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  • Subject Name : Criminology

Part 1 Crime Prevention Program

The prevention of crime links with the growth and deployment of policies and programs which have the objective to stop the crime before happening. This will assist in decreasing the long term and short term social and economic costs linked with crime and also with the system of criminal justice. The Australian Crime Prevention Council is a group of individuals, companies and departments who present an extensive range of interests in the branches of the criminal justice system, criminology, police, courts, prisons, corrections, mental health services, and ethnic minority team(Walklate, McCulloch, Fitz-Gibbon & Maher, 2019). The major aims of the council are:

  • Assisting and promoting crime prevention
  • Encouraging participation by citizens in crime prevention
  • Providing a page for the free debate on prevention of crime problems
  • Developing consciousness and improved understanding of the issues of crime and approaches accessible to avoid it.

The selected crime prevention initiative is “We Need to Talk- City of Melbourne”. This crime prevention initiative is regarding to prevent the violence against women in three specific settings like house, workplace and community. The community involves the city of Melbourne. For the house, this approach involves the facilities of counselling and information, refuges and constructing on pre-existing facilities. For the workplace, this approach involves information on the training and education of price, influence and occurrence of violence against women(Briggs, 2018). Other than this it includes the celebration and promotion of the White Ribbon campaign and growing the policies of the workplace and support processes of the workplace. For the community, this approach involves a series of actions which includes occupational opportunities, contributing and presenting community actions and events from associates like White Ribbon Australia.

Part 2 Rationale and Empirical Evaluation of The Program

The theoretical rationale which is suitable for this intervention is a crime from a gendered viewpoint. This theory relates to the crime committed against women. The crimes which come under this theory is forced prostitution, rape, forced pregnancy and genital mutilation. Generally, these types of crimes are committed when there is political instability(Briggs, 2018). The policies of prevention of crimes can attain important returns on investment for both the government and the society with regards to profits in health, justice, social capital and welfare.

Description of the Gender-Based Theory

Since beginning, the society is mostly male dominant. Men are considered as the heart of the nation since they used to utilize weapons and fight for country and glory. Men are regarded as the peacekeeper for the country. As soon as the women rose and came in power, there came a conflict in gender. Due to this kind of dominance, some of the theorists attempted to justify behaviours for men and women. But, still, there are problems among male-controlled living and women's rights(Walklate, McCulloch, Fitz-Gibbon & Maher, 2019).

Main Impression of Gender-Based Theory

The major concern about the gender-based theory is that the community is regarded as male-based or male-controlled. This means that the community authorizesmen in allpart of socialcommunication. For numerous communities, it is confirmed as truth since the usage of human rights by males, translating texts by males, and also many theories of criminology are conducted and researched by males. Because of this, it can be stated that males are more in power than females. The males requirecommunication much in the direction of support (Sutherland, Easteal, Holland & Vaughan, 2019). In contrast to this, as per the female’s perception, it can be stated that according to the theories it can be believed that the men do not understand the significance of women and gender roles in the community.

The perception of the gender-based theory is regarded as complex since there are numerous ideas regarding this theory. There is 5 growth in the perceptions of criminology which includes liberal, radical, post-modern feminism socialist and Marxist. These growth points apply to criminology to try and review present criminology tasks in these perceptions(Hooker, Theobald, Anderson, Billet & Baron, 2019). The linkage among the crime and liberation is not formed and proven till now.There might be chances to freedom from crime, yet the guilty party must have the option to work for those objectives, and endeavour to change themselves.

Reduction of Crime Through Theory

When people will start considering the females then the intensity of crime against women can decrease. Individuals will realize the importance of women and reduce threatening activities against women. The dominance of male over society will decrease gradually. This initiative will simultaneously increase the participation of women in different areas. This will help to increase confidence in women. This theory can reduce the differences among genders. With the help of such theory and initiative, the females will not struggle for equal treatment in all the areas of life. This would help to lead in the direction of the fundamental women's viewpoint of the theory(West, Muller, Clough &Fitts, 2018). There is a requirement that the women should properly take actions according to the novel, equal reputation in life. This can lead to gain force in life. In contrast to this, a female can choose to diverge from what is wronglike becoming desirous.

Features of the Initiative

The crime prevention initiative "We Need to Talk- the City of Melbourne" is a strategy which helps to prevent violence against women. The initiative is linked with the Gender-Based Theory as the motivation behind both is similar(Sutherland, Easteal, Holland & Vaughan, 2019). Both the theory and the initiative works in the direction of preventing crime and violence against women’s. The main feature of the initiative is that it sends a message to the society that any kind of violence against women is intolerable and the city of Australia will take steps to stop this from happening. According to the figures it can be seen that the violent behaviour of males toward females in Australia is very common.

