Answer 1. Case in favour: When number of police increases, law implementation agencies reply to crimes generally more likely to arrest criminals. When they are patrolling, they can also help stop crime by avoiding them from becoming criminals. As in the whole United States, a survey on a particular area found that the police increase helped reduce crime.1 Conclusion: Some politicians tried to solve the problem by watching the timing of local and state elections. The logic is that the next election affects the employment of the police, but in itself does not affect crime. So, you can show examples of more police having an impact on crime. Some researchers evaluated the results and showed that only a fraction of the 2000s decrease in crime was due to the increase in police personnel. a violent crime. Answer 2. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) stores good victim data. ABS reported in 2015 that the number of victims recorded throughout South Australia fell in the majority of crime categories between 2013 and 2014. Reduced or disabled by external factors.2 Various measures reflect the degree to which human resources are effectively deployed. Police must provide careful controlled researches to evaluate the relative efficacy and success of substitute deployment strategies.
1. Durand, Y., 2016. Police honour in management of Australia: and global teachings for combatting police misbehaviour. Police Practice and Research, 18(3), pp.302-307. 2. Zheng, Qiu, Z., B. Gao, Y. and Zhang, Z., 2017. Design & analysis of a analogous amalgam memory architecture for shielding in high-speed switches and routers. Journal of Communications and Networks, 20(6), pp.578-592.
Answer 1. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design is good design in reducing crime and inside and outside night clubs in CBD. CPTED has three approaches Natural, Organised and Mechanical. The natural approach affects staff, customers, and public behavior, so there is less chance of crime. An organized approach includes security guards, community patrol, or police who can act as guardians of business or public space. The mechanical method comprises the use of items such as closed-circuit TV (CCTV), counter barrier and alarm.1 CPTED is not about arrest or punishment, but about crime prevention. It focuses on designing the environment so that it is not attractive to potential criminals and less likely to be targeted by crime. While some CPTED approaches (such as CCTV) can help identify criminals, the overall purpose of CPTED is to prevent crime from occurring from the beginning. Answer 2. Social crime prevention is the most common goal, not to focus on the physical environment, but to influence the underlying social and economic causes of nightclub crimes and the motives of criminals. This method includes crime prevention actions that take a long time to produce the intended results depends on various factors. This may include activities to improve health, housing, and education outcomes, or community growth procedures to advance community cohesion. This crime prevention effort becomes more common in Australia (Weather burn 2004).2 This constructed on the hypothesis that by prevailing early development in young people, then they will gain large social and economic benefits over time.
1. Mihinjac, N. and Savile, R., 2018. Second Generation on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Social Sciences, 8(6), p.182. 2. Bruce O., D. and Gould, C., 2017. The war & the reasons of crime: Advocacy for social misconduct prevention in face of harder law implementation. South African Crime Quarterly, (30).
Answer 1. The data of the available victims shows that both youth and unemployment are groups, particularly vulnerable to violent crime. Most cases of physical violence occurred on the streets or in other public places. Many violent incidents and significant sexual violence and harassment were reported at Hostel, Shelter, and Squat. Alcohol and drugs were frequently mentioned in the description of violence.1 Violence has often been reported as an unprovoked attack, or as an eruption from a situation that gets worse. Weapons were rarely used (knives are the most frequently reported weapons). Answer 2. Youth violence can occur in various ways. Some children show problematic behaviour in their childhood, which progressively intensifies into more serious forms of attacks before and during puberty. 20% to 45% of boys and 47% to 69% of girls, who are serious violent offenders at the age of 16 to 17, are using something called the "Permanent Development Path of the Life Course."2 Character and behavioural factors that may predict youth violence are questions of mobility, impulses, inadequate control of behaviour and attention. However, tension and anxiety have a negative relationship with violence. The low intelligence and low achievement in school are consistently shown to be related to youth violence. Multiactivity, high-level bold or risky behaviour, and the lack of concentration and attention until the age of 13, all predicted the violence in adult years.
