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  • Subject Name : Management

Table of Contents

Task 1

Introduction

Difference between Mangers and Leaders

Leadership Training

Evaluation of methods and techniques

Followership and the role of followers

Relationship

Critical Analysis

Task 2

Values and personality, power and influence

Concept of Values

Impact of Values on leadership

Implications of Cultural Difference

Relationship Analysis

Intelligence Influencing Behavior

Difference in Power and Influence

Different Sources of Power 

Critical assess of Leader’s Motivation

Task 3

Groups and Teams

Leadership as a group and team function 

Lead virtual Team

Leaders Influence Follower Motivation

Leaders Influence follower satisfaction

Relationship between Motivation, Satisfaction and Performance

Task 4

Influence of task factors

Influence of Organizational Factors

Influence of legal, political and economic environment

Task 5

Rational Approach to Organizational Plan

Emotional Approach to organizational Change

References

Task 1

Introduction

Leadership is a skill which is developed through experiences and knowledge (Martin, Danzig, Wright, Flanary and Orr 2016). These skills are needed to be gained and it depends on various factors such as personality, attitude, experience and many more. Leadership involves influencing people with an aim of achieving certain objectives. An organization can accomplish its objective through effective leadership. A leader’s effectiveness is directly related to his capability to motivate his followers. In addition to this, the engagement level of the employees in the organization is a factor of communication (MacLellan 2017). A leader should develop the necessary power to influence behavior in an organization to a certain direction. In influencing behavior, an effective leader applies strategies or tactics that are meant to change the attitudes of the staff, their beliefs, values, and how they act.

Difference between Mangers and Leaders

Management and leadership due to their differences are often used in the same environment, but they do not mean the same thing. The manager thinks slowly, while leaders think strategically according to the situations. The difference in viewpoint is that leaders are emotional and tend to depend on their subordinates. Administrators tend to follow guidelines and company policies. Administrators can also use the administrative functions to achieve their goals (Afsar, Badir and Kiani 2016). Loyalty is important to the leader. Team members are often more faithful to leaders than managers.

Leadership Training

Training and education are key to success. Leaders who use learning practices consistently and rigorously, significantly learn faster and achieves better results. The leader can learn through education and experience by the following learning practices:

  1. Taking responsibility for development and learning by your own.

  2. Positive intention while approaching to new opportunity.

  3. Using and seeking for feedbacks

  4. Clear understanding of development area and strengths (Bal, Arikan and Çalişkan 2016).

  5. Demonstrate curiosity and ask questions.

  6. Transformative listing

  7. Adaptive and flexible response to experience.

  8. Actively reflecting and practicing mindfulness.

  9. Experimenting new approaches actively to learning.

  10. Observing closely and learning from others.

Example of leadership training/educational opportunities are attending seminars and conferences for the interpersonal skill development, strategic exposure in workshops, university classes and meeting, Coaching and mentorship for micro-development training, interactive E-learning, and community involvement training (Kragt and Guenter 2018).

Evaluation of Methods and Techniques

The techniques used to measure and evaluate the success of leaders are feedback evaluation, business results, external audits, and customer assessment. Through the following techniques, success of a leader can be measured.

Feedback and customer assessment: It shows, how efficient and effective the leader is. The performance of a leader can be evaluated by carrying out a survey and asking questions from the teammates about the ways of leader to deal will certain problems and challenges. Feedback of teammates and customer reviews are the measures to evaluate the success of leader (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019).

External audits and business results: It shows the growth of the leader in terms of profit for the organization. Whereas success of the leader clearly reflects the success of teammates. Business and organization evaluate the profit rate to measure the efficiency of a leader.

Followership and the role of followers

Different type of followership are as follows:

Exemplary followership: They are actively engaged and take initiatives for their decisions. They exercise critical thinking skills and independency. They are the one which remains separate from the group and leader. They are the most effective.

Passive followership: They require supervision and are less involved in engagement and independent thinking. They also lack commitment to leader (MacLellan 2017).

Conformist followership: They follows the leader orders or decisions without any questions and interference. They are involve in engagement but lacks independent thinking.

Pragmatics followership: They sometimes questions the decisions of leader and remains stagnant in engagement and independent thinking.

Alienated followership: Critical thinking skills without being involve in group or organization and questions the leaders actions and decisions frequently (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019).

Role of follower: The role of follower is to follow a leader who have the same goals and possess their own talents, ideas and thoughts. Their role is to contribute and deliver the requirement in appropriate time (MacLellan 2017).