Out of three females, one female is a victim of physical violence and out of five females; one female is a victim of sexual violence. Also, about 75 females die every year because of violent partner(Mulayim, Jackson & Lai, 2016). These are the most dangerous figure in Australia when it is known that violence is the main reason for homelessness amongst females and children in Melbourne. Another feature of the initiative is the job of making the city safer and comprehensive by altering the philosophy of violence, city design and providing services to susceptible people. This will assist Australia is taking a lively role in stopping male violence against females.

This intervention would not work as expected because the society is male dominating. The males are having a thought process which forces them to control the women. It has been taught to men that the female is financially and emotionally dependent on them(Chmielowska&Fuhr, 2017). The females think that their partners are their whole and sole and therefore their happiness depends on them. Due to these reasons, this theoretical rationale advises that the intervention would not work.

The effectiveness of the program can be influenced due to some factors. There are several initiatives for stopping violence against women but the women are hiding these things and not taking part in the initiatives. This is the biggest factor which can reduce the effectiveness of the initiative. The females fear to inform others about facing violent behaviours of their partners. They feel shy in providing details of the violent behaviour of their partners or rape cases(Sutherland, Easteal, Holland & Vaughan, 2019). Sometimes, the families do not support women in this. The family ignore the concerns of the females and tell them to hide such things from the outside world. A female also thinks that she will be in trouble if she takes steps against violence’s happening with her. In this way, the efficiency of the initiative can be influenced.

Peer-Reviewed Journals

The peer-reviewed journals which support initiative for stopping violence against women are:

As indicated by Powell & Webster (2018) the international and national research has recognised the particularly gendered nature of female violence. The women are victimized excessively by partner violence and sexual violence. Due to the violence against women, there is a requirement of targeting and giving considerable focus on the decrement and prevention of women violence efforts. In Australia, there is a developing and powerful focus on the outlooks of violence against females. The main target is the prevention of violence against females and observing growth in decreasing the violence.

A survey was carried out by the Australian National Community to approximate society-level understanding of violence against females. The main aim of this paper is to give an evaluation of the violence supportive outlook. In this paper, patterns are recognised in describing and calculating outlooks that contribute to violence against women. Also, it offersrecommendations for succeeding in the evaluation of violence supportive outlooks in Australia in the future (Powell& Webster, 2018).

As indicated by Blagg et al. (2018) the paper emphasizes on novel model envisioned for decreasing the women violence in remote societies. It depends on the views of the indigenous people who have faced women violence. The paper shows the qualitative research in 3 locations of Australia which includes Darwin (Northern Territory), Fitzroy Crossing (Western Australia), and Cherbourg (Queensland). This creates a network of location-based Aboriginal women violence policies which are possessed and managed by the aboriginal people and which are in link to the initiatives to decrease alcohol and emotional and social well-being. The initiative is prepared differently but it will help to reduce the violence in indigenous women(Blagg et al. 2018).

The claims made in the peer-reviewed journal paper are well supported by the presented facts. In the first peer-reviewed journal paper, it is described that women’s are victimized due to sexual violence and partner violence. To justify this point, a survey is carried out which helps to approximate the society-level understanding of violence against females. The paper evaluates the violence supportive outlooks of Australia. Similarly, in the second peer-reviewed journal paper, the focus is on the reduction of female violence in the indigenous communityof Australia, for which qualitative research is carried out in three locations of Australia.

Importance of The Theory in The Prevention of Crime

The theory is mainly based on the inequality of gender and violence against women's either physical or sexual. This theory is of great importance since it is against violation of women’s human rights. This theory works on stopping the violence against women since these violations are unacceptable as well as deadly. The violence done by man against women is a very complex crime which has many causes. The overall influence of the women violence in Australia is countless since it affects distinct targets, their kids, their relatives and friends, offices and societies. It can be said that there is no other harm in the lives of women other than the men’s violence.

Therefore, it has become very important for the Australian government to eliminate violence from the lives of women(Klingspohn, 2018). International agencies are also working in the direction of stopping violence against women. The United Nations declares the removal of violence against women as an act of gender-based violence which can result in sexual, physical or psychological suffering to women which includes actions like lack of liberty in private or public. Different types of men violence against women include:

  • rape and other methods of sexual pressure, unwelcomed sexual harassment, enforced prostitution and sex trading for the reasons of sexual misuse
  • Physical exploitation and violence like grabbing, stalking, slapping, kicking, hitting and beating
  • Dowry-related violence, feminine genital damage, and other practices which are harmful to women
  • Intimidation, cyber stalking, critical name-calling, humiliation, belittling, and other forms of psychological and emotional misuse(Walk late, McCulloch, Fitz-Gibbon & Maher, 2019)
  • Controlling behaviours like separating women from their family, relatives and friends, observing their actions, or limiting their entree to money and bank accounts, assistance, information and other sources

For these reasons, it is important to follow such a gender-based theory for reducing violence against women(Parkinson, 2019). The Melbourne city is playing a vital role in making the environment safe and sound for women, emerging public services and giving health and public facilities. With the help of this, an active role can be played in stopping men’s violence against women.

