that support wall boards. Many national regions have seen tilt-up boards not connected to the spreading base, which supports the boards themselves, in concrete tilt-up building. In these structures, wall boards are backed vertically on the basis, but only board ties to the deck resist lateral pressures. Typically, the dowels are strengthened from the wall and slab-on-grade panels, which run parallel to the wall panel in a small concrete pour-strip on the ground. 

Portal frames consisting of pillars and horizontal or pitched rafters linked through moment-resistant links are used in low-rise constructions. The strength of the links and the tensility of the components, which is enhanced by the appropriate haunch or deepening of the rafter segments, are the resistance to horizontal and vertical movements. The constant design of this type is robust on its surface and offers a definite length unimpeded by bracing. Portal frames are very prevalent, 50 percent of building stain used in Australia is in the building of portal frames. They are very effective in the containment of big quantities, so they are often used for industrial storage.

​​​​​​​2.2 Detailed concrete panel construction/ framework method

Throughout the 20th century, the development of formwork has paralleled the growth of concrete building. The growing adoption of concrete as a significant building material poses a fresh set of issues for the form builder in developing suitable sheathing materials and maintaining rigid tolerances. Figure 1 demonstrates a typical configuration of concrete wall shaping. Formwork is a classic temporary structure in the sense that it is rapidly erected, heavily loaded during concrete positioning for a few hours, and disassembled for future reuse within a few days. The connections, braces, tie anchorages and adjustment systems needed by shapes are also classic in their temporary nature.

Traditionally, after only one moment of use, formwork was placed in location and destroyed. Owing to elevated labour costs, prefabricating forms, assembling them in big units using mechanical equipment such as cranes to erect the forms and reuse them as much as possible is more effective and lucrative. Lumber was once the predominant form material, but the image was altered by innovations in the use of plywood, metal, plastics and other materials, along with the growing use of specific accessories. The standard today is the forming of modular panels.

​​​​​​​2.2.1 Form Building Objectives

Forms form and regulate the concrete's position and alignment to the required size and shape. But formwork is more than a mould; it is a temporary structure that supports its own weight, plus newly placed concrete, plus live loads of building (including materials, machinery, and staff). Basic goals in the construction of shapes are: 

  1. Quality − In terms of strength, stiffness, position and size. 

  2. Safety − for employees as well as concrete structure 

  3. Economy − the lowest price compatible with quality and security demands

Cooperation as well as coordination between engineers / architect and contractors are necessary in order to achieve these targets. Economy is a major concern as the cost of formwork accounts for up to 60% of the total cost of concrete work in a project.

2.2.2 How framework affects the quality of concrete

The contractor should strive for maximum economy in the design and construction of framework without sacrificing quality or safety. Size, shape, and alignment of plates, beams, and other structural concrete components rely on precise shape building. 

The shapes need to be: 

  • Sufficiently stiff under building loads to keep the designed concrete shape.

  • Stable and powerful enough to keep big members in alignment

  • Substantially built to handle and reuse without losing their dimensional integrity.

The frame must stay in position until the concrete is powerful enough to perform its own weight, or it can damage the completed structure.

2.2.3 The causes of the failure of a framework

Formwork defects are the cause of many accidents and construction failures that happen during concrete construction, generally when placing new concrete. Usually some unexpected incident causes one member to fail, then others become overloaded or misaligned and the whole structure of the formwork collapses. The primary causes of the failure of the formwork are:

  • Improper removal of the coast

  • Improper bracing and vibration

  • Unstable soil under mudsills (a board, a frame or a small footing on the ground used as a shore base or as a formwork post)

  • Insufficient concrete placement control

  • Lack of attention to details of the formwork

2.2.4 Form development

When selecting the shaping material and estimating the anticipated load, a shape should be designed strong enough to carry the anticipated loads safely and rigid enough to hold its shape under full load. At the same moment, by not overbuilding the form, the builder or contractor intends to maintain expenses down. A thorough assessment of the factors surrounding the design should be carried out before formwork design can start correctly.

2.3 Temporary methods for wind bracing


2.3.1 What wind bracing is actually?

Bracing is a building method used to enhance the building's structural performance. Bracing systems include parts of wood or steel that assist to distribute loads uniformly and enhance structural safety. While traditional framing can support the weight of the roof and floors above, the lateral stresses caused by wind, earthquakes or other forces cannot be resisted. Most structures are for supporting the vertical load generated by dead load as well as live load heavily enough. It also needs to be able to withstand lateral loads from wind loads, however. It is possible to use numerous methods to solve this issue. Generally, in regions with elevated concentrations of seismic activity or for constructions that are subjected to wind speeds higher than 110 MPH, an engineered system is needed.

