• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : CST4025
  • University : Middlesex University
  • Subject Name : computer secience

Table of Contents

Blockchain Application

Use Case Diagram

Description

Applicability of lectronic auction in blockchain methodology

Class Diagram

Description

Actors

Assets

Transactions

Sequence Diagram

Unrestricted Transactions

Restricted Transactions

References

Blockchain Application

Blockchain in the easiest of terms is used to represent a chain of blocks. As per Reiff (2020), at the lowest level, it is used to represent a collection of blocks which are linked to one another using a chain. The blocks referred to here are nothing but pieces of information. A block is used to store some data which can be categorized into three subdivision. Some part of a block is used to store information about a transaction being carried out such as the date, time or the amount of the transaction. Then some part of the block is used to store information about the users or participants who are carrying out that particular transaction. Lastly the remaining part of the block is used to contain some information related to itself which distinguishes it from other blocks.

As per Mearian (2019), blockchain as a technology is a public electronics ledger created using a P2P system which is used by programmers and digital creators to from a record of transactions which cannot be edited once created. A block of data can only be edited by a mutual understanding between users or participants which form a part of the system and once new data is entered into these blocks it can never be erased. Although this technology has proven its mettle, it is still considered in its early days with its true potential yet to be discovered. Blockchains as a whole can be divided into two categories namely public and private blockchains. Public blockchains are those which do not depend on an administrator in the system to exchange data. In - fact each user which is a member of such a blockchain is an administrator himself. The second form of blockchain is private blockchain which allows users or companies to monitor these chains by being the administrator themselves. They can also monitor shared chains of data within the company or with other companies in the network.

According to Rosic (2017), hyperledger which is often mistaken as to be a type of blockchain or compony that creates or monitors blockchains is rather a central hub which lets users create industrial blockchains. It is the combined effort of many users hosted by the Linux Foundation which promotes advanced inter – industry blockchain technologies. The users or leaders which have come about to create such a collaborative work belong to various industries including finance, engineering and manufacturing sector. The hyperledger has divided its work into 5 projects. The initial five projects include Fabric, Saw, Indy, Burrow and Iroha. Fabric is considered to be one of the most accomplished projects of hyperledger. It was planned to be based on a modular function architecture which would form the foundations of blockchains. Sawtooth was initiated by Intel and is based on a consensus algorithm which is known as the Proof of Elapsed Time. It is used to review data before adding it to the blocks present in the blockchain. Indy was a creation of the non – profit organization Sovrin Foundation. It was created to enable users develop digital identities and share these identities with anyone in the chain. Burrow is the only Apache Licensed Ethereum VM to exist. It holds a permissioned smart contract interpreter build to the specific Ethereum VM. It is used a platform for both cryptocurrencies and intelligent contracts. The last of the five which is Iroha is considered to be an outliner with hyperledger. It was created using the C++ programming and is used in blockchains which small or moderate amounts of data (Hardesty, 2017).

This is a blockchain hyperledger application which work on the auction of electronic products. Blockchain is a technology having blocks to store the data in high security because it is complex. The basic requirement is to use this kind of technology while there is most other type of traditional technologies because this makes application fast, secure and having transparency between any transaction. There are many pre-defined transactions is used which developing this application like permissions.acl this is a restricted transaction and there is a use of some un-restricted transactions also. Actors involved in this application is seller and buyer using blockchain without that there will be many actors. There is so many reasons for using de-centralized method because this is fast, secure, no third party involved too much in this application and level of transparency of transactions.

Use case diagram

Use Case Diagram

Description

Use case diagram describes the behaviour and set of actions done by actors while pursuing execution of an application and product because it describes the behaviour and structure of an application and product it also called behaviour diagram and structured diagram. In this diagram of use case the product electronic auction, there are four actors like seller, buyer, auctioneer and insurer. The work role of seller to give the list of products that are available for selling on electronic auction and he will set a base bid for every electronic product and role of buyer is to lock the required electronic product at time of auction. Auctioneer will help to sell or bid on product in front of buyers according to seller base bid. If this electron action product is a normal product or system then there will more steps for developing that is very time taken and there are more transactions that create security issues because we have to work with limited third party persons while closing a bid between buyer and seller because there are several information’s like regarding bid or seller or buyer transactions. Here, we also use an insurer that provide insurance policy and details about product insurance which buyer gone a buy.

Applicability of Lectronic Auction in Blockchain Methodology

So, we are using and developing product electronic auction by blockchain methodology because these method is transparent, secure and fast. It increases the security because there is no third party involved in this transaction, there is only seller and buyer which role like an actor and auctioneer role is to monitor or observe the transaction and close or lock the bid for buyer. Blockchain make this process secure and fast and no other person cannot get details about bid or seller or buyer information.