The initiative We Need to Talk- the City of Melbournecan be altered in numerous ways. One of the ways is to add disabled women’s in this initiative. It means that violence's should be reduced against disabled women's. This is an important modification as the disabled women's are more dependent on men and the men take advantage of this. Disabled women have more dependency on food and shelter on men. The theoretical rationale which is appropriate for this intervention is a crime from a gendered viewpoint. This theory relates to the crime committed against women(Rozmann& Ariel, 2018).

The initiative We Need to Talk- the City of Melbourne can also be applied for indigenous women. The crime against indigenous women should be put to an end. The government of Australia should focus more on the implementation of such initiatives.The activity is connected with the Gender-Based Theory as the inspiration driving both is comparative. Both the hypothesis and the activity works toward forestalling crime and savagery against women's whether disabled or indigenous(Walklate, McCulloch, Fitz-Gibbon & Maher, 2019). The fundamental component of the activity is that it makes an impression on the general public that any sort of viciousness against ladies is terrible and the city of Australia will find a way to prevent this from occurring.

The initiative “We Need to Talk-City of Melbourne” is overall a successful step by the Australian government. This initiative is very helpful in reducing the violence against women in three areas like home, working environment and society. There are different strategies for all three areas. The government of Australia should form more such initiatives and implement them successfully and strictly. It will help to reduce the sexual and physical crime level against Australian women. In this way, slowly and gradually the percentage of crime against women will decrease for Australia.

With the help of this report, it can be stated that there are various crime prevention initiatives which have been opted by Australia. These initiatives not only assist in the prevention of crime but it also makes the environment safer for the people. The Australian Crime Prevention Council contributes to preventing crimes in Australia and identifies the multiplicity of programs and actions that attain this goal. These snaps of certain modern instances of crime prevention validate how groups, persons, criminal justice organizations and other government organizations regularly support to the prevention of crime. The report considers one of the crime prevention initiatives taken by Australia which is “We Need to Talk- City of Melbourne”. This initiative deals with the reduction of violence against women. A suitable gender-based theory is described in the report which applies to the initiative.


Blagg, H., Williams, E., Cummings, E., Hovane, V., Torres, M., & Woodley, K. N. (2018). Innovative models in addressing violence against Indigenous women. Darwin, Australia: Charles Darwin University.

Briggs, C. (2018). An emerging trend in domestic violence: Technology-facilitated abuse. Australian Journal of Child and Family Health Nursing, 15(1), 2.

Sutherland, G., Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Vaughan, C. (2019).Mediated representations of violence against women in the mainstream news in Australia. BMC public health, 19(1), 502.

Chmielowska, M., &Fuhr, D. C. (2017). Intimate partner violence and mental ill-health among global populations of indigenous women: a systematic review. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 52(6), 689-704.

Hooker, L., Theobald, J., Anderson, K., Billet, P., & Baron, P. (2019). Violence against young women in non-urban areas of Australia: a scoping review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 20(4), 534-548.

Klingspohn, D. M. (2018).The importance of culture in addressing domestic violence for First Nation's women. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 872.

Mulayim, S., Jackson, M., & Lai, M. (2016).10 Domestic violence in Australia. Domestic Violence in the International Context, 45.

Parkinson, D. (2019). Investigating the increase in domestic violence post-disaster: an Australian case study. Journal of interpersonal violence, 34(11), 2333-2362.

Powell, A., & Webster, K. (2018). Cultures of gendered violence: An integrative review of measures of attitudinal support for violence against women. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 51(1), 40-57.

Rozmann, N., & Ariel, B. (2018). The extent and gender directionality of intimate partner violence in different relationship types: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Partner Abuse, 9(4), 335-361.

Walklate, S., McCulloch, J., Fitz-Gibbon, K., & Maher, J. (2019). Criminology, gender and security in the Australian context: Making women’s lives matter. Theoretical Criminology, 23(1), 60-77.

West, C., Muller, R., Clough, A. R., &Fitts, M. S. (2018). Have alcohol management plans reduced violence against women in Cape York, Australia?. Violence against women, 24(14), 1658-1677.

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