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Research and Evaluate Construction Methods and Materials for Residential Buildings to Three Storeys - Task 1

Roofing and cladding materials

The performance requirements can be studied from P2.1.1 and P2.2.2 for roofing tiles AS 2049 and AS 2050 can be studied. For plastic sheet roofing AS/NZS 4256 part 1,2,3 and 5 recommends the specifications. For installation of roof cladding, the building is to be located in an area within specified wind speed which is not more than N3. For roofing materials flashing specifications, an be installed according to part 3.4.3 The roof beams and batten sizes may be provided according to Part 3.4.3 NCC and anti pointing device boards must be provided of all roof pitches less than 20 degrees and on all roof pitches where there are no eaves but fixed along the eave line from the top of fascia back to rafter and clearance of approximately 50 mm may be provided below the batten. The water which discharges from the valley or gutter may be prevented from penetrating into the tile by suitable spreader pipe, flashing, or proper sarking with a minimum width of 1800 mm. Mechanical fasteners are to be provided for tiles if it crosses the limiting value of wind forces. These are specified in AS 2050. The edge of the roof must be 1.2 m wide towards the field roof.

When using a clipped and the pierced fastening system it is necessary to employ anti capillary feature inside the lap in order to prevent the capillary action.

Flashing of penetration may be such that on completion of the installation the roof structure may be restored to its original strength with the help of roof trimmers and soaker supports wherever necessary. Clearance of roof member s may be provided in accordance with NCC part 3.7.3. The installation of metal sheet roofing shall be according to AS 1397.

Footings and structural systems

The specifications of footings and structural systems are specified in NCC Volume 2,2016 Table 3.2.5.2 of brief description with class A and class S sites. Concrete stumps may be designed under the provisions of AS 3600- design code for reinforced structures

The minimum compressive strength for footing and structural elements shall be 20 Mpa and provisions of steel stumps are discussed in AS 4100. The steel stumps shall be fully enclosed or sealed with a proper welded top plate. It shall be encased in concrete if the finishing is not less than 100 mm. The corrosion protection measures are enlisted in Part .3.4.4 NCC. The concrete stumps may be properly braced along full per miter of masonry brace.

The specifications of footings and structural systems may be such as the internal and external edge beams may be arranged to form a particular structural system under the clause 5.3.8 and 5.3.9 of AS 2870.10 % increase in spacing is permitted in one direction and 20 % in other direction. If the external beams are wider than 300 mm extra bottom bars may be provided which has a bar size of similar nature and 100 mm additional width. In the case of single leaf masonry, the wall may be constructed directly to a concrete edge beam and may reduce its width to 300 mm and 300 mm depth accordingly and reinforced with 3 bars of 8 mm dia reinforcements. Alternate reinforcement sizes may be designed according to provisions of AS 2870. internal beam details and spacing's may be as follows.

At the re-entrant corner where the external beam continues as an internal beam, the internal beam may be continued to a length of about 1 m into an external beam.

Services for building design

The environmental and ecological design methods are followed which meets the DTS provisions of section J, NCC 2019. The building may be provided with a curtain wall, the wall construction and glazing properties are to be effectively determined. The building is to be sealed at limited openings as there is a case of leakage of the air conditioning system. The standard variable air volume systems are designed in internal zones to ventilate the building. The ventilation and air condition system design shall only be according to the provision of NCC and relevant Australian standards. The lighting facility shall be provided with proper LED lighting throughout the building and luminaries are to be used along with office space. The corridor's walkways and bathrooms may be provided with proper lighting systems. A heated system with gas boilers may be provided for air conditioning and usage of domestic water. The climatic zone specification factors may be characterized only according to schedule 3 definitions and the extent and method of accompanying may be detailed for climatic zones. The insulation requirements may be provided by checking the R-value and U value specified under roof and floor dimensions in requirements of AS/NZS 4589.2 and wall glazing parameters and subfloor spaces may be according to section 3.5. The insulation devices may be provided in compliance with AS/NZS 4859.1 such that abuts or overlaps are provided for supporting members including studs, joints, and furring channels such that proper insulation is provided. The fire doors, smoke doors, and security doors may be provided and sealed according to requirements. Fire dampers shall be provided at appropriate locations, Airways, passageways, and stairways may be properly managed with fire isolations and provisions of NCC. Artificial lighting systems may be also provided in the above-mentioned locations and motion detectors shall be effectively installed in locations. The exhaust fans may be provided at conditioned spaces with self-closing dampers and as per requirements.