2.3.2 Temporary bracing


Temporary bracing utilizes metal poles, wires, wooden frames or parts of pre-engineered bracing to stabilize a structure during building. Once the continuous bracing is installed, these products will be removed. A temporary bracing system's main aim is to safeguard employees and the public during building.

Before or after construction, braces can be connected to the panels. However, when panels are cast face-up inside and the braces are attached to a resistant system inside the building (such as the slab-on-grade), the preferred method is to attach the braces to the panel before lifting to increase the productivity of the erection. In this case, the braces are placed just below the roof diaphragm to allow the braces to be removed and the floors below to be installed when the roof installation is complete. In multi-story structures over 3 stories high, bracing to the outside of the building is often more effective to avoid delays in erection inside the building. Otherwise, with the consent of the structural engineers, the sequencing of steel erection, floor pouring and stability requirements must be carefully planned. 

2.3.3 Designing slabs

When determining whether the floor slab is an appropriate base for brace loads, the sort and place of floor slab joints, slab thickness, reinforcement, leave-out strips and concrete strength should be regarded. In addition, a minimum concrete thickness should be considered when specifying the slab thickness for appropriate anchor embedding. Instead of thickening the entire floor slab for wall panel temporary bracing, thickened slab strips centred around where the braces will land may be preferred.

2.3.4 Brace connections

Coil inserts are generally casted into the wall panels to connect the panel braces to the wall panel. These inserts are made of plastic void plug to avoid concrete infiltration inside the coil. This plug can be readily removed with pliers to accept a compatible 3⁄4-inch coil bolt after the panel has been cast. When using concrete extension anchors, it is essential to pick an anchor that can be readily removed after use in order to leave only easily patchable holes in the ground. Typical anchors for tilt-up brace extension use an insert remaining in the concrete. It is possible to remove the anchor itself from the insert. Also prevalent for tilt-up brace anchoring are concrete screw anchors (generally 3⁄4-inch diameter). Instead of using an expandable insert to engage the concrete, these anchors are threaded.

2.3.5 Sequencing braces

Also, braces situated at the inner corners need special attention; the panel to be installed first requires to have its bracing positioned high enough that it can be maneuverer comfortably below it in a perpendicular position. There are often issues with openings or leave-outs in the floor slab needing braces to be angled slightly. The panels should be braced to HGAs when floor slab openings or leave-outs are excessive. In corners, the neighbouring orthogonal panel can be braced diagonally if the orthogonal panel is allowed to stand alone properly until the neighbouring panel is installed and braced. 

2.3.6 Structural principles – Loads

A building's structure is the component responsible for keeping the building's shape intact when it is exposed to any external force.

​​​​​​​2.3.7 Structural principles - Force

It is the total resultant force acting on any building or construction and is calculated to determine the impact of net force acting on its component and on the construction as a whole. To do this, we need to resolve the system forces to see what is likely to be the overall effects.

2.3.8 Structural principle - Property

The sort of material used and a structural member's shape have an important effect on its structural efficacy.

Mechanical properties: 

  • Strength: The material's strength is its capacity to resist the load applied without failure or plastic deformation. The material strength domain deals with the forces and deformations resulting from their action on a material.

  • Toughness: How well the material can withstand fracturing when applying force. Toughness needs both strength and ductility, making it possible to deform a material before fracturing.

  • Elasticity: When the forces that cause the deformation are withdrawn, it is the capacity of a deformed material body to return to its initial form and size.

  • Plasticity: Plasticity depicts the deformation of a material (solid) that undergoes non-reversible shape changes in reaction to the forces applied. For instance, a strong metal piece that is bent or pounded into a fresh form shows plasticity as continuous modifications take place within the material itself.

  • Ductility: It is the capacity of a material without fracture to be drawn or plastically deformed. Therefore, it is an indication of how the material is soft or malleable.

  • Malleability: Malleability is a physical property of metals that defines the capacity to hammer, press or roll without breaking into thin sheets.

  • Brittleness: Brittleness defines the property of a material that breaks when stressed but tends to deform before breaking.

  • Hardness: Hardness is defined as the capacity of a material to resist friction, mainly abrasion resistance.

Structural principle - Structural member

Some of the most common components of structural members are as follows:

  • Beam: These are the horizontal parts transferring load in horizontal direction along the length.

  • Column: These are the compressive components for any vertically assisted pillar. Pillars, posts, stanchions and struts are also referred to as them.

