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Community Engagement Education Programme in Australia About Bushfire

Table of Contents

A critical overview of current research.

Research question.

Research hypothesis.

Independent Variable (IV) and Dependent variable (DV)

The procedure of Experiment

Testing of Hypothesis.

Internal validity.

External validity.

Ethical Issues.

References.

1. A Critical Overview of Current Research: Devastating Impact of Bushfires

  • Article 1

Methods: The concerned article has used community education and engagement method for ensuring the bushfire prevention and preparedness that is appropriate for lowering bushfire devastating effects (Phillips et al. 2016). However, in order to identify the awareness and success of the prevention and resolving ability of the people, the research has been conducted on 5-16 years old population of 15. Therefore, a qualitative interview study has been conducted in order to identify the level of art-based community bushfire resilience in the rural community. 

Findings: As per the interview a knowledge about existing bushfire knowledge has been gathered. By taking the youth art-based programme, the knowledge of children has not been increased. On the contrary, the children had enough level of awareness regarding bushfire which has been identified from the conducted interview. Along with this, the local communities have such a negative perception about fire control staffs and their preparedness of bushfire (Phillips et al. 2016). Therefore, the art-based programme cannot have a significant impact on the samples. However, the most effective strategy is Country Fire Management Authority supports to include community engagement awareness programme effectively. By taking youth workmanship based program, the information on youngsters has not been expanded. Unexpectedly, the youngsters had enough degree of mindfulness concerning bushfire which has been distinguished from the directed meeting. Alongside this, the neighbourhood networks have such negative recognition about fire control staffs and their readiness of bushfire. In this manner, the workmanship based program can't have a huge effect on the examples. Be that as it may, the best methodology is Country Fire Management Authority supports to incorporate network commitment mindfulness program in a successful manner

Limitations: The main limitation of the concerned study is an inappropriate choice of the sample which is quite young (Phillips et al. 2016). In the case of conducting community engagement education programme, the inclusion of youth of about 12-22 years would be more effective than the chosen population.

  • Article 2

Methods: The main method is the volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) strategy in the practice of foresting community for engaging bushfire control, prevention and preparedness. For this reason, the researcher has included survey method in its quantitative primary data collection technique. Additionally, pilot testing has been done for identifying the obtained result and its validity (Haworth, 2016).

Findings: The main findings of the thesis are the use of VGI and social media in order to increase the education and engagement of the community. For lowering the decay, hazards and loss due to bushfire, several aspects like effective communication, undermining community resilience by potential engagement of VGI, capacity increase for self-management and others. On the other hand, with the help of these aspects, the research data has been prepared with the help of survey and pilot testing (Haworth, 2016). For bringing down the rot, risks and misfortune due to bushfire, a few angles like powerful correspondence, sabotaging network versatility by the potential commitment of VGI, limit increment for self-administration and others. Then again, with the assistance of these viewpoints, the examination information has been set up with the assistance of review and pilot testing.

Limitations: It has been noticed the communities around the forest area of Australia have mostly consisted of aboriginal people and indigenous civilians. For them, most of the cases people are not prime users of social media (Haworth, 2016). Therefore, the inclusion of VGI based community education and engagement programme cannot be done effectively. However, this could be applied in the majority of the population but not in case of all people.

  • Article 3

Methods: In order to analyse the content, the researcher has engaged the two-stage qualitative research design which is effective for the research. The data valuation has been efficiently done by the researcher by identifying the annual reports and key performance indicators (Taylor, Ryan & Johnston, 2020).

Findings: The main findings if the concerned journal has been effectively understood which is community-based education and engagement programme is one of the most contemporary practices that have been engaged in different communities in order to conduct any kinds of emergency management (Taylor, Ryan & Johnston, 2020). However, among all kinds of emergency issues, a bushfire is the current most prior issue after the 2019 fire outbreak in Australia. Therefore, several Australian emergency management organisations of Australia are creating a missing link in emergency management and community engagement and educational programmes. On the contrary, social vulnerability reduction has become one of the prior issues. However, the inclusion of these programmes is still a challenging issue cause most of the people are not linking with

Limitations: the main limitation of the research is the lack of inclusion of statistical analysis method by which the examination can be verified (Taylor, Ryan & Johnston, 2020). As the two-stage method has been used, the inclusion of statistical analysis method is required.