Class Diagram

Class Diagram

Description

Class diagram is a static model used to represent static model view on product or application. It describes the operations and attributes covered by specific entity in application and it also used widely in the modelling of systems and it contains interfaces, classes and associations (N.A. Tutorials point). In this class diagram of electronic auction there is a network between the actor like seller, auctioneer and buyer. In this process there are only two important parts that are electronics and their listing on action product by time to time and these actors of electronic auction and electronics and their listing make transactions but there are only two types of transaction in this project are: -

  1. Offer Bid :- Offer bid is like seller told auctioneer to add to auction products and then he offer base bid to all buyer.

  2. Close Bid :- Close bid is like when any buyer is ready to take the product on that bid.

Actors

Actors is a role played by user or administrator in a system you are working. There are actors in this project like buyers and seller for electronic items and there is an auctioneer which responsibility to offer the bid to buyers and close the bid on every product and an insurance person which having details of every electronic product like validity, insured amount etc. for buyer to give brief about the policy by which buyer will not get any problem. In this code we use these attributes: -

  1. Email Address

  2. First Name

  3. Last Name

  4. Residence Address

  5. Contact Details

And we use extend keyword to apply these attributes on every actor of project or product.

Assets

In this project there is two important process are electronics products and there listing, electronic products are products on which the whole project works and listing is to show whether the product is on sale or sold to any buyer like product is available or not. After working on these there is hyperledger in the project, we use

  1. N = number of electronic products

  2. N = number of listing of products

Transactions

It is a new record of change or exchange the data to some of two or more public addresses. It takes time to get verified and deliver the data to user address. There are only two types of transactions in this project:

  1. Offer bid :- Is the base bid provided by seller to auctioneer for every electronic product

  2. Close bid :- Is the bid amount on which seller finalize the product for his.

But transactions will to update it only create once by auctioneer on the basis of seller and buyer and update the list of products for list.

Sequence diagram

Sequence Diagram

Description

Sequence diagram is a UML diagram used for development or modelling the applications and products. It is usually used for show interaction between objects in application in sequential order. This modelling is widely used by software developers and business development employees.

Unrestricted transactions

In this project there is a use of some transaction

Unrestricted transactions : These transactions are visible to everyone to see and make modifications on that, there are two actors which use this transactions because product listing will be modify or add or deletion of any is done by both of the actors so the path between them is unrestricted (Spyralatos D. 2019). While working on blockchain hyperledger and development of the project, there is use of some more unrestricted transactions like

System ACL :- which allows all transactions to run on application

Network Admin User :- It grant full access of network administrator to users.

Network Admin System :- It grants full access of network administrator to system

In electronic auction the transactions between application manger or auctioneer and buyer, buyer to insurer and seller to action these are unrestricted because these transactions is updated time to time at every process or to deliver the some information to any user or client like electronic products update, electronic product features etc.

Restricted transactions

Restricted transactions means transactions that are working normally or visible from outside of execution of product but internally accessed by only some employees of the company that have authority to access that part because that transactions have personal data of employees and customers. In the process of every point of application there is are critical points which are very critical from security purposes that why we make them restricted for everyone and one few people have access those area of application because there is some important information or data is present. In this application ACL have a list of restricted transactions in a library that is permissions.acl (N.A. Restricted transactions ).

Permissions.acl :- It is the list of the permissions associated with class and objects. It gives or grant permission to users to access.

In electronic auction data transferred between seller and buyer are restricted that’s why anyone can’t acquire the data between transactions and make it private like Payment transactions are come in restricted transactions because it have client bank details or any other important information.

References

Mearian, L. (2019). What is blockchain? The complete guide. Retrieved from: https://www.computerworld.com/article/3191077/what-is-blockchain-the-complete-guide.html

Reiff, N. (2020). Blockchain Explained. Retrieved from: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blockchain.asp

Rosic, A. (2017). What Is Hyperledger? [The Most Comprehensive Step-by-Step Guide!]. Retrieved from: https://blockgeeks.com/guides/hyperledger/

Hardesty, L. (2017). What’s the Difference Between the 5 Hyperledger Blockchain Projects? Retrieved from: https://www.sdxcentral.com/articles/news/whats-the-difference-between-the-5-hyperledger-blockchain-projects/2017/09/ N.A. Restricted Transactions. Retrieved from https://www.lawinsider.com/dictionary/restricted-transaction#:~:text=Restricted%20Transaction%20means%20a%20transaction,all%20of%20
the%20assets%20of N.A. Retrieved from https://www.visual-paradigm.com/guide/uml-unified-modeling-language/how-to-identify-actors/#:~:text=An%20actor%20in%20use%20case,is%20external%20to%20the%20subject.

Spyralatos D. (2019). Blockchain Transactions. Retrieved from https://www.euromoney.com/learning/blockchain-explained/how-transactions-get-into-the-blockchain N.A. Retrieved from https://www.tutorialspoint.com/uml/uml_class_diagram.html N.A. Retrieved from https://www.uml-diagrams.org/use-case-diagrams.html N.A. Retrieved from https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/unified-modeling-language-uml-sequence-diagrams/

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