1. G. Spetere, S., 2019. From search to growth: critical replications on concepts of young people and crime in Australia. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 31(1), pp.111-121. 2. Niño, G. and Cai, T., 2017. Social Isolation, Strain, and Youth Violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15(3).
Answer 1. In the Child Court, a child who has been convicted can receive many sentences ordered by the court. As in the case of an absolute discharge where the court does not believe that punishment is necessary even if they are found guilty, a separate conditional discharge where a child is released on the condition that the child is free from the offender and the child is not in trouble for a certain period of time, usually between six and two years. However, if another crime is committed during this time, the court can consider not only old violations but also new ones. Therefore, in this case, the behaviour at the time of the arrest is good and the children can withstand the police officers, so they can be released conditionally. So, yes, according to the behaviour of this scenario, the children's court will work. Answer 2: The Children's Court is the representative centre of our answer to juvenile crime. The court is likely to dispense justice ¾ part to the victim, criminals as well as rest to the community and to do best. Overall, the studies of specific deterrence are consistent in showing that when young off enders are prosecuted in the adult court system, they are more likely to re- offend and to reoffend more quickly. As discussed in previous question, it depends on the situation of the crime and behaviour, so if any future offences commit by child it will consider old as well and, in this scenario, future offending of child bear some serious charges.1
1. Pelzer, P. Sydara, J. and Pengpid, S., 2017. Traditional, complementary & another medicine use inside community population in Lao PDR. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 13(3), p.90.1.2
Answer 1: The reliability of modern identification using CCTV images based on an functional test has been seriously questioned in this study and by some forensic and forensic scholars. However, the reliability of evidence in photography is still subject to many practical, scientific, and legal restrictions. Lack of transparency in the forensic report further exacerbates reliability issues when other forensic specialists cannot test the results further. Identification reliability issues are: (i) the method used by the anatomist; (ii) the misunderstanding of the evidence of the photograph; (iii) the misunderstanding of the concept (concept of identification) related to individualization; (iv) the lack of methodologies relating to photointerpretation; (v) the lack of methods or error rates; (vi) the inspection method is very subjective; (vii) the lack of transparency in forensic reports.1 Answer 2: CCTV has worked hard to solve many crimes. However, you may encounter many problems like i) Most cameras record in black and white, but most cameras do not record audio. ii) Poor quality images can be problematic from both defence and prosecution viewpoints. (iii) From the prosecution's point of view, cameras that take photographs at irregular times may not be able to catch any violation. Punch or kick. The defence often relies on this omission to establish a "reasonable doubt" regarding the delegation of the law. iv) From the viewpoint of defence, such images can omit defensive actions by the defendant or aggressive actions by the petitioner.2
1. Criminalistics and Forensics, 2019. CURRENT STATE AND PROSPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL WORK AND SELF-TRAINING OF FORENSIC EXPERTS. (64), pp.111-125. 2. Thimbleby, H., 2017. Misunderstanding in IT: Hospital in cybersecurity & IT problems influence the courts. Digital Evidence & Electronic Signature Law Review, 15(1).
Answer 1. Indigenous people in Australia have a much advance rate of contact with the criminal justice system than non-native peoples. Prison overcapacity, medical treatment, racial discrimination, gang activities, privatization, and violence are just a part of the problem. If too many young people are imprisoned, they are held in solitary confinement for 22 to 24 hours a day, and are stripped of their search, binding and chemical spray.1 These abuses cause physical injury, emotional trauma, and psychological harm and prevent healthy development. Young people in prison also face physical and sexual violence, aggravating the trauma imposed by isolation and separation from families, friends and communities. At the same time, in both adult life and life away from detention. Answer 2. Some reforms may change the current situation that affects the lives of indigenous Australian prisoners' aboriginal youth and adults.