  • Wind bracing: Most structures are intended for supporting vertical load generated by dead as well as live load which is heavily enough. It must also be able to withstand lateral loads from wind loads, however. It is possible to use numerous methods to solve this issue. When using the cross bracing cable, two wires must be used to stabilize the structure from both sides against lateral forces. One cable is going to operate in tension efficiently while the other is going to buckle. When rigid bracing is used, the structure will be stabilized by a single brace. Either individually or in combination, any of these techniques can be used to stabilize a structure.

  • Retaining wall: A holding wall is a soil holding wall. Supporting soil where a sloping site needs excavation is needed and either there is inadequate space or battering the soil is impractical

​​​​​​​2.3.10 Structural principles – Demolition

Safe job methods are an essential component of the process of demolition. 

Demolition permit procedures

The Australian Building Code Board (ABCB) looks after a domestic legislative structure including the 1993 Building Act detailing the demolition procedure. Before demolition can begin, a demolition license must be given. 

A planning license will be needed in certain conditions before a demolition license is issued. The construction may be within a patrimonial overlay that triggers a scheduling permit requirement. The demolition permit application process is summarized in the flowchart below. Take note of the four possible distinct routes once the request for a license has been verified by the regulatory agency. In what conditions could a license for demolition be denied?

  • If there is no minister available

  • If there was no reaction to the request for a license

  • If a license for planning is needed and not acquired

Information contained in demolition permit

The following information must be included in the documents containing permits for construction or demolishing a building:

  • Description of the site where the activity is proposed 

  • Identification of other constructions nearby

  • structured computation providing an adequate capability and details of the work needed

Requirements for demolition planning

The following parameters are needed to be considered while planning to conduct any construction or demolition activity:

  • Demolisher information and suitable demolition licensing.

  • Method type including both of by hand or mechanized.

  • Temporary fence and hoarding.

  • Protecting adjacent building, current buildings and also facilities.

  • Service, electricity, water, gas and telecommunications disconnection notices.

  • Removing structural system (operational sequence)

  • Details and notification of any dangerous materials to the appropriate authorities

  • Facilities on site such as toilet, fire services, first aid

  • Dust, noise and vibration control measures

  • Considerations of the environment, such as recycling.

Preparation for demolition

These are the primary factors when planning the process of demolition.

  1. Structure: Identification of the type of material and structural system used and notifying the legislation as per OHS norms.

  2. Service: Locating the site for service and supply mains which includes water, power, wiring and piping etc. 

  3. Site: Locating the depth of footing, whether the demolished building is near to the boundary or having any potential effect on its properties.

Procedures in demolition

Different steps are engaged in the phase of demolition of construction structures: 

  • Surveying hazardous material 

  • Removal 

  • Preparation of plan 

  • Safety measures


    2.3.11 Methods of Demolition

Buildings and structures use two kinds of demolition techniques namely:

2.4 Roof system

  1. Non-explosive demolition: It implies demolition of a structure made without the use of any explosive with some machinery.

  2. Explosive demolition: We can demolish buildings and structures with the use of explosives, free up strengthening in concrete structures, blast under water and cause controlled landslides.

The structure forming the roof of any building is termed as a roof system. According to the Australian standards the roofing system could be built up of:

  • An on-site frame of timber.

  • A truss roof that is prefabricated and the construction of major components is carried out in the factory and on-site assembly is done. 

A roof system that optimally meets project needs and system selection criteria should be selected. The system specifications (such as the type of deck, type and thickness of the insulation, fasteners and guarantee requirements) are developed and details designed after the system roofing system is chosen. This stage is concluded by preparing specifications and sketches which transmit the layout idea and requirements of the designer to a qualified roofing company. 

Purlins: Purlins form a significant part of the pre-engineered stainless steel structural set. They pass perpendicularly over the rafter frames. Purlins are also considered to make up the roofing parts of the secondary framing of the metal construction, which is recognized as "sheeting rails." Top roof purlins of metal building have three structural functions:

  • First the roof is supported by purlins.

  • Secondly purlins tie up and stabilize the rafters, and reinforce the rigid framework of the structure.

  • Third, purlins supplement the lengths of the various framing bays with extra assistance.

Purlins improve the strength of the structure against powerful winds as an additional benefit.

