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Cyber Security

Table of Contents


Digital Signature Algorithm..

Analysis of Digital Signal Algorithm..

Security Analysis of Digital Security Algorithms.

Alternatives for Digital Signatures.



Introduction to Contemporary Cyber Security Issues

Cryptography is used to define the process used to protect information and communication data with the help of certain codes such that the data can be encrypted and decrypted by the individuals and organizations alone who hold authority of data. These algorithms can be divided into two categories, symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography algorithms depending on the nature of key used in the algorithm. Symmetric key algorithms depend on the use of a single key for encryption process and decryption process of the data. Systems based on asymmetric key algorithms make use of a different public key and a different private key to encrypt and decrypt data (Hercigonja, 2016).

Digital Signature Algorithm

Digital Signatures are used to sign some data using encryption methods. It is a mathematical technique which is used to validate the authenticity of the data and the integrity of a message. The algorithm is carried out in three different processes. The first process is the digital signature algorithm key generation. The second process is the signing of the data in which the signers and the verifiers tend to agree upon the same hash function. In the verification process, after verifiers receive the message and digital signatures, the verification algorithm is used to verify the digital signature (Aufa & Affandi, 2018).

Analysis of Digital Signal Algorithm

The Walnut DSA which is a type of digital signature algorithm lacks the level of security it is aimed at providing as it lacks the proper choice of cloaking elements. This leads to easy removal of cloaking elements leading to formation of substitutes of the private key used by the encryption (Kotov, Menshov and Ushakov, 2019). The private keys generated by the algorithm must be stored using a secure mechanism, monitored when distributed and their validity should be checked timely. The process of generation and verification of digital signatures is also known for consuming huge time frames (Sharma & Mittal, 2019).

Security Analysis of Digital Security Algorithms

The key management schemes for algorithms lack appropriate amounts of security and enhanced security can be guaranteed by at the cost of an increased energy consumption (Yung et al, 2020). According to (Gregory, 2017), no operating system can provide sufficient security to produce digital signatures. The user should make use of security cultures which can facilitate the prevention of potential security problems.

Alternatives for Digital Signatures

The development of Signer Efficient Multiple Time Elliptic Curve Signature (SEMECS) can be used as a suitable substitute for embedded systems which are resource constrained by achieving optimal signatures and private key sizes for an EC based signature without making use of the EC operation (Yavuz & Ozmen, 2019). Code based public key crypto systems can also be considered as alternatives for quantum secure cryptography as a random codeword can be added to the system (Kuznetsov, Pushkar’ov, Kiyan & Kuznetsova, 2018).

Conclusion on Contemporary Cyber Security Issues

Cryptography has been implemented in many systems to ensure data integrity and security however many of these systems are prone to many attacks. Digital Signature Algorithms have been employed by systems to digitally sign pieces of data using keys but they too come along with some drawbacks. Decreased reliability and increased time have been the key disadvantages of DSA based crypto systems. Hence, there are many alternatives which are being used to provide better reliability and protection such as using a random keyword in the code and SEMECS.

References for Contemporary Cyber Security Issues

Aufa, F. J., & Affandi, A. (2018, August). Security system analysis in combination method: RSA encryption and digital signature algorithm. 2018 4th International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST), pp. 1-5. Retrieved from: 10.1109/ICSTC.2018.8528584

Gregory, K. (2017). Vulnerabilities of the usage of digital signature. Retrieved from:,digital%20signatures%20at%20the%20moment.

Hercigonja, Z. (2016). Comparative analysis of cryptographic algorithms. International Journal of Digital Technology & Economy, 1(2), 127-134. Retrieved from:

Kotov, M., Menshov, A., & Ushakov, A. (2019). An attack on the Walnut digital signature algorithm Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 87(10), 2231-2250.

Kuznetsov, A., Pushkar'ov, A., Kiyan, N., & Kuznetsova, T. (2018, May). Code-based electronic digital signature. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT), pp. 331-336.

Sharma, A. K., & Mittal, S. K. (2019). A comprehensive study on digital-signatures with hash-functions. Retrieved from:

Yavuz, A. A., & Ozmen, M. O. (2019). Ultra lightweight multiple-time digital signature for the internet of things devices. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing.

Yuan, E., Wang, L., Cheng, S., Ao, N., & Guo, Q. (2020). A Key Management Scheme Based on Pairing-Free Identity Based Digital Signature Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors, 20(6), 1543

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