RSA decryption and encryption are commutative; thus, it may be utilized directly as the scheme for digital signature.
For signing a message, calculate:
To verify the signature, compute:
Thus, message signed by the public-key owner. As the typical ID schemes, the protocols have three moves: prover sends the “commitment”, verifier sends the random challenge, then prover sends the “response” then the verifier rejects or accepts. This protocol is zero knowledge honest verifier and a knowledge proof of X, it easily follows and is secure against under the passive attack, considering RSA is one-way. The protocol appears to be secure against active attack, but because of RSA properties that go beyond the mere one-wayness.
Format of the IP packet as below:
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