Skylights: Once designed by an architect Skylight becomes one of the intermittent building envelope. Besides the main function of indoor security as well as other envelopes, the skylight emphasizes indoor environments with daylight. Defined in the geographical setting, orientation and place in, i.e., on the roof or on the façade, the daylight gives warmth and glares. Factor selecting the right material for skylights are considered for safety (respective of the hazard of fire and fall), structural safety, acoustic needs and heat transmission light. Sun tracking, open-siding boxes, big lens-like components are the most recent innovations in the layout of skylight and reflectors with mirrors are installed near the standard skylight to provide daylight without thermal gains during daytime or loss of heat during night.

Box Gutters: Box Gutters are built-in gutters typically discovered in older houses and buildings. The distinction is that they are component of the real framework of the roof. Typically, the box rinse is made of wooden framing with sheet metal fork, like copper, steel and tin, as well as an EPDM membrane. The sheet metal creates a water drop to allow the water to reach the drain. As the ribs of the box are usually one foot wide, they are seldom obstructed or overflowed. Copper and stainless steel cabinet canisters are fantastic because of the very low maintenance requirements relative to the box gutters.

Down pipes: A rain water downpipe is a tube used to remove rainwater from a building, typically for the drainage systems from the ceiling. It is also sometimes called a downstream, drainage, or drain pipe for roof. Typically, a downpipe runs up and down to the floor. They are most commonly found at a building's corners. 

2.5 Different cladding Systems

These are the non-loadable layers or skins attached with houses for the purpose of draining water and also protecting buildings against atmospheric causes. These are the major elements of the house's aesthetic attraction and impacts the costs as well as importance of structures immediately. Initial cladding repercussions such as embodied electricity, depletion of resources and recyclability must be balanced against servicing and long-lasting performance. The main functions of the cladding are the monitoring infiltrations and damages caused due to climatic components and also the exhaustion of water vapours. Secondary functions could include noise and heat protection, fire resistance and cleanliness capability in settings which are not safe and may be dusty or polluted. In general, claddings are not loadbearing (i.e. does not bear the loads of roofs or floors). However, when properly fixed to the frame (e.g. structural plywood, reconstituted wood and fibre-reinforced cement sheets), several sheet cladding systems may have a structural role in lightweight framing applications. For visual appearing, waterproofing, condensation, ventilation and drainage, the coping conditions of the bracing cladding can have an important effect. Typically, the cladding is produced of timber, metal, plastics (vinyl), concrete or a growing number of composites. The frame or an intermediate layer of battens or spacers can be straight connected to avoid condensation, thereby ensuring that air vapour escapes.

Alu-co bond plus is the world's most recognized and initial aluminum composite.   The large colors and fire efficiency make it a common option for architects and developers, as well as demonstrated lengthy durability. It is also the ideal solution for exterior facades offering a lightweight, hard and weather-resistant solution, in addition to its superb fire performance. It remains to offer designers total liberty of design with an unrivalled finish and flatness combined with its vibrant portfolio of over 50 colours. Further, it inspires by the capacity to be straight, rounded and formed.

Kingspan's isolated panel innovation has resulted the sector over 50 years in terms of thermal performance, fire security and durability. Nowadays, Kingspan provides huge aesthetic flexibility, backed by cutting edge specialized manufacturing, with a wide spectrum of insular panel profiles.

Nu Wall is a New Zealand-designed and extruded aluminium system. It provides over a dozen different profile variations and provides an extensive range from traditional weatherboard to state-of - the-art. The true key for the system's achievement lies in its smallest and substantial lifetime as a pre-finished aluminium item servicing. The Nu Wall scheme is extruded by an ISO 9001 accredited producer and uses a reclamation method of up to 65%. The energy needed for the production of aluminum from scratch is only 1 percent recycled aluminum. This makes Nu Wall is a very eco-friendly choice for your next venture. Nu Wall is specifically extruded for your project requirements to further decrease its waste–a mix of lengths may be ordered for larger projects without charge.

2.6 Emergency Protection services

The safety of individuals from the risks of fire and smoke is among the biggest of all of the obligations of the estate sector. Science and technologies, and part psychology, part administration and legislation, all elements of emergency scheduling, fire safety engineering, safety system layout and construction and fire regulations must be rigorously mastered, while at the same time ensuring that customers meet their architectural vision and operational objectives. 

Buildings must be designed to offer both an acceptable level of fire safety and a reduction in heat and smoke risks. The primary objective is to reduce to the acceptable degree the risk of death or injuries for occupants and others, such as fire and rescue services, and to protect the contents of this building and to ensure that it is functioning as much as possible after a fire and can be remediated. The danger of adjacent buildings and the potential environmental pollution must also be taken into account. 

