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  • Subject Name : Engineering

Contents

Chapter 1:

Chapter 2.

Research question.

Chapter 3:

Methodology:

Objective:

Literature review:

Design process:

Data required for designing:

Validity of data:

Potential findings:

Chapter 4.

Project management

Scope of the project:

Milestones and resources:

Challenges faced:

Communication Management:

Chapter 5:

Progress statement:

Bibliography:

Individual Project Proposal - Chapter 1

Introduction:

In the modern era of industrial revolutions, the technology is advancing day by day. Researchers and engineers are working to make life easy for the human kind. To get to the solution of daily life problems or all the other problems effort is being put day and night. This just doesn’t apply to engineers only but in fact the progress and effort is being made in every field either its medicine, geography, finance etc. now the science had made things possible which human mind couldn’t even imagine. It leaves you in the state of awe when you see what wonders human can do through science. For this advancement we must let go of the previous methods and keep searching for new methods or even improving the old one to get the best that we want. There are yet many milestones to be achieved and for that of course there is a lot of hard work and research needed.

 Like all the other fields engineering filed has also made advancement in the field of technology and modern innovations and ideas. The old techniques are being replaced by new modern techniques which are more convenient and easy to handle also at lower cost. Keep in mind that the progress in this field is never going to end. There is always a chance of an improvement and there are always new problems to solve and with new technologies like Internet of things and Artificial intelligence we have entered into a new area of advancement and innovations which was very difficult for a human mind to even think and perceive i.e. self-driving car. This car has inbuilt sensors and all the other feature which enable it to move without any harm as it senses all the factor of environment and road traffic and it can move without a driver. Now if we go back in time and tell a person in 19th century about this invention he/she would never believe us. But now we know we can make so many things possible if we kept moving on with the same pace in the field of science and technology.

To keep up with the modern technology we must know that there is constant learning and it won’t stop. The main aim is problem solving and we can sort out so many ways to solve it and as if now we have thousands of software’s and many languages and machines. Even if we just talk about languages there is python, C, C++, java, rust, assembly language etc. so if you want to excel in your field your mind must be open to learning and availing new opportunities. Everyone must have to adapt the new methods otherwise they will be left behind.

Now the world is moving towards renewable source and aiming at saving the resources and re using them so that there is less waste of energy. The renewable energy lowers the cost and it promises us a future which is clean energy. Mostly it involves solar and wind. The progress in this field is being made at very large scale as now there are solar panels on the roof top that can send power back to the gird depending on the climate. Sun rays are used to power devices, heat our homes etc. wind has almost become the cheapest source for energy in few countries. Then there is biomass energy, geo thermal energy, oceans etc. we have so many options to work on and make progress.

Dc convertors are also being introduced to make our life easier. Take is as ac to dc convertor, dc to ac convertor, dc to dc convertor they all make our ways convenient for us. They are very beneficial nowadays and are almost used in every machine. Dc to dc convertor works to covert one dcc voltage to another. They are also called switching and linear regulators (Modabbernia, Akoushideh & Fakhrmoosavi, 2019). There are many methods to use it. You can use it to convert the voltage to lower level or higher level. It can also supply negative voltage if needed. It depends on your requirement and you can make changes to it. In short it can do multiple of things. It has many major advantages like to avoid breakdown we can very conveniently increase or decrease the voltage. It can help in reducing the space of battery. Internal failures can also be avoided by using isolated dc to dc convertor as it does not transmit the input voltage to output. There are many ways to design these convertors and it becomes convenient if we already know the working principles and methodology of the convertors. We can shape them according to our requirement. For this we will have to proceed with working on both the algorithm and software design which will lead to the implementation in the hard form. But the costs and complexity of projects are increasing. With the increase in price there is an increasing pressure to minimize the time-to-market. As a result, validation and testing of these complex systems has become more and more important in the engineering process and design.