Relationship between Leaders and Followers

Relationship between leaders are based on mutual trust. The relationship of leaders and followers in dynamic. This relationship help both the leaders and follower to support each other and earn mutual benefits. The relationship is such that both needs each other. They work together in order to achieve a specific goal or task of the organization. The attributes of successful relationship between them include authenticity, trustworthy, supportive, and courageous. This factors plays a very important role in maintaining the relationship between leaders and followers. The environment in which leaders and follower work should be effective, motivating and encouraging. Working environment has a vital role in improving the efficiency of leaders and followers (Afsar, Badir and Kiani 2016). The followers should be appreciated and awarded for their extraordinary work. Motivating and encouraging environment helps in working hard and make the team productive. There are various ways to through which a leader can create a healthy working environment. Making the followers to ask questions, enabling them to speak and share their perspective, and appreciating their work can help building positive environment.

Critical Analysis

The leader plays a vital role in maintaining the relationship with its follower as well as maintaining the working environment. The leader as an individual contributes a lot which include motivating and inspiring others, providing coaching and training for development, identifying the opportunity and future needs of organization, enabling followers to share new ideas and experiences and helping followers to overcome various challenges and problems (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019). As an individual, the leader makes an efficient and effective team which is capable of achieving organization goal. Leader is the one who is responsible for managing the team and resolving the issues resulting in conflicts in the team. Leader binds the team together and make them work together to achieve a specific goal. Leader make sure that the object is clear in the minds of the follower and the working environment is suitable for high productive. Organization become successful, when leader is able to influence others to accomplish the organization aim (MacLellan 2017).

Task 2 Values and Personality, Power and Influence

Concept of Values

The concept of value in leadership is an idea that is drawn by the leaders on their own and which helps the follower by motivating them and providing direction to them. Leaders and followers are motivated by their values and they live their life according to their beliefs. Leaders use their values as a reference to create a vision for its team and to make decision regarding building an efficient and effective team (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017). In the same way, followers are also connected to leaders through their values. Value based leadership helps a leader to make authentic decisions that builds commitment and trust in employees and customers.

Impact of Values on Leadership

Value guides decision: Decision made by leaders which impacts the whole team. Leader can make decision faster and in easier way with greater confidence if he/she starts with values.

Values strengthen the ability to influence: Values are directly connected to passion and if a leader communicate with passion, message will be more powerful and influencing.

Values create clarity: Leaders should have the clarity of the goal in order to achieve is effectively (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019).

Values reduces stress: When the decision is clear and is communicated in easy and faster way, the stress will be low.

Values guide actions: Leader actions are guided by his/her values. It is one of the important thing that a leader should consider while making decision.

Implications of Cultural Difference

Cultural difference directly impact the way in which the leader deals with his/her employees, how they interact and influence the team. Every aspect of leaders are affected by culture. Culture is one of the external variation through which the leader is engaged with its team enthusiastically. Culture show the personal reflection of an individual (Laurs 2018). Many researchers have found that if leaders and teammates have same cultures and values, they will make a great team. Every business has its own culture and values, and for better productivity and healthy working environment it is required that everyone should have the culture which is somehow relates to each other. Cultural difference affects the attitude and behavior of employees and leaders (Laurs 2018).

Relationship Analysis

The relationship between personality and leadership is such that both complements each other. A leader’s personality influence his/her leadership style, attitude, behavior and the way they observe certain things. Personality and leadership style are correlated with each other. Leadership effectiveness and performance are the results of personality traits. Personality has a great influence in binding a team together and encouraging them for doing harder work. Leaders are only successful when they have a positive personality. Personality is a quality that a leader does not learn through his/her experience, it is their quality that is inherited and comes from the family values and culture in which he/she had come from. Leadership style is a result of an individual’s personality (Kragt and Guenter 2018).

Intelligence Influencing Behavior

Generally, there are three types of intelligence that influences the behavior of leaders. These three forms and its influence are discussed below:

Emotional Intelligence: This type of intelligence influence the behavior of leader at the emotional level. It is the ability by which a leader makes a relationship with their employees at workplace. It also shows how the leaders control and monitors their emotions.

Social Intelligence: This type of intelligence influence the behavior of leader at the social level. It involve how the leader understands relationships, social situations and ability to solve certain issues in a given situation (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019).

Verbal Intelligence: One of the most important type of intelligence a leader needs to become successful. It show how the leaders interact with their follower and their ability and skills at academic level.