A fire protection scheme is a significant element of a building safety strategy, whether it is a business, hospital or academic establishment. The lives of those in the construction are put at a high danger in case of an accident without a fire protection scheme. This is the reason why passive alarm facilities were intended to safeguard the house and its occupants during a fire. A fire prevention programme, by training fire security personnel and adequate servicing and care of the fire protection and safety devices and regulating prospective ignition sources and fuels, could decrease or eliminate incidence of fires. An effective fire prevention scheme is component of every property's daily activities. The owners, managers and all occupants of an estate are responsible for the prevention of fire. 

Passive Fire Protection uses systems which do not need movement or action to work. Fire and Smoke Dampers stop fire and smoke from spreading through an installation's ductwork. If closed, assist to control the flames at a particular place on the construction, firewalls and fire doors. Egress Path Marking Systems and Exit Signs will continue to glow in the smoky conditions, allowing people to safely navigate the way. In the end, these systems split a building in sections, so that the spread of fire and smoke is prevented and slowed down and that occupants are safe from danger. However, it requires both passive and active fire security mechanisms to guarantee that a house and everyone inside is protected fully.

Active Fire Protection utilizes mechanisms that involve some movement or intervention in order to function correctly. They use several measures to notify fire and smoke, to slow fire growth, or to help completely eliminate fire. Some of the most common methods of eliminating fire risks at these types of building include systems of fire alarm, firefighters, sprinkler systems etc. Each scheme addresses the danger in a different way, but is essential to the integrity of the construction and its safety. However, in order to function correctly, the facilities must be preserved with the recent fire safety protocol.

Task 2

2.1 Introduction

The Building Codes of Australia popularly called as BCA is formulated and maintained by the Australian building code bureau (ABCB) with the consent and support from the government authorities. It offers technological data and other essential information required for building structures across Australia to be designed and constructed. It describes the minimum requirements, including structural safety, of appropriate health and safety. The BCA / NCC supports changing conditions of climate, geology and geography. It is released in three parts and an extract: 

  • Volume One has data about structures from Classes two to nine. 

  • The second volume has data about structures from Class one to Class tenth, including house, shed, garage and carport.

  • Volume Three mainly concerns the plumbing and drainage of all building classes.

  • Performance requirements obtained from the NCC's Volumes One, Two and Three and referred to as the National Construction Code Performance Requirements Extract.

2.2 Importance of BCA standards and its clauses

It is especially essential to incorporate the appropriate parts of the BCA for designing and constructing houses or corporate buildings under these four categories namely bushfire area, higher wind area, earthquake prone regions and alpine environment. When building development within these specified fields is suggested, it is essential to analyse project documentation to verify that designs comply with BCA demands. All Class 1 structures are to be built in accordance with the criteria of AS 3959 Construction of houses in bushfire susceptible regions. Variations may occur in the state or territory as stated in the BCA. AS 3959 offers a technique for evaluating a site's bushfire danger by categorizing the land including the slope and vegetation type current. The attack categories are: 

  1. Low 

  2. Medium

  3. High

  4. Extreme

It is also important to know that low-risk structures do not involve unique building methods

2.3 Stepping up in stories and efficient height

Clause C1.2(a) of the BCA describes the increase in stories as the largest amount of stories above the completed floor at any portion of the outer walls next to that portion; or, where part of the outer wall is at the allotment limit, above the natural floor at the appropriate portion of the border. A subterranean cellar is not regarded to be a storage.

Clauses C1.2(b)-( d) of the BCA provide further descriptions of what constitutes a storey.

Clause A1.1 of the BCA defines the effective height as the height from the lowest floor of the top floor to the floor of the road or the open space.

2.4 Construction type

The BCA needs houses to be built in accordance with Types A, B or C (except for Classes 1 and 10). Type A is the construction's most fire-resistant type, while Type C is the least. Based on the increase in storeys and the size of the fire compartment, the type of building applied is determined.

The table drawn below summarizes the building type in relation to storage increase. For Classe 5 (offices), 6 (retails) and 7 (carparks) houses

For each of the risk classifications, the BCA offers following building specifications under the list of each building component for households:

2.5 Requirements for building Bushfire

  • Floor system 

  • Extrinsic wall

  • Window 

  • Exterior door

  • Windscreen as well as weephole

  • Covers for roof, eaves and fascias

  • Roof lighting and ventilation

  • Evaporative coolers, duct and pipes

  • Verandas and decks.

For instance, the following building data is provided under flooring schemes:

A Region – Normal The concerned authorities and several other Australian constructions related standard provides a clear instruction for building development in the below listed wind areas: 

  • B Region– Moderate 

  • C Region– Tropical Cyclone 

  • D Region– Higher tropical cyclone.

