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Evidence for Nursing

Table of Contents





Introduction to Exacerbation of Asthma

There are many long lasting diseases worldwide, a widely known chronicle illness caused by shortness of breath is asthma. A large number of infants who are younger than 12 years are suffering from secondary levels of asthma. As a RN, I have seen in many research studies and sources that most of the childhood asthma cases are unidentified by their parents. Sometimes pre high school level children have some common symptoms of asthma like continuous sneezing, coughing,severe breathing issues, allergy - these types of symptoms can only be diagnosed by a specialist in a proper way. I have been through by reading a research team report which was provided by specialists of pulmonology and childcare experts of pulmonology possessing the accompanying professional organizations OGP( Auatrian Society for Pulmonology) and OJ( Austrian Society for Pediatric and adolescent medicine). For additional queries and important information on this subject, I would like to recommend to the separate proportional segments of the GINA.

In case study of 10 years old child, secondary stage of asthma is a consisting of dissimilar or diverse constituents, caused or marked by a polygenic mode of inheritance dependent on a number of genes at different loci sickness with apt to vary and for the greatest part capable of being reversed the movement of air or dissolved gases into and out of the lungs routeway deterrent foundation on a continuing relating to the bronchi and the state of being inflamed. Some physical disturbances are the subjective evidence of this disease. In spite of the fact that, bronchial characterized by an abnormal degree of responsiveness as to a physical stimulus is repeatedly ongoing, the present GINA outline of policies are not extending for a considerable distance enclose this in the way of absolutely needed decision may be based on the act of identifying a disease from its signs and symptoms. 

Presently, to the state of consisting of dissimilar or diverse elements of asthma, a sum of units of variants of an observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment which may be perceived. To separate into kinds, classes or categories jointly engaging them might be in a particular manner which has significant and demonstrable bearing on the matter at hand. I have experienced many critical asthma patients' case histories such as asthma caused by allergy, asthma relating with nonallergic symptoms, critical asthma, adiposity asthma, old age asthma, asthma caused by few occupations, childhood severe asthma. Systematic arrangements by group of other expert organizations (ERS/ATS, European Respiratory Society) exhibit an inclination or tendency to concentrate further on a compound of involving direct observation of the patient and the physiology of abnormal states in a particular status or phase in which something appears or may be regarded ( e.g., eosinophilic/neutrophilic asthma, severe allergic asthma). The treatment of childhood asthma patients mainly focuses on the achievement of the most absence of necessity from physical disturbance.

Body: Briefly Present Each Paper and Their Main Findings. What Does the Research Show?

As a RN, we need to focus on anecdotes and their finding to help a 10 year old to subside his suffering which has graduated from asthma to bronchitis. Depending on meta analysis, reviews of medical journal and randomized controlled trial following findings are shown-

Paper 1- Christine Smith and Ran D. Goldman 2012- in their meta-analysis shows that a child of 5years or above needs to have 3to 9 tidal breaths to breathe appropriately with a drug delivery system using spacers. Using spacers or pMdIs(pressurized metered-dose inhalers) have larger deposits of drugs in the pulmonary system (10%to 40%). Study shows in case of severe exacerbation of wheezing reduces with clinical severe score(-0.44,95%CI -0.68to -0.20) with the use of pMDIs with spacer rather than nebulizer in randomized study where N=123(Smith & Goldman 2012).

Paper 2- Randomized controlled trial of salbutamol by Deerojanawang in 2005 showed that pulmonary indexes like volume of peak tidal expiratory flow to volume of total expiratory flow, time of peak tidal expiratory flow to time of total expiratory flow, compliance and resistance were measured using covariance where 24 children received salbutamol via MDI-spacer and 23 received via nebulizer. There was no statistical significance from using both the delivery approach but in case of MDI spacer (secondary analysis)there was sufficient increase in heart rate and showed p-value of 0.004,which is statistical significance to say that using of spacer in case of children is effective mode of drug delivery system as the children are more fussy and accumulation of drug happens in them mostly in throat region which can be avoided by using of spacer rather than nebulizer (Deerojanawong et al. 2005).

Paper 3- in 2016 in review of Vazquez Cordero's analysis in 1992 it was shown in RCT where 250 participants were considered to compare nebulizer versus spacer drug delivery system using spacers. Pulmonary index of forced expiratory flow was examined in the patients. The 1st study showed insignificant difference in both apparatus. However in secondary outcome was significant with the use of nebulizer where p=0.03. However, the data was insufficient and limited to focus on nebulizer, as it requires more time to consume the fridge and with precaution (Cordero, Sánchez & Alvaro 1992).

Paper 4-Meta-analysis of Geller shows that MDI and DPI delivery system of drug in case of children is more effective and efficacious as it provides low cost dose and is convenient for the clinician. In SAINT (Sophia Anatomical Infant Nose-throat mode) administer aerosol derived drugs into infants while sleeping is greater in case of using spacer but while awake nebulizer is 3times better (Geller 2005). However, in case of children it is obvious to use spacer as it provides supportive base for the children to inhale the drug properly so that it could reach the lungs through nasopharyngeal structure.

Paper 5- A Ikeda shows the use of volumetric equal dose of salbutamol in the treatment of acute asthma with spacers as it makes the tidal mechanism more efficient,safe and ready method but further investigation is required. I'm his recent study in 2017 by students where he contradicts his approach and pinpoints that in case of children below 15 cumulative dose of 400 micrograms through nebulizer is more methodical (Ikeda 1999).