For less risk criminals, more home detentions may be used, including electronic bracelets or anklets. Artificial intelligence, machine learning algorithms, and lightweight electronic sensors need to focus on high quality prisons, not volumes, to monitor convicted criminals on a 24-hour basis. Develop "open" prisons for low-risk prisoners who are not tied to walls. Prisoners can work and have to return to the facilities every night. Confinement is the first punishment. Education, art and collaboration must be a major activity. Each prison is a community. They are not convicted, so they cannot currently access internal training or education. We need to make them much less jailed through electronic tagging, and stop them from becoming hardened and actually feeling like a victim of the system. We have to provide prisoners with a clear opportunity to change for those who want to turn themselves around.
1. Submissions, S. and Holmes, A., 2016. The Overrepresentation of Indigenous Youths in Prisons: A Cycle of Victimization, Discrimination and Incarceration. INvoke, 2, pp.10-25.
Answer 2: These groups gained support in 1970s and became an alternative to prison because prison is too expensive and also there are some humanitarian concerns associated with prison. Community corrections programs offer some distinct advantages. Some key arguments in favour are: i) Cheaper alternative to incarceration ii) Reduce financial burden of increasing prison numbers iii) protect public but also punish, rehabilitate, and reintegrate the offender iv) lower risk of poor mental health outcomes v) Maintain employment, housing, and family life of an offender vi) Australia's Community Correction Service provides rehabilitation and treatment programs for criminals to manage anger, treat sex offenders, treat cognitive skills programs, and intervene in domestic violence. vii) Community programs can help reduce prison and prison congestion by giving convicted criminals the opportunity to complete.
These programs are drug programs, boot camps, or other fixes, or other forms of cost reduction.2 Answer 2: In Spite of advantages, there are some counter argument also there against these groups like: i) drug agendas on curbing it and boot camps may ease congestion by placing criminals in prison in programs that give them the opportunity to avoid imprisonment, but such programs may be filled with criminals who should have actually received less serious prison terms.1 This is called net-widening, and occurs when judges and prosecutors are filling up their program space with criminals who are not actually designed, but who do not necessarily require a very high level of care or intervention. (ii) There is a possibility that public safety will be compromised. Criminals can continue criminal activities more easily than if they are in prison or prison.
1. Murphy, Y. and Sapers, H., 2020. Prison Health as Public Health in Ontario Corrections. Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, 5(1), p.19. 2. Allred, F., Boyd, D., Cotton, S. and Perry, P., 2018. Participatory Evaluation in a Prison Education Program: Meaning and Community Building Inside-Out Think Tanks. Corrections, 7(0), pp.6-27.
Answer 1: The northern suburb of Adelaide is a hot spot for state attacks, and an exclusive analysis of Australian crime statistics shows that violent tragedies are spreading more rapidly in our outskirts. Alcohol-related violence increased at a lower rate than other communities, but still increased. Glenelg and Lonsdale are less congested, so the rate of domestic and foreign violence is less than that of Adelaide. Red spots of crime are larger in Adelaide, compared to other suburbs.1 The location of crime in the three suburbs clearly shows how the pattern defines how the crime rate decreases with the decrease in crowds and environmental conditions.
Answer 2: According to Robert Sampson's theory, In the sociology of crime, the term “collective efficacy” mentions to the capacity of members of a society to control the behaviour of people and groups in the public. By controlling people's behaviour, the community's residents can create a safe and orderly environment.2 Local governments and police can work with members and organizations of the community to take greater action to eliminate inconvenience and improve the effectiveness of the group. Aging houses and new businesses. Therefore, the patterns shown in the previous answer show that these measures increase the control of the community to the individual, thereby creating an environment that is less likely to cause violent crimes.
1. Brown, R., 2015. Crime prevention design in a vehicle registration system: a case study from Australia. Crime Science, 4(1). 2. Miller, B. and Morris, R., 2016. Virtual Peer Effects in Social Learning Theory. Crime & Delinquency, 62(12), pp.1543-1569.
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