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Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine - Question 1

a) Most prescription and recreational drugs may cause psychotic symptoms which may imitate severe psychiatric disorders. The drug-induced psychosis is related to arrests, suicidal thoughts, violent behavior and hospitalization. Psychosis is a health related condition that occurs when an individual experiences hallucinations and delusions and is mostly associated with mental diseases. Delusions happen when an individual trusts that there is something outside of the current happenings even though there are contradictions to the same. Hallucinations on the other hand are the perceptions of things are not there in real sense. Drugs can cause psychosis depending on the period of its use; for instance in our case study, Dexter started to develop psychosis due to long term take of amphetamines drugs.

b) The neurotransmitters associated with schizophrenia include Dopamine and Serotonin. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is manufactured in the brain and acts as a chemical messenger in the neurons. Dopamine is mostly produced when an individual is expecting a reward and the levels of the neurotransmitter may be raised if one is engaging in an activity with pleasure. Dopamine in the correct levels could make one have a good mood and it is good for productivity, learning and planning. High amounts of dopamine can make an individual to feel on top of the world for a while and if it is in excess levels, it can contribute to schizophrenia.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps in relaying messages from one part of the brain to the other. Due to its widespread distribution, it is believed to have an effect on the body and psychological functions. An imbalance in serotonin levels could have an effect on the mood of an individual which could cause depression. The potential problems include the lack if receptor sites that are able to get serotonin, and minimal brain cell production which are believed to cause schizophrenia.

c) A common manifestation of auditory hallucinations is hearing of voices whereby an individual can hear two voices discussing about him in third person. The voices may be perceived to be originating from the inside or the outside of the head of the patient. The areas of the brain thought to be involved in auditory hallucinations include; transverse temporal gyri, left temporal lobe (participates in vision and speech), globus pallidus ( control the voluntary movement), broca’s area ( participates in language and speech understanding), primary auditory cortex (involved in speech perception and hearing processes).

Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine - Question 2


Dexter should be provided with a safe environment by the nurses to receive their treatment. Respecting the individual space of the patient will help ensuring that the staffs attending to the patient are safe. The patient should be approached in a calm voice.

Motivational Approaches

The nurses should be able to practice the following strategies when dealing with the patient; coping with resistance, not arguing in front of the patient, demonstrating empathy by reflective listening, and supporting self-efficacy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

The nurses should use this strategy to promote self-control, social skills and self-efficacy to the patient being treated.

Dexter should be provided with a calm surrounding to help in the management of his condition. Providing a private room and having the same staff attend to him helps in the reduction of the confusion experienced by the patient.

Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine - Question 3


Droperidol side effects; the possible side effects include cardiac arrhythmia during its administration. The droperidol drug may cause the creation of alpha-adrenergic blockage, reduction in the presser effect of epinephrine and peripheral vascular dilatation. The effects could cause hypotension and reduced peripheral vascular resistance which could cause cardiac arrhythmia.

The other side effect is headaches due to the CNS depression in the midbrain, brainstem reticular formation and sub cortical levels of the brain by the drug.


Haloperidol side effects: the drug can cause lightheadedness and dizziness which may make someone to even fall down. An individual should therefore rise slowly from their lying or sitting position. The drug can also increase some specific chemicals made in the body which is prolactin.


Chlorpromazine side effects: blurred vision, feeling dizzy and sleepy, slow reaction time.

The other side effects include mood changes, breast enlargement, weight gain, constipation, problems in passing urine, menstrual difficulties and feeling nauseated.

References for Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine

Adams, C. E., Wells, N. C., Clifton, A., Jones, H., Simpson, J., Tosh, G., ... & Khokhar, M. A. (2018). Monitoring oral health of people in Early Intervention for Psychosis (EIP) teams: The extended Three Shires randomised trial. International journal of nursing studies, 77, 106-114.

Aust, J., & Bradshaw, T. (2017). Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 24(1), 69-83.

Farnia, V., Shakeri, J., Tatari, F., Juibari, T. A., Yazdchi, K., Bajoghli, H., ... & Aghaei, A. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of aripiprazole versus risperidone for the treatment of amphetamine-induced psychosis. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 40(1), 10-15.

Revadigar, N., & Gupta, V. (2020). Substance Induced Mood Disorders. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.

Tarawneh, R., & Cummings, J. L. (2017). Depression, Psychosis, and Agitation in Stroke. In Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (pp. 767-774). Academic Press.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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