Paper 6- Lodha and Gupta also points out the use of spacer is more systematic in case of children from 5-15 years . Their study included 153 children where 78 used MDi with spacer and 75 with jet nebulizer. In case of MDI with spacers showed changes in wheezing, oxygen saturation,PEFR,SaO2 score and accessory muscle score to be statistically significant (Lodha et al. 2004)

Paper 7- Most recent study of acute asthma in children in 2019 by Saudi Initiative also discusses the use of MDI spacer versus nebulizer. Where they have used Pederson et al analysis to show how efficient the spacer is in case of children as they are finicky and selective (Al-Moamary et al. 2019).

The overall emphasis from the studies and findings of the last few decades shows the ongoing research on MDI with space has its own adequacy and systemic application. Recent trend shows and reflects immense potential of space for children from age 0 to adolescent period. We are not looking into the halflife period of the aerosol that stays in the nasal aperture, oropharyngeal region or its way to the alveolus. We are looking at the potential capacity of the system device and its rate of drug delivery with proficiency and less drug accumulation in the respiratory system. Spacer has its mechanism of impaction, sedimentation and diffusion through the representative site of nasopharynx,small airways to alveoli products maximum dosing capacity. Pressurized canister, metering valve, actuator and mouth piece with boot provides great surface area to support the delivery of drug with less velocity and low particle size ranging from (5micrometer to .1 micrometer), thereby reducing the suspension of high particulates in upper airway as compared to nebulizer.

Conclusion on Diagnosis of Exacerbation of Asthma

As a registered nurse I would use an MDI with a spacer . MDI with spacer is more convenient, efficient,has less side effects and is more cost effective. It increases the satisfaction of both the parents and the children from treatment. It reduces the risk of infection from bacteria and other microorganisms. It produces accurate and reproducible drug dosing. Spacer acts as a reservoir for aerosol drug accumulation, which is inhaled by children or preSchool toddlers for 3-5 seconds, it decreases the velocity of the aerosol particulates that are inhaled so it does cause any certain nasal irritation from the inhalation process. The use of spacers doesn't require any coordination for children who are having muscular weakness or hand deformities. It decreases the drug deposition in the oropharyngeal region and helps improve distal drug delivery systems. MDI with spacer decreases the occurrence of tremors by 37% as compared to nebulizers. Whereas, in case of nebulizers, it requires a power source, it is a noisy and intimating machine to function as an inhaler. The delivery time of aerosol drugs decreases with compliance. It requires regular monitoring and maintenance. It has a large particle impact on the upper respiratory airway where it is absorbed systemically and has higher side effects. It is more expensive, has a higher risk of infection and the clinician is exposed to drugs while administering to his patient. The device has a variable rate of aerosol drug delivery and there is wastage of medication from this device.

References for Diagnosis of Exacerbation of Asthma

Al-Moamary, M.S., Alhaider, S.A., Alangari, A.A., Al Ghobain, M.O., Zeitouni, M.O., Idrees, M.M., Alanazi, A.F., Al-Harbi, A.S., Yousef, A.A., Alorainy, H.S. & Al-Hajjaj, M.S. 2019. ‘The Saudi Initiative for Asthma-2019 Update: Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma in adults and children’, Annals of thoracic medicine, 14(1), p.3.

Cordero, V., Sánchez, C. & Alvaro, M. 1992. ‘Comparison of treatment of acute asthma attacks in children with salbutamol dispensed by the Volumatic dispenser or by a nebulizer’, An Esp Pediatr, 36(5), pp.359‐362. 

Deerojanawong, J., Manuyakorn, W., Prapphal, N., Harnruthakorn, C., Sritippayawan, S. & Samransamruajkit, R., 2005’, Randomized controlled trial of salbutamol aerosol therapy via metered dose inhaler-spacer vs. jet nebulizer in young children with wheezing’, Pediatric Pulmonology, 39(5), pp.466-472.

Geller, D. 2005. Comparing clinical features of the nebulizer, metered-dose inhaler, and dry powder inhaler’, Respir Care, 50(10), pp.1313‐1322.

Ikeda, A., Nishimura, K., Koyama, H., Tsukino, M., Hajiro, T., Mishima, M. & Izumi, T. 1999. ‘Comparison of the Bronchodilator Effects of Salbutamol Delivered via a Metered-Dose Inhaler with Spacer, a Dry-Powder Inhaler, and a Jet Nebulizer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease’, Respiration, 66(2), pp.119-123.

Lodha, R., Gupta, G., Baruah, B., Nagpal, R. & Kabra, S. 2004, ‘Metered dose inhaler with spacer versus dry powder inhaler for delivery of salbutamol in acute exacerbations of asthma: a randomized controlled trial’, Indian Pediatr, 41(1), pp.15-20.

Mitselou, N., Hedlin, G. & Hederos, C. 2016. ‘Spacers versus nebulizers in treatment of acute asthma – a prospective randomized study in preschool children’, Journal of Asthma, 53(10), pp.1059-1062.

Smith, C. & Goldman, R. 2012. ‘Nebulizers versus pressurized metered-dose inhalers in preschool children with wheezing’, Can Fam Physician, 58(5), pp.528–530.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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