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Apply Structural Principles to Commercial Low Rise Constructions

The device used here for surveying is total station and it is held up over an initial of known coordinates.

  • The instrument is first pointed towards different control point to make the device to the north as its the starting direction as a total station is made its normal to change the direction of the instrument to the north and resetting horizontal angle.
  • The angle and length from that control point to those points which essentially requires setting out are now fixed with the help of pegs.
  • With the help of total station , the required coordinates are marked into the software and distance to each points are located.
  • Next step is to determine the horizontal distance

Profiles are then studied by structural engineers to establish correct control points for drainage and other purposes.

The steps involved are

  • Deep excavation of trenches to lay out drain pipes.
  • Leveling of the top surface for concreting.
  • Correction of invert level by setting up pipe line.
  • Marking the corner pegs by positioning with the help of external optical instruments.
  • The line wall extension about 1-2 m.
  • With the help of fixing peg marking back a distance equal to half of the wall thickness at the end of extended line.
  • Each side of pegs are fixed by assuming 700 mm bucket that could be used for measurement of excavation of 600 mm.
  • Optical level may be used to compute the levels.
  • Study the finished floor level plan for better details.
  • Determine the required amount of post tops.
  • Traveling rods can be used for excavation and concreting when both profiles are in required place.

2.a The foundations used in this design as per the drawings are pad footing and strip footing. Pad foundation is mostly used for withstanding point loads from a single pointed area to structural columns. Strip foundation is used to withstand a train of loads distributed as from walls and other structures. It is an option that is suited to most of the soil types as long as they boast a suitable bearing capacity. Strip footings can, therefore, accommodate continuous support, which is most commonly seen level but can be stepped, to support linear structures such as load-bearing walls, pad footings, also known as pad foundation, are often shallow foundations too. However, when the g round and soil type are deemed suitable, they can be made much more profound. This instantly gives them contact from the strip footings, even though they ultimately serve a similar function.

2.b. The circular shape design is used such that they can reduce the amount of reinforcement compared to rectangular sections. It is more economical. In filling after excavation and structural analysis a particular load is taken into account for concrete structure (Other Contracts master Builder, 2014).

The footings should satisfy the conditions of biaxial bending, as the pressure distribution is linear.

The reinforcement provided is to support the load due to tension, sliding overturning and bending etc. Size of footing depends on safety against shear and deflection of the foundation as concentrated loads may be developed.

a. Construction method adopted can be with the help of bar benders for reinforcement bending, concrete foreman, helpers and engineers. These are for strip footing, having projections in the concrete. For support, reinforcement provided at the base. The of steel bars are placed in horizontal and vertical directions. Column footings may either be isolated or combined type.(Tendering for business contracts, 2014)

For pad footing construction a lean concrete mix of 1:8:16 is adopted throughout the length of the footing. For constructing pad footing, a bed of lean cement concrete of mix ratio 1:8:16 is laid over the complete length of the wall. The thickness and width may be kept constant for compacted soil concrete bed with pad footing may be dispensed within.

3.b. AS 2870–2011 Residential slabs and footings have complied under Australian Standard that can be used to design conventional foundations for residential construction. If the foundation does not fall into the standard site classification or building type, then it must be redesigned by a structural engineer. (Other Contracts master Builder, 2014)

4. Different types of slab joints are contraction joins, isolation joints and construction joints. An isolation joint is provided for differentiating adjacent concrete sections through which steel bars are provided.

A construction joint is provided for concrete placements and help the construction techniques.

4.b.Isolation joints can be provided near peripheral columns of the buildings to support it

5.a. First floors and upper floors will be supported with formwork in down floors.

5.b.Sequence of concreting floor slab involves activities

  • From bar bending of the steel reinforcements (for longitudinal reinforcements and stirrups).
  • Preparation and cleaning of surface for concreting.
  • Erection of formwork.
  • Cleaning the surface and placing of distribution reinforcements.
  • Reinforcement of beams and slabs can be held together in sites.
  • Pouring of concrete with the help of machines or ready mixed concrete through pipes.
  • Mixing the concrete by vibratory compactors.
  • Curing of concrete after 24 hours.
  • Removal of formwork after fourteen days

6.a.1 .The Building Code of Australia and Australian Standard AS3700 Masonry Code require the damp proof course or DPC to placed through the full thickness of the base of walls just below floor level to form an impervious layer that helps rising dampness out of the interior of the house to reduce lifting of tiles, and damage of walling. (Other Contracts master Builder, 2014)

6.a.2.Both the Building Code of Australia and the Australian Standard AS 3660.1 only require protection of the buildings and structural elements. This limited requirement can affect many other facets of buildings susceptible to termite attack. That is why this Code of Practice is so important.

6.b.1 DPC can be identified by having a look at the external wall. Thin black line could be observed along a distance of about 6 inches up to wall and running horizontally across the brick work.

6.b.2 The first step in fighting termite is alerting them, they could occur from soil and other food sources. Termites can be identified by carrying out the following steps. (EXPERTS, 2014)

  • Identify termite swarms. 
  • During installation, use rapid hardening cement and leave a small gap between soil and wood.
  • Reduce wall openings and tile openings that offer termites access to the structure.
  • Fixing the leakages in time.
  • Keeping vents same from plants.
  • Carrying out all the maintenance work in time.

Bibliography for Footing and Flooring Systems

"Other contracts - Master Builders". master Archived from the originalon 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2014-04-21.

"ABIC building industry contracts - Australian Institute of Architects". Retrieved 2014-04-21.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Building and Construction Assignment Help

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