The device used here for surveying is total station and it is held up over an initial of known coordinates.
Profiles are then studied by structural engineers to establish correct control points for drainage and other purposes.
The steps involved are
2.a The foundations used in this design as per the drawings are pad footing and strip footing. Pad foundation is mostly used for withstanding point loads from a single pointed area to structural columns. Strip foundation is used to withstand a train of loads distributed as from walls and other structures. It is an option that is suited to most of the soil types as long as they boast a suitable bearing capacity. Strip footings can, therefore, accommodate continuous support, which is most commonly seen level but can be stepped, to support linear structures such as load-bearing walls, pad footings, also known as pad foundation, are often shallow foundations too. However, when the g round and soil type are deemed suitable, they can be made much more profound. This instantly gives them contact from the strip footings, even though they ultimately serve a similar function.
2.b. The circular shape design is used such that they can reduce the amount of reinforcement compared to rectangular sections. It is more economical. In filling after excavation and structural analysis a particular load is taken into account for concrete structure (Other Contracts master Builder, 2014).
The footings should satisfy the conditions of biaxial bending, as the pressure distribution is linear.
The reinforcement provided is to support the load due to tension, sliding overturning and bending etc. Size of footing depends on safety against shear and deflection of the foundation as concentrated loads may be developed.
a. Construction method adopted can be with the help of bar benders for reinforcement bending, concrete foreman, helpers and engineers. These are for strip footing, having projections in the concrete. For support, reinforcement provided at the base. The of steel bars are placed in horizontal and vertical directions. Column footings may either be isolated or combined type.(Tendering for business contracts, 2014)
For pad footing construction a lean concrete mix of 1:8:16 is adopted throughout the length of the footing. For constructing pad footing, a bed of lean cement concrete of mix ratio 1:8:16 is laid over the complete length of the wall. The thickness and width may be kept constant for compacted soil concrete bed with pad footing may be dispensed within.
3.b. AS 2870–2011 Residential slabs and footings have complied under Australian Standard that can be used to design conventional foundations for residential construction. If the foundation does not fall into the standard site classification or building type, then it must be redesigned by a structural engineer. (Other Contracts master Builder, 2014)
4. Different types of slab joints are contraction joins, isolation joints and construction joints. An isolation joint is provided for differentiating adjacent concrete sections through which steel bars are provided.
A construction joint is provided for concrete placements and help the construction techniques.
4.b.Isolation joints can be provided near peripheral columns of the buildings to support it
5.a. First floors and upper floors will be supported with formwork in down floors.
5.b.Sequence of concreting floor slab involves activities
6.a.1 .The Building Code of Australia and Australian Standard AS3700 Masonry Code require the damp proof course or DPC to placed through the full thickness of the base of walls just below floor level to form an impervious layer that helps rising dampness out of the interior of the house to reduce lifting of tiles, and damage of walling. (Other Contracts master Builder, 2014)
6.a.2.Both the Building Code of Australia and the Australian Standard AS 3660.1 only require protection of the buildings and structural elements. This limited requirement can affect many other facets of buildings susceptible to termite attack. That is why this Code of Practice is so important.
6.b.1 DPC can be identified by having a look at the external wall. Thin black line could be observed along a distance of about 6 inches up to wall and running horizontally across the brick work.
6.b.2 The first step in fighting termite is alerting them, they could occur from soil and other food sources. Termites can be identified by carrying out the following steps. (EXPERTS, 2014)
"Other contracts - Master Builders". master builders.asn.au. Archived from the originalon 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
"ABIC building industry contracts - Australian Institute of Architects". architecture.com.au. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
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