It should also be noted that out of all such marked cyclone prone regions on the maps, there are elevated windy area. Higher wind area is generally accorded with speed which can be measured by using the norms of AS 1170.2.

2.6 Construction requirement for high wind

Additional instructions are given by the BCA to guarantee that structures built in designated elevated wind fields are supplied with adequate restraint to transfer wind forces to the floor to avoid collapse, elevation or sliding of footing structures. This is accomplished through the following: 

  • Proper anchorage system 

  • Brace system that provides adequate and lateral restraints

  • Properly linked structural components.

In cyclonic fields, for instance, metal roof systems and their connections and supporting members must comply with: 

a) AS / NZS 1170.2 or AS 1170.2 

b) be able to remain in place and resist any continuous harm that may happen under pressure in the sheet or fastenings.

A large portion of the private development is perfect with the structure of the tremor in light of the fact that the supporting used to give dependability against the breeze likewise gives solidness against earth development.

2.7 Specific requirements for construction in earthquake prone areas

Construction requirements for earthquake areas are necessary for buildings within areas of seismic activity. The two distinct regions are categorized by a coefficient of acceleration that is:

  • Equal to 0.12 but less than 0.15 (as detailed in BCA Clause 

  • 0.15 or higher (as detailed in BCA Clause

The acceleration coefficient is a number that indicates the earthquake ground movement's anticipated seriousness which can be simply determined by utilising the norms of AS 1170.4.

Any type of construction activity in regions which are more prone to earthquakes having seismic activities and coefficients lying in between 0.12 or even higher generally satisfies the performance criteria when: 

  • The site's soil profile does not exceed 5 m of smooth clay, loose sand, silt or uncontrolled fill 

  • It is confined up to one story

  • The roofs are not covered

  • It does not possess roof tiles 

2.7.1 When the coefficient of acceleration lies between 0.12 and 0.15

In order to meet the standard norms and other regulations, there are extra conditions to be met for structures in fields where the acceleration coefficient is between 0.12 and 0.15.

2.7.2 Coefficients of acceleration above 0.15

Buildings in regions where the acceleration coefficient is higher than 0.15 have the same footing, framed walls and roof framing requirements as those fields where the acceleration coefficient is between 0.12 and 0.15 in order to conform with building regulations.

Additional specifications for frame veneer and metal framing design are as follows: 

  • Extra information on wall plate (e.g. transferring lateral load between frame) 

  • Extra information on ways for fixing the internal wall to support cross walls.

Aside from this, the facade of outer dividers with 100 x 100 mm stirred metal work must be connected to the edge and the stone work facade must not be put over openings or in peaks. 

Elevated regions are portrayed as locales 1,200 m or progressively above Australian tallness (AHD) for NSW, ACT and Victoria and 900 m or increasingly above Tasmanian stature (AHD). Sub-snow-capped locales are NSW, ACT and Victoria 600-1,200 m and Tasmania 300-900 m. The BCA specifications apply only to alpine and subalpine regions where there is important snow load. Successive snowfalls are unlikely to accumulate in some sub-alpine regions and consequently the snow loads are not deemed substantial.

These regions involve BCA compliance with the following requirements: 

  • External door and ramps 

  • Bridge access

  • Firefighting vehicle access

For instance, a building's internal stairways, ramps, bridges of access or other trafficable structures must have: 

  • A floor surface consisting of steel mesh or other appropriate material if used as an exit

  • Any necessary railing (balustrade) or other barrier built so that its sides are not more than 25 percent solid.

2.8 Provisions for technical advancement

The BCA has demands to enable fresh and emerging construction techniques. Any fresh technology must meet performance criteria and this can be determined using the following techniques of evaluation: 

  • Documentary evidence

  • Verification techniques 

  • Expert judgment 

  • Comparison to considered to fulfil clauses

2.9 Material stability

Materials that are appropriate for their purpose must be selected. Each portion of the construction must be built in a way that meets all of the BCA's demands. In order to promote the use of the new technology, substantial proof must be given. It may be in the form of one or more of the following: 

  • A study published by a licensed testing agency 

  •  Present certificate of conformity or accreditation certificate 

  • A certificate published by a skilled technician

  • The present certificate awarded by a product qualifying body accredited by the Joint Accreditation Scheme of Australia and New Zealand

  • The present Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) product listing and listing in the recent problem of the Scientific Services Laboratory Register of Accredited Products

  • Any other form of documentary proof that properly defines it.