Research and Evaluate Construction Methods and Materials for Residential Buildings to Three Storeys - Task 2

the timber carport is a cost-effective and durable construction structure. It has high structural efficiency and can carry effective unit loads. This is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly material compared to steel or concrete. It maintains a pleasant level of humidity and prevents noise considerably. This can be drawn in any colors and material could be sliced upon requirements. the timber structure may be maintained if some problems arise due to weather conditions or climatic changes.AS 1684 specifies the requirements for timber construction. The DTS Provisions for access ingress and firer fighting equipment may be as per NCC fire safety requirements. fire resistance levels, fire compartment size, and protection for openings may be provided as per the requirements. The structure is stable with roof coverings by providing adequate connection between roof elements and timber columns. This is best achieved by choosing the best construction technique. Internal fire hydrants and water spandrels may be provided in carports under the specifications of AS 2419.1. The loads from the roof may be transferred effectively to the foundation through timber columns. Here load transfer mechanism is a direct load transfer mechanism from the roof and covering to the connection and column. And from column to foundation.

Steel Carport

Steel has a high strength to weight ratio. It has better structural efficiency and is often used as a major source in construction. it can often reduce huge wastages compared to other construction materials. Steel can be quickly erected in construction sites with only a few workers and a large portion of steel can be recycled. The structure is quite expensive and needs to be fireproofed correctly. The Steel code for design as per Australian standard is like 4100 for structural steel design as AS/NZS 4600 for cold deformed steel structural design. The Deemed to satisfy TS Provisions for access ingress and firer fighting equipment may be as per NCC fire safety requirements(NCC,2019). fire resistance levels, fire compartment size, and protection for openings may be provided as per the requirements. Fire alarms, smoke alarms, and fire fighting devices may be installed within the structure. The structure is stable with roof coverings by providing adequate connection between roof elements that may be truss and battens within steel columns. This is best achieved by choosing the best construction technique. Internal fire hydrants and water spandrels may be provided in carports under the specifications of AS 2419.1. As per BCA part 3.7, the fire separation measures and smoke alarms and other fire fighting devices may be appropriately installed to be protected from a huge fire.

Research and Evaluate Construction Methods and Materials for Residential Buildings to Three Storeys - Task 3

The building is intended to use strip footing as recommended and the masonry walls of the building may be supported on the strip footings. While we design beams with depth 700 mm or higher the internal footing may be provided at no more than 6, centers, and reentrant corners for the footing to the opposite external footing as continuous. Internal strip footings may be provided as of the same proportions. if the footings are wider than the specified width extra bottom bars may be provided of the same bar size and 100 mm additional width. Measurement of depth of foundation is equal to D plus 75 mm. The reinforcing bars may be according to compliance of AS 2870. the internal strip footing must be of the same proportion of external strip footing. The relevant Australian standards are AS 3600 for reinforced concrete design and NCC volume 2. Main products in the building including structural members footings, RC beams, slabs, columns, roof cladding materials, firefighting equipment, and smoke alarms, etc. These are to be installed only after following DTS provisions. The building material effectively carries the load from beams and slabs and transfers to columns. the column will transfer both dead and live load to the foundations. The environmental and ecological design methods are followed which meets the DTS provisions of section J, NCC 2019. The building may be provided with a curtain wall, the wall construction and glazing properties are to be effectively determined. The building is to be sealed at limited openings as there is a case of leakage of the air conditioning system. The standard variable air volume systems are designed in internal zones to ventilate the building. The ventilation and air condition system design shall only be according to the provision of NCC and relevant Australian standards. The lighting facility shall be provided with proper LED lighting throughout the building and luminaries are to be used along with office space. The corridor's walkways and bathrooms may be provided with proper lighting systems. A heated system with gas boilers may be provided for air conditioning and usage of domestic water. The climatic zone specification factors may be characterized only according to schedule 3 definitions and the extent and method of accompanying may be detailed for climatic zones.