2. Research Question: Devastating Impact of Bushfires 

How does the community engagement and education programme effectively enhance preparedness and reduce the chances of bushfire devastation?

3. Research Hypothesis: Devastating Impact of Bushfires 

H1: The community engagement and education programme is effective for enhancing bushfire preparedness of risk individuals.

H0: The community engagement and education programme is not effective for enhancing bushfire preparedness of risk individuals.

4. Independent Variable (IV) and Dependent variable (DV)

The independent variable of this research is community engagement and education programme which is required to increase the alertness of the people. the studies have indicated that due to the 2019-2020 devastating fire, several resources have been lost by Australia including wildlife and humans. Thus, the inclusion of CEP has become essential for people in order to engage in community-based awareness (Wu, 2018).

On the other hand, the dependent variable is bushfire preparedness that is dependent on the activities, skill and alertness of people which would be acquired by the CEP strategy.

In order to measure the data survey as a quantitative analysis will be conducted in case of independent data. On the contrary, the dependent variable could be analysed from secondary quantitative data that will be obtained from annual reports and news reports. It can be noticed as nominal data. With the assistance of factual information, the theory will be tried. In any case, past research and articles have consolidated the factual testing technique to build up the theory.

According to Zapf et al. (2016), the inclusion of nominal data is effective for a study in order to level all variables. Therefore, in the current research also, the inclusion of nominal data is effective for effectively measuring quantitative values. The notable features of nominal data are effective for identifying all statistical data of both IV and DV.

5. Participants of Devastating Impact of Bushfires 

The participants of the research are people of 25-45 age group who are situated in the location of forest areas which are prone to bushfire. About 100 random samplings will be done on the particular demography. This much population will be surveyed and the people who will do the complete set of questionnaire, they will be selected at the end. Any person will not be forced to participate and data protection policy will be provided with ethical forms. However, in order to conduct random sampling, the researcher will create a Google form and develop a set of questionnaire. This questionnaire will contain a set of closed-ended questions. By analysing the invalidate the unintended theory, the first result will be recognized. for this situation, the importance of the outcome will assist with distinguishing the theory in a viable manner. Making sense of the changes in result will be viable to annihilate the invalidated theoretical information. Then again, consideration of deductive methodology will likewise assist with annihilating invalid proclamation and the theory could be demonstrated.

6. Procedure of Experiment on Devastating Impact of Bushfires 

 The entire data collection and analysis procedure will be done in a quantitative method with a set of closed-ended questionnaire. Along with this, the answers of respondents will be plotted on graphs and tables. The participant's demography, as well as geographical location, will be presented at the beginning of the survey. In addition to this, Haworth (2016) supported and commented that with the help of the included primary quantitative data, data validation can be effectively done which is effective for proving the variables. However, it has been noticed, in order to established quantitative data, deductive approach with descriptive design needs to be included. With the help of the mentioned approach and design, statistical data will help to understand the existing theories.

7. Testing of Hypothesis: Devastating Impact of Bushfires 

With the help of statistical data, the hypothesis will be tested. Nonetheless, previous research and articles have incorporated the statistical testing method to establish the hypothesis. By eradicating the nullify the unintended hypothesis, the original outcome will be identified. in this case, the meaningfulness of the result will help to identify the hypothesis effectively. Figuring out the odds in the result will be effective to eradicate the nullified hypothetical data (Elsworth et al. 2009). On the other hand, the inclusion of the deductive approach will also help to eradicate the null statement and the hypothesis could be proven.

However, while testing the hypothesis, the researcher will conduct quantitative testing. In this method, the graphical analysis will be done in case of the tables of the survey questionnaire. With the help of respondent number and their answers, rating, as well as a percentage, will be provided. Along with this, these data will be plotted in Ms Excel sheet to develop graphical representation. 

In order to prove the hypothesis, several assumptions are to be considered among all variables the importance of IV and DV is high. In addition to this, methods of sampling, the shape of population, distribution of a sample, sample size and others are the assumptions of the hypothesis (Macken, 2019). The statistical testing has helped to achieve the statement of hypothesis effectively. After the inclusion of statistical method, the assumption of hypothesis can be proven.