Difference in Power and Influence

Power is something that a leader use to show its superiority and forces the employee to carry out the job recommended by them. It is the action where, there is a disagreement of employee in spite of that he/she has to do that job. It is like forcing something on someone without considering their opinion and perspective. Whereas, influencing is a tactic used by leaders to make the followers to follow them, their decision and their opinion (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017). In this case, the followers are convinced by the leaders to do the required work while take their opinion and perspective into consideration. Leader’s power and leader’s influencing tactics are two different faces of coin which are differentiated from agreement and disagreement of follower or employees.

Different Sources of Power

Legitimate power: Power based on position or role in the organization which is determined by the organization hierarchy and structure.

Reward Power: It is the power which enables individual to distribute compensation and incentives in an organization. It has a close relation with legitimate power.

Coercive Power: This power is scary as people having this power can threaten some to stay long at office and may punish others for their poor performance (Bal, Arikan and Çalişkan 2016).

Referent Power: This power enables an individual to influence the behavior and decision making of others. This power has this ability because the other person admires, respect and likes the individual who can influence him/her.

Expert Power: It is the ability to influence other as a result of individual’s knowledge, ability and talent.

Critical assess of Leader’s Motivation

Motivation is an internal state which is responsible for making people to behave in specific ways so as to achieve certain goals and purposes. The outward manifestations are observable to people but motivation itself remains internal. The work place is one of the places where motivation is highly desirable. Coming up with effective ways to motivate the employees mostly poses as a major challenge for the leaders. This is in spite of the fact that highly motivated employees are key to the success of the business (Perryer, Celestine, Scott-Ladd and Leighton 2016). People in the work place therefore need to be constantly motivated to ensure that work is done efficiently. However, the people making up the workforce differ greatly from each other and as such; any one single motivational tactic may not work universally. Every person has varying reasons for working and their desires differ to a large extent.

Task 3

Groups and Teams

Collection of individuals who coordinates their individual efforts is called a group whereas a team is a group of people who have same goal and purpose (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017).

The stages to build highly successful groups and teams are discussed below:

Resolving Conflict: Manage conflict and disagreement in open, healthy ways. Teams need to be safe places for discussion, debate, and diversity of thought. Great team members encourage alternative perspectives both from themselves and from others and resist the cognitive storytelling and assumptions that may silence or ignore great ideas (Robinson 2019).

Celebration: Reward and recognize the team, not just each individual. Too often, incentives of team members are still about individual achievement. Team incentives, whether they are monetary or intrinsic, need to support the team effort and outcomes. Build ways to champion and catch positive contributions at an individual and team level.

Roles: Understand roles, responsibilities, and hand-off points between teams. Successful teams are clear about who leads meetings, who makes assignments, who follows through on assignments, and who can be expected to pay attention to team processes. Great teams clarify their relationship with other teams (Robinson 2019).

Decisions: Be clear on who and how decisions are made and communicated. Using a variety of consultative, authoritative, and collaborative approaches can help teams be most successful. Great teams also assign clear decision making rights to all or select team members based on the topic, expertise, and urgency of the issue (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019).

Flexibility: Have a learning mindset to be adaptable and challenge the status quo. Great teams maintain a healthy balance between respecting current practices while keeping an open eye to new ways of doing things. They have a learning instead of a fixed way of thinking, willing to  explore innovative approaches to improve the organization and better meet the needs of customers, shareholders, and employees (Robinson 2019).

Leadership as a Group and Team Function

An individual will be only called a leader when he/she has followers. A leader should be able to make its follower to work for a single goal or aim. Leadership is a function of team, whereas groups does not have any kind of leaders. Team always works on the path suggested by the leader and the opinion of leader matters a lot in a team. However, in group, every individual have their own mindset. Everyone puts their individual efforts and techniques to reach a certain goal.

Lead Virtual Team

To lead a virtual team, it is important to use the technology through which you can communicate from distance such as social media, internet, video calls, emails etc. To lead a virtual team, a leader can use facetime, google handout and other video catting tools. Structure is needed to be made in order to schedule meeting so that everyone is present. Leaders can also build a different platform specifically for being in contact with other team members. Proper coordination is required to lead a virtual team (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017).

Leaders Influence Follower Motivation

Ingratiation is another tactic applied by effective leaders and it involves the act of ensuring other people are in good mood before a leader attempts to influence the people. Ingratiation is at times regarded as flattery but it works if well applied. Personal appeal is also an effective approach that is applied by leaders, it involves the application of reference to friendship, and loyalty before a leader makes any request. The staff in the organization should feel they are part of the decision-making and consultation is crucial in achieving this. However, the workplace environment also influences the performance of the workforce (Bal, Arikan and Çalişkan 2016). Creating a harmonious workplace environment is therefore one of the ways through which employee productivity can be raised since this demonstrates that the inputs of the employees are valued and appreciated by the organization. Communication is the cornerstone of all successful relationships and in the organization, communication takes place between and among the various individuals (MacLellan 2017). The tone and language used to carry out communication plays a monumental role in motivating individual employees. When a superior uses motivating language, it results in increased efficiency in his/her management of the subordinates.