The insulation requirements may be provided by checking the R-value and U value specified under roof and floor dimensions in requirements of AS/NZS 4589.2 and wall glazing parameters and subfloor spaces may be according to section 3.5. The insulation devices may be provided in compliance with AS/NZS 4859.1 such that abuts or overlaps are provided for supporting members including studs, joints, and furring channels such that proper insulation is provided. Fire alarms, smoke alarms, and fire fighting devices may be installed within the structure. The structure is stable with roof coverings by providing adequate connection between roof elements that may be truss and battens within steel columns. This is best achieved by choosing the best construction technique. Internal fire hydrants and water spandrels may be provided in carports under the specifications of AS 2419.1. As per BCA part 3.7, the fire separation measures and smoke alarms and other fire fighting devices may be appropriately installed to be protected from a huge fire. The drainage aspect and performance requirements may be studied under section 5 of AS/NZS 3500.5. The drainage system may be installed along areas adjoining under buildings as per surface water drainage conditions. The surface water may be diverted away over slab on the ground or over external finished surrounding surfaces.

The masonry structure may be supported on a strip footing or existing footing system. The internal strip footing system and foundation system may be provided with proportions of external footing and provision of side slip joints forming a double layer over polyethylene at the sides of footing. Infill floors may be designed with a concrete flooring system and brick pavings and stone flags may be provided and compacted to stabilized earth. An additional meshing system may be provided to control shrinkage in slab panels around openings and restrained regions. Concrete infill slabs may be provided with SL62 mesh to control shrinkage. If footings are wider comparatively extra bars may be provided of the same design and size. If footings are deeper then the number and size of the reinforcement may be increased at positions of deepened members. Alternate reinforcement sizes may be according to the provisions of AS 2870. The measured depth of the foundation shall be equal to D plus 75 mm. The building is to be sealed at limited openings as there is a case of leakage of the air conditioning system. The standard variable air volume systems are designed in internal zones to ventilate the building. The ventilation and air condition system design shall only be according to the provision of NCC and relevant Australian standards. The lighting facility shall be provided with proper LED lighting throughout the building and luminaries are to be used along with office space. The corridor's walkways and bathrooms may be provided with proper lighting systems. A heated system with gas boilers may be provided for air conditioning and usage of domestic water. The climatic zone specification factors may be characterized only according to schedule 3 definitions and extends and the method of accompanying may be detailed for climatic zones. The insulation requirements may be provided by checking R-value and U value specified under roof and floor dimensions in requirements of AS/NZS 4589.2 and wall glazing parameters and subfloor spaces may be according to section 3.5The insulation devices may be provided in compliance with AS/NZS 4859.1 such that abuts or overlaps are provided for supporting members including studs, joints and furring channels such that proper insulation is provided. Fire alarms, smoke alarms, and fire fighting devices may be installed within the structure. The structure is stable with roof coverings by providing adequate connection between roof elements that may be truss and battens within steel columns. This is best achieved by choosing the best construction technique. Internal fire hydrants and water spandrels may be provided in carports under the specifications of AS 2419.1. As per BCA part 3.7, the fire separation measures and smoke alarms and other fire fighting devices may be appropriately installed to be protected from a huge fire. The drainage aspect and performance requirements may be studied under section 5 of AS/NZS 3500.5. The drainage system may be installed along areas adjoining under buildings as per surface water drainage conditions. The surface water may be diverted away over slab on the ground or over external finished surrounding surfaces. When a stormwater drainage system is to be installed there are following factors that are to be considered which includes the provisions in diverting the surface water away to slab on the ground. The external surface may be finished properly and drainage must be proper to collect the wastewater within a slope of not less than 25 mm over the first 1 m or 50 mm over the first 1 m from the building. it was noticed while comparing the two conditions of S and M site that S site requires safer elements in construction compared to M site classification. This may be due to a reduction in bearing capacity and strength parameters of the soil.

References for Environmental Impact of Geopolymers

Habert, G., Ouellet-Plamondon, C., 2016. Recent update on the environmental impact of geopolymers. RILEM Technical Letters 1, 17-23.

Habert, G., Roussel, N., 2009. Study of two concrete mix-design strategies to reach carbon mitigation objectives. Cement and Concrete Composites 31, 397- 402.

National Construction code ,Canberra : Australian Building Codes Board, 2011-2015, v. : ill. ; 25 cmm v. 2. Building code of Australia. Class 1 and class 10 buildings.

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