8. Internal Validity: Devastating Impact of Bushfires 

The most plausible threat to internal validity is the response of the sample. The sample of the current test is crucial for identifying the outcome. Along with this, the hypothesis can be proven with the validity of the research. The possible and alternative data, as well as explanations, will be eliminated from the research. The relationship between outcome and treatment will be analysed from the research. The most conceivable risk to inner legitimacy is the reaction of the example. The example of the present test is significant for distinguishing the result. Alongside this, the theory can be demonstrated with the legitimacy of research (Eckles, Gordon & Johnson, 2018). The conceivable and elective information just as clarifications will be dispensed with from the exploration. The relationship between result and treatment will be breaking down from the examination. The aspects of randomisation blinding, random selection, experimental manipulation, and protocol of study are influencing factors of identifying internal validity.

9. External Validity: Devastating Impact of Bushfires

In references to qualitative data that have been obtained from the theoretical assumptions, the external validity will be identified. the generalisation of the findings that have been obtained from several research has been identified and evaluated effectively. Here certain factors are responsible for managing internal validity in an effective way such as psychological realism, exclusion and inclusion criteria, replication, the experiment of field, calibration or reprocessing and others. In references to subjective information that have been gotten from the hypothetical suspicions, the outer legitimacy will be recognized (Bertanha & Imbens, 2019). the speculation of the discoveries that have been acquired from a few research have been distinguished and assessed powerfully. Here specific variables are liable for compellingly overseeing inner legitimacy, for example, mental authenticity, rejection and incorporation rules, replication, the trial of field, adjustment or reprocessing and others.

10. Ethical Issues: Devastating Impact of Bushfires

In the current research work, several ethical consideration has been identified which are acknowledged by the researcher. Firstly, the researcher will consider data confidentiality while conducting the survey and random sampling. Any kind of demographic information will not be published which is included under the data protection strategy. On the other hand, participants will not be forced to conduct research and for that reason, more sampling could be done. as per the Human Research Ethics Committee, the ethical considerations will be incorporated. The Privacy Act 1988 will be ensured and the section 95A will be engaged under this research to ensure the privacy of the people (nhmrc.gov.au, 2020).

References for Devastating Impact of Bushfires

Bertanha, M., & Imbens, G. W. (2019). External validity in fuzzy regression discontinuity designs. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 1-39. https://amstat.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07350015.2018.1546590

Eckles, D., Gordon, B. R., & Johnson, G. A. (2018). Field studies of psychologically targeted ads face threats to internal validity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(23), E5254-E5255. https://www.pnas.org/content/115/23/E5254.short

Elsworth, G., Gilbert, J., Rhodes, A., & Goodman, H. (2009). Community safety programs for bushfire: what do they achieve, and how?. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The, 24(2), 17. https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=878221554870110;res=IELAPA

Haworth, B. (2016). ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL USE OF VGI FOR INCREASING COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN BUSHFIRE PREPARATION. Assessing the potential, application, and implications of volunteered geographic information in disaster risk reduction, 76, 40. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9e21/519aa619c5e8142d796a3945bf2bded933d4.pdf?_ga=2.20404987.25701663.1589199287-1717199639.1589199287

Macken, F. (2019). Community-based bushfire management in Victoria. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The, 34(4), 9. https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/7271/ajem_102019-04.pdf

nhmrc.gov.au (2020) Human Research Ethics Committees, Retrieved on: 3 May, 2020, From: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/research-policy/ethics/human-research-ethics-committees

Phillips, R., Cook, A., Schauble, H., & Walker, M. (2016). Can agencies promote bushfire resilience using: Art-based community engagement? Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The, 31(4), 51. https://ajem.infoservices.com.au/items/AJEM-31-04-16

Taylor, M., Ryan, B., & Johnston, K. A. (2020). The missing link in emergency management: Evaluating community engagement. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 35(1), 45-52.

Wu, Q. (2018). A dependent variable harmonically coupled chaotic system for a pseudorandom bit generator. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 173, p. 03074). EDP Sciences. https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijspp/11/5/article-p693.xml https://www.matec-conferences.org/articles/matecconf/abs/2018/32/matecconf_smima2018_03074/matecconf_smima2018_03074.html

Zapf, A., Castell, S., Morawietz, L., & Karch, A. (2016). Measuring inter-rater reliability for nominal data–which coefficients and confidence intervals are appropriate?. BMC medical research methodology, 16(1), 93. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12874-016-0200-9

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