2.10 BCA standards for fire response

New techniques must show suitability and comply with the deemed fire resistance (FRL) provisions. These regulations are the provisions contained in BCA Section 3 that meet the performance criteria. It also states that new techniques must show suitability and comply with the regulations on early fire hazard indicators that are considered to fulfil. Clause A1.1 of the BCA gives the meaning of a flame compartment. A flame compartment can be any segment of a development isolated from the rest by obstructions, for example, dividers as well as floors with sufficient FRL or fire spread opposition with appropriately secured openings. On the other hand, if there are no such snags, it is the structure's complete space.

The kind of development required for a structure relies upon the most extreme size of the flame compartment, not just on the ascent in stories. The table beneath demonstrates the absolute floor region of any flame compartment in connection to building type and building class. BCA Table C2.2 additionally shows the greatest amount of a flame compartment to be fulfilled for the Construction Class and Type regarded. Since the run of the mill floor-to-floor stature for low-ascent business structures is about 4.0 m, the overseeing zone is the most extreme floor zone, not the greatest volume. BCA Clause A1.1 depicts a flame protected stairway as a stairway worked inside a heat proof shaft that contains the floor and rooftop or top fenced in area structure. Moreover, in Clause D1.3(b)(iii) of the BCA, any required exit (for this situation the stairway) will be fire-protected except if it interfaces or goes through in excess of 2 back to back floors or 3 successive floors if the structure has a sprinkler framework.

2.11 Standard exit points

Exits from a building must be given to enable occupants to evacuate securely; with the number, place and sizes appropriate to: 

  • The range of travel

  • The number, mobility and other features of occupants

  • The function or use of the building 

  • The height of the building

  • Whether the exit is above or below ground level.

Exits may require exits or exits that are not needed. The amount of necessary exits is specified in BCA clause D1.2. There are usually unnecessary exits to enable simple motion in and around the construction. Indoor or outdoor stairways are one type of exit that offers vertical motion of occupants within the structures. Three kinds of stairs are useful to consider: I fire-isolated (internal) (ii) non-fire-isola

Task 3

3.1 Autoclaved aerated concrete types and uses 

Aerated concrete is produced by inserting air or gas into a slurry consisting of Portland cement or lime and finely crushed silica filler so that an evenly cellular structure is created when the mixture sets and hardens. Although it is called aerated concrete, in the right context of the term it is not really a concrete. It's a combination of water, cement and finely broken sand, as outlined above. Also known as aerated concrete is gas concrete, foam concrete, cell concrete. It was first developed in the 1920s in Sweden when an architect first combined with a small amount of aluminum powder the conventional concrete mixture of cement, lime, water, and sand. The aluminum powder acts as an agent of expansion that causes the concrete to rise, like bread dough. The outcome is a concrete consisting of nearly 80% air. Typically, AAC concrete is produced into blocks or slabs and used to construct mortared walls in a way comparable to that used for conventional building of concrete blocks.

3.1.1 Aerated concrete properties

The use of foam concrete has attained popularity not only due to the low density, but also due to other characteristics primarily due to the property of thermal insulation. Aerated concrete is produced between 300 kg / m3 and about 800 kg / m3 in the density range. Lower density grades are used for construction purposes, while medium density grades are used in the production of construction blocks or load bearing walls and relatively greater density grades are used in the production of prefabricated structural components in combination with steel reinforcement.

3.1.2 Types of autoclaved Aerated Concrete

On the basis of manufacturing process, AAC is generally classified into two different types:

  1. Gas/ aerated concrete:  It is a type of cellular concrete; created by injecting a gas-forming agent (generally aluminum powder) into a combination of a binding element (such as Portland cement or quicklime milled), a siliceous component (milled quartz sand), and water. As a result of the chemical reaction between calcium hydroxide and aluminum, the gas-forming method takes place; the hydrogen that escapes during this response leads the alternative to foam, which then hardens, maintaining a porous structure. Gas concrete is primarily used as a heat-insulating material, particularly during the manufacture of buildings ' outer fencing. Gas concrete density is 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 kg / m3; its compressive strength is 0.8,1.2, 2.5, 3.5, and 5.0 mega newtons per square meter (8, 12, 25, 35 and 50 kg per square meter), respectively. There are a number of varieties of gas concrete that vary depending on the type of cement or silica material used: for instance, gas silicate (cementing element, quicklime), gas-cinder concrete (silica component, heat and electrical power plant cinders).