Validation of the framework was finished by non-real-time simulation of the idea at beginning phase in the plan, and by testing the framework once the plan is actualized. In Real time simulation the inputs are taken by algorithms and all the calculations are performed which are necessary to find the results and output of the system. It works same as the physical output so you can calculate the real values. Two scenarios are produced because of computing time as it is discrete. The two scenarios are based on complexity of model and on the fixed time. This gives Real Time Simulation the capacity to reproduce power electronic converter voltages and flow signals with a high-exactness level inside frequency range. Making it possible to do additionally progress concentrates without the need to have a physical model. Including additionally a security margin for the situation of control procedures and issue insurance conspires that will be actualized truly, bringing the plausibility of viewing critical operating points of the electronic converters without including any danger. One preferred position of the RTS is the ability to test control strategies in comparable states of a physical application, fusing impacts to the control plans like immersion, data acquisition delays, testing cycle and discretization. For this reasons Real Time simulations have a high acknowledgment level for specialists and architects, permitting to assess execution and soundness conditions beforehand to utilize a trial or genuine framework.

Individual Project Proposal - Chapter 2

Research Question

For the development and planning of an electrical power system, we use real time digital simulation. A powerful tool has been provided by high speed platforms and because of the computational capacity which is increasing for power electronic convertors. The tools are available especially in the areas of control tests, rapid prototyping, phenomena investigation protection and fault studies etc.

To achieve any output calculation regardless of the time offline simulations are used to produce the results which are valid. For solving the system model variables dedicated high speed processors are incorporated by Real Time simulation (Wai & Lin, 2005). It reduces the time taken in simulation of the systems which are complex as compared to offline simulators.

For applications in electrical vehicle charging or power electronics in general to reduce the complexity of the system we need to use Real time simulation for the purpose of simulating the system in Real Time and in connecting the model of RT digital to any part in both hardware and software form (Schmitt & Seifried, 2015).

Individual Project Proposal - Chapter 3

Methodology:

Objective:

The objectives are as following:

  • Gather data about testing of electronic devices with real time simulation
  • Design process involving the approach of the system with the real time simulation
  • Implementation of the processes in electrical simulator of Real Time Lab
  • Tackle difficulties in HIL simulation (Schulte, Kiffe & Puschmann, 2012).

Literature review:

Methodology of research:

Authentic search is the key to finding previous research relating to that topic. Now to find authentic research the following methods are used. The search engines must be very authentic and reliable. For this purpose, I have used IEEE explorer and Google scholar. All the articles and books having information related to real time dc to dc convertor were found from these two sources which are the most authentic and reliable. To get the relevant search for our topic certain keywords were used. The key words used are: real time, loop in loop, simulation, DC to DC convertors, and bi directional convertor. Then all the articles and journals were considered from 2005 to until now. No resource was used which belongs to year before 2005. This is done because we want to explore the latest research and as the old one are being improved day to day. Also it was made sure that nobody has done research on this particular topic. This process was done after the keywords were finalized. There were almost 69000 results but after considering the years of publishes only 7012 results remained. So after finding the most relative researches the resources were shortlisted to amount of 14 only with four or more citations. For literature review then this shortlisted research was used.

Body of literature review:

Design process:

To form a single complex system multiple sub systems are combined who have their own controller and load. It utilizes a plant and controller which are in a closed loop (MUGHAL, 2018). Feedback is send by the sensors which are used in closed loop (Wei, Lefeuvre, Mathias & Costa, 2016). Actuators are also involved in the interface. The figure is given below:

But for designing an engineer must follow the steps. They are four in number and they are as following:

  • requirements and specifications
  • design
  • implementation
  • testing

There are limitations in the workflow of the design. By the mean of text documentation information is communicated relating to the design. Errors can be finding on interpretation and it is difficult to understand if the information is based on text document. Due to the modification or addition as per requirement the design might change. But on the time of testing and development there will be new verification and development which will cause iterative loop which makes the system very inefficient.

Manual code is another limitation as it is based on specifications and required documents. It becomes very time consuming and also while implementation their might be a lot of errors. Also it becomes very difficult to ensure that the changes made are implemented or not which makes it less reliable and authentic.