Leaders Influence Follower Satisfaction

Effective managers apply soft tactics in their leadership that are friendly to their employees, are not coercive and other people perceive this tactics to be fair to them (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019). Inspirational appeal, which is attempting to create enthusiasm amongst the employees by attempting to appeal to the emotions, value system, and individual ideals of the employees. Success of an influence tactic is based how the people who are the target of the tactic react, either by demonstrating compliance, being committed or resist in regards to the achievement of the objective. A leader who has power will effectively apply a number of influence tactics that leaders who have little or no power will not apply. The challenge to the leaders is assessing the best situation and the most effective influence tactic to apply to achieve the desired outcome (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019). . Consultation is also an important tactic applied by effective leader and it involves inviting of other people in the organization into participating in the decision-making, planning, and in the creation and implementation of changes in the organization.

Relationship between Motivation, Satisfaction and Performance

All the above factors are related to each other. Leader is required to motivate its followers to encourage hard work so that the employees get satisfied with their work resulting in high performance and productivity. Motivation, satisfaction and performance are the key factors which drives each other (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019). All of these are important from the perspective of organization wellbeing and growth. Leaders play a vital role in driving this factors as employees require both motivation and satisfaction from the job to enhance its performance.

Task 4

Influence of Task Factors

Task Independence: It influence the behavior and performance of leaders and followers very much as they have to depend on each other for proceeding with the task. It is defined as the extent to which the team requires interaction for the given task. Leaders and followers have to communicate and coordinate at regular interval of time after each step which disturbs their efficiency and regularity. Leaders and followers are unable to deliver their fullest due to task independency. It restricts them because if they proceed without interacting with other follower, it may result in inappropriate output (Kragt and Guenter 2018). It is required that no changes are made in between as the process of decision making is disturbed, which may result in development of various challenges and problems.

Task Structure: Task structure should be specific and clear. The leaders and followers are highly dependent on task structure because they strategies their plan in accordance with the structure of the task. Plans and steps are discussed in order to how to proceed (Laurs 2018). Change in task structure can result in making the leaders and followers to start from initial stage as every problem solving consist of steps that cannot be changed or skipped. The task structure has a huge influence on the behavior and performance of followers and leaders, if they are changed in between. Large tasks are broken down into smaller so that they become manageable and easy to solve. Making changes can have negative consequences that may result in increase in time for solving that task or issue (Bal, Arikan and Çalişkan 2016).

Job Characteristics: There are five job characteristics namely; feedback, autonomy, task significance, task identity and skill variety. These factors also has a huge influence on the behavior and performance of leaders and followers. It can help the leaders and followers to become more efficient and effective. Through feedbacks the productivity and accuracy of work increases, while with other factors, individual becomes more competent and self-sufficient for carry out a particular task. Leaders are defined by their job characteristic only. Job characteristic can lead an individual to become follower to leader, if these characteristics are used appropriately. Leaders and followers can also be evaluated on the basis of these job characteristic (MacLellan 2017). An individual can identify easily whether he/she is suitable for doing the task or job accurately or not, through these job characteristics. Change in job characteristics help leaders and followers to push their limits and enhance their skills according to the job.

Influence of Organizational Factors on Leadership

It impacts on the productivity of operational process. Organizational structure affects the leadership style by changing the way who the leader strive to achieve the desired goal. Leader’s communication style is also changes due to organization structure. Organization structure is a must thing that is required to be followed by everyone. It changes the individual’s leadership style and method of working and way of communicating with followers. Culture influences the decisions and actions of individuals, thus it has a potent effect on the success of an organization.

Leader’s need to understand that there are aspects of culture that manifest in employees’ behavior and attitudes. Success in an organization must be accompanied by proper and effective communication, which is in turn influenced by the existing organizational factors (structure, design, and culture). It is also important to understand that all employees have distinct personalities and experiences, which are likely to affect the patterns of communication (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017). Leaders who understands the organization factors are able to find the flow of the organization and if necessary, they can easily make changes within the organization. Culture in organization is important as it promotes commitment, guides employees’ behavior and decision-making, and provides justification for actions. In most contemporary organizations, it harmonizes all