  2. Foamed Concrete: Foam concrete is a kind of lightweight concrete made of cement, sand or fly ash, water, and foam. In the form of foam grout or foamed mortar, foam concrete is present. Foam concrete differentiates between air trained concrete and the quantity of air trained. The airborne concrete is 3 to 8 percent in the atmosphere. It also varies from the retarded mortar and aerated concrete due to the same proportion of trained air.

3.1.3 Applications of AAC

Some of the major beneficial applications of AAC are as follows:

  • Excellent material for soundproofing material and acoustic insulation

  • Highly resistant to fire and termite

  • Available in a variety of shapes and sizes 

  • High thermal mass storage and energy release over time

  • Recyclable material 

  • Easy handling and installation owing to light weight 

  • Easy to cut chassis and holes for electrical and plumbing lines 

  • Economic shipping and handling compared to concrete poured or concrete block

3.2 Rammed earth and mud bricks based earth wall

3.2.1 Rammed earth wall

Rammed earth is a sedimentary rock that is fundamentally manmade. Rather than being compressed under profound soil layers for thousands of years, it is created in minutes by correctly prepared mechanically compacting dirt. The compaction can be performed manually with a hammer-like device, with a brick-making press operated by the lever, or with an air-driven tamping instrument pneumatically. In addition to compressing the soil, dynamic compaction using manual or energy tampers also vibrates the individual dirt particles, moving them to the most tightly packed structure possible. Rammed earth is about as powerful as concrete when it is completed.  Houses constructed of rammed earth have several benefits over the building of wood frames. The walls are fire-resistant, rot-resistant, and termites-free. The strong walls are almost soundproof, 18-24 in (45.72-60.96 cm) dense. The huge walls assist keeps a comfortable house temperature, damping temperature swings that usually happen on hot summer days or cold winter nights. 

A rammed earth house can be comfortable with 80 percent less energy consumption than a wood-frame house when built and oriented to take the greatest benefit of solar energy. On the other side, the original building costs about 5% more than the building of wood frames because it is very labour intensive. Some of the significant benefits of rammed earth construction include superior thermal mass, temperature and noise control, strength and durability, low maintenance, fire proofing, load bearing and pest deterrence, as well as its beauty and building enjoyment with natural and environmentally sound material.

​​​​​​​Mud bricks wall

Basic mud bricks are produced by blending earth and water, putting the blend in moulds and drying the bricks outdoors. Straw or other powerful tensioned fibres are frequently added to the bricks to assist decrease cracking. Together with a mud mortar, mud bricks can be used to construct walls, vaults and domes. Moulds can be made of wood or metal, anything that can be shaped to give the bricks the desired size. Despite the reality that most of the world's structures are made of earth and it is one of the oldest known construction products, much remains undeveloped and poorly studied about its characteristics and potential.

Mud brick can generate load-bearing structures up to several stories high with dense enough walls. Vaults and mud brick domes demonstrate that it can be used in many circumstances other than vertical walls. Although its compressive strength is comparatively small, it can be used as an infill in a timber frame construction or for load-bearing walls. Australian mud brick structures are typically single or double storage. Eight stories elevated and more have stood for centuries.

Get It Done! Today

Applicable Time Zone is AEST [Sydney, NSW] (GMT+11)
Not Specific >5000
  • 1,212,718Orders

  • 4.9/5Rating

  • 5,063Experts


5 Stars to their Experts for my Assignment Assistance.

There experts have good understanding and knowledge of university guidelines. So, its better if you take their Assistance rather than doing the assignments on your own.

What you will benefit from their service -

I saved my Time (which I utilized for my exam studies) & Money, and my grades were HD (better than my last assignments done by me)

What you will lose using this service -

Absolutely nothing.

Unfortunately, i had only 36 hours to complete my assignment when I realized that it's better to focus on exams and pass this to some experts, and then I came across this website.

Kudos Guys!




  • 21 Step Quality Check
  • 2000+ Ph.D Experts
  • Live Expert Sessions
  • Dedicated App
  • Earn while you Learn with us
  • Confidentiality Agreement
  • Money Back Guarantee
  • Customer Feedback

Just Pay for your Assignment

  • Turnitin Report

  • Proofreading and Editing

    $9.00Per Page
  • Consultation with Expert

    $35.00Per Hour
  • Live Session 1-on-1

    $40.00Per 30 min.
  • Quality Check

  • Total

  • Let's Start

500 Words Free
on your assignment today

Browse across 1 Million Assignment Samples for Free

Explore MASS
Order Now

Request Callback

Tap to ChatGet instant assignment help

Get 500 Words FREE
Ask your Question
Need Assistance on your
existing assignment order?