To obtain the design and porotype in initial stages becomes very difficult in typical designing as it is manual design and it becomes very costly. Now this is a hug flaw as in this design and implementation are done in the end which leads to errors in the end there might be a lot of delays. Even the project can be jeopardized by this approach. But to tackle this issue the model based design is introduced which is an improvement to the previous model of the designing system. Unlike the typical design system here we have mathematical models which consist of graphs, system levels and block diagrams. By utilizing these model-based block and state diagrams, the design can be mimicked and refined iteratively until it meets the necessities. When the design is refined and approved, designers can consequently create code from the model, taking out the requirement for hand coding and the shortcomings that manual coding can present. Validation and Verification are led all through the advancement measure by coordinating tests into the models at any stage. This ceaseless verification and reenactment makes a difference distinguish mistakes early, when they are simpler and less costly to fix. The fundamental quality of model-based design measure is the utilization of simulation through all the phases of the design: from disconnected simulation at the detail and idea design stages, to RT simulation for fast control prototyping and design, and for testing and validation through equipment tuned in simulation (Sankarayogi, 2008). The iterative circle (indicate, actualize, design and test) is, thusly, enormously quickened.

Data required for designing:

Real implementation for a full-circuit model of the SST is a decent technique to test ahead of time control plans, transient on-state switching currents, delicate startup strategies, resonance focuses, among others; which is of particular enthusiasm for the design of these kind of higher recurrence converters, because of the utilization of diminished coupling inductances which commonly prompts the appearance of inrush currents (Shah, Azim Aijaz, Kikani, Shah & Sheladiya, 2011).

We will need close loop systems involving the actuators and the sensors with their interface. Then we will need to implement the model system design and implement it in real time simulation and see the results. We will do the off line simulation first and check the designs. Then we will be needing hardware in lop simulation and we will need all the models including the block diagram models. The hardware and software model both will be required. Interpolation algorithm will also be required for the real tie simulation to check the switching time accurately (Wei, Lefebvre, Mathias & Costa, 2016). Real time operation is maintained by the interpolation algorithm as it accurately simulates the events of switching.

Validity of data:

To ensure that the information we assembled would end up being substantial for our exploration we have taken 110 various examples from the information. Having such a high number of information would diminish the likelihood of blunder of our prediction model. We can likewise check the legitimacy of our information by looking at the aftereffects of one example with another comparative example and check on the off chance that the two of them coordinate one another or not.

Potential findings:

When the framework model is finished, the model would conceivably have the option to discover the factor of security by utilizing the plan boundaries precisely and without the utilization of dreary figuring’s which are additional tedious.

Individual Project Proposal - Chapter 4

Project Management

Scope of the project:

We have to study the operation of the simulation and al the sub systems involved in it. All the techniques relating to the interface must be studied. Then the circuit will be designed and analyzed and all the errors will be covered ((ISSDC2010), 2011). Then after the testing the system will be analyses again and the switching time will be looked over again.

The prediction model will be made with the closed loop to deduce the results and check the stability of the system and accuracy as well (Hameed, 2016).

Milestones and resources:

The milestones of this project are as following:

  • Understanding the concepts of real time simulation and getting familiar with dc to dc convertors
  • Making the system model basically the designing
  • Gathering data for the system model
  • Preparing and analyze data to input in the prediction model
  • Completing the prediction model until it gives the correct output for the prediction

As this venture doesn't utilize materials which are real life and which are to be tried and can be finished with already accessible information, the main asset required is simply the information and a PC framework that underpins the programming and running of real time simulation in dc to dc convertor (Pérez López, n.d.).

Challenges faced:

In this meeting of studies correspondence, the board has been truly testing. Because of the COVID and pandemic there were no up close and personal talks or meeting that occurred after the second seven-day stretch of initiation. All correspondence with the boss was done through email which causes trouble in truly understanding the conversation, explicitly on the off chance that one has not met their concerned supervisor in person even once. Another problem that I faced was of programming in MATLAB and as I did not have a strong grp on programming so it was very difficult for me to do such an advanced programming (Jing, 2014). I didn’t understand a lot of terms and logics but with research and practice I improved my coding and logic building.

Communication Management:

The following is the conditional arrangement to do the correspondence for the remainder of the task span. As the plan for the following meeting isn't set and there is a vulnerability of talk timings because of corona infection pandemic, the exact occasions of the gathering are not set.

subject

Chanel

Purpose

Ideal Time

Actual Time

Supervision meeting 1

By email/ MS Teams video conference

Clearing the milestones to be achieved

Week 1 of next session

-

Supervision meeting 2

By email/ MS Teams video conference

To show data preparation

Week 3 of next session

-

Project update

By email/ MS Teams video conference

Update the

model

Week 6 of next session

-

Supervision meeting 3

By email/ MS Teams video conference

Update on the model and comments for any changes that need to be made

Week 7 of next session

-

Result testing

By email/ MS Teams video conference

Making final report of the project and result testing

Week 9 of next session

-

Finalizing report

Email or video meeting

Getting comments for final report before submission

Week 10 of next session

-

Completed report

Email

Sending Completed project report for final comments

Week 11 of next session

-

Individual Project Proposal - Chapter 5

Progress Statement:

Till now I have basically narrowed down my project question and specified it to the modelling of a closed loop using MATLAB to find out the behavior of dc to dc convertor and its characteristics. This was done by taking a seminar on ‘Real time Simulation DC to DC convertor’ that was proposed by my supervisor. I have completed reviewing the literature for the project and might review some more literature before fully completing my project. Simulation circuit and control strategies have been finalized. The procedure for testing is also been mapped out. Sensors and actuators are also selected and the interface techniques used to interface it with closed loop are also finalized.

Bibliography for Design and Analysis of the Voltage Controller

Modabbernia, M., Akoushideh, A., & Fakhrmoosavi, S. (2019). Design and Analysis of the Voltage Controller for the Non Isolated Boost DC-DC Convertor. EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology, 7(1), 14-33. doi: 10.24003/emitter. v7i1.312

Wai, R., & Lin, C. (2005). High-efficiency, high-step-up DC–DC convertor for fuel-cell generation system. IEE Proceedings - Electric Power Applications, 152(5), 1371. doi: 10.1049/ip-epa:20045278

Schmitt, A., & Seifried, R. (2015). Real-Time Simulation of Elastic Multibody Systems with Application in Vehicle Dynamics. PAMM, 15(1), 75-76. doi: 10.1002/pamm.201510028

Schulte, T., Kiffe, A., & Puschmann, F. (2012). HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications. Electronics ETF. doi: 10.7251/els1216130s

Wei, J., Lefeuvre, E., Mathias, H., & Costa, F. (2016). Electrostatic Energy Harvesting Circuit with DC-DC Convertor for Vibration Power Generation System. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 773, 012045. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/773/1/012045

Shah, J., Azim Aijaz, M., Kikani, P., Shah, S., & Sheladiya, M. (2011). Validation of SST 300 bearing casing for SST 200 bearing casing in static load condition. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 3(7), 277-278. doi: 10.15373/2249555x/july2013/86

Jing, F. (2014). Real-Time Monitoring System for Moving Object Model Based on Matlab Simulation. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 608-609, 103-107. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.608-609.103

Sankarayogi, R. (2008). Software Tools for Real-Time Simulation and Control. Saarbrucken.

Pérez López, C. MATLAB control systems engineering.

IOP. (2011). 1st International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization (ISSDC2010). Bristol.

Hameed, J. (2016). REAL-TIME SIMULATION FOR PROTECTION AND SUBSTATION CONTROL WITH MATLAB / SIMULINK. Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences, 9(2), 73-84. doi: 10.24237/djes.2016.09210

Wei, J., Lefebvre, E., Mathias, H., & Costa, F. (2016). Electrostatic Energy Harvesting Circuit with DC-DC Convertor for Vibration Power Generation System. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 773, 012045. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/773/1/012045

MUGHAL, A. (2018). Real time modeling, simulation and control of dynamical systems. [Place of publication not identified]: SPRINGER.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Engineering Assignment Help

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