Computer Science - Answer 1:

RSA decryption and encryption are commutative; thus, it may be utilized directly as the scheme for digital signature.

  • Provided a scheme for RSA

For signing a message, calculate:

  • Y in

To verify the signature, compute:

  • Y = mod N = mod N = X (mod N)

Thus, message signed by the public-key owner. As the typical ID schemes, the protocols have three moves: prover sends the “commitment”, verifier sends the random challenge, then prover sends the “response” then the verifier rejects or accepts. This protocol is zero knowledge honest verifier and a knowledge proof of X, it easily follows and is secure against under the passive attack, considering RSA is one-way. The protocol appears to be secure against active attack, but because of RSA properties that go beyond the mere one-wayness.

Computer Science - Answer 2:

  1. Security analysis against Passive attack – Some passive attacks are traffic analysis and message content release. The significant malicious node is MANET that implement the passive attack, without actively originating the malicious actions. The malicious node in traffic analysis attempts to study significant information from the system by listening and monitoring the communication among the nodes inside MANET. In the example this attack will work like when the sender sends the message and client responds, it listens and monitor all the messages communicate between sender and the client. If the attacker would able to find out that the node is important for the special functions, then it may switch the role from the passive to the active.
  2. Security analysis against Active attack – Active attacks contain attempts to break the feature of protection, and to include malicious code, and modify the information. Such attacks are mounted against the network backbone, in transit exploit the data. This attack outcome in the dissemination or disclosure of data modification or files of data.

Computer Science - Answer 3:

  1. Key Derivate formulas need a secret value, S from user A and a key identifier, D. Then it estimates the key derivate formula DIIS, probably containing other data in this estimation, for few KDF. Thus, is user B ask for the key the key identifier D, application executing KDF estimates key K as K = KDF(DIIS) and then return K value to requesting user A.
  2. Man-in-the-middle does not attack in the textbook protocol which is having two forms, one contains physical proximity and second one is malware. Diffie-Hellman protocol works in the above protocol because it shared the selected and shared keys that is random and can get generated from the subgroups.
  3. Insecure in the CK model contains below step: challenger creates the important pair, few security parameters, then publishes the adversary. Adversary needs any numerous encryptions. Then adversary submits two different chosen plaintexts. Then challenger choose uniformly at random. The adversary results the value and this is having non-negligible benefit in winning the above game.

Computer Science - Answer 4:

  1. Protocol is secure if the PK is publicly known by everyone because firstly K is random session that was chosen by B every time and secondly B has doubly encrypted the message, Also, PK is password-based key which was using encryption/decryption key. Also, in the starting both share the password which was used for encrypting and decrypting
  2. No, because if PK was generated freshly by A in every session then B should know the decryption password in every session. It is secure but sending the fresh password every time is complex and it may create the confusion

Computer Science - Answer 5:

Format of the IP packet as below:

  • IP version – shows the version of the IP
  • IP header length – shows the length of the header in 32-bits. Normally, IPv4 packets with length of header of 20 bytes.
  • ToS (Type of Service) – This normally set to zero (0)
  • Total length – shows the length, in the bytes.
  • Identification – includes an integer that recognizes the present datagram.
  • Flags – Includes 3-bit field
  • Fragment Offset – Gives the position in the bytes
  • TTL (Time to Live) – Specifies the maximum links number
  • Protocol – shows which protocol that is upper-layer gets incoming packets after processing of IP
  • Header checksum – 1’s-compliment hash, inserted by sender and updated every router that changes the packet
  • Source Address – Identifies unique IP address of sending node
  • Destination Address – Identifies unique IP address of receiving node
  • IP options – Permit IP to help different choices like source route, record route and timestamp. 

 Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Computer Science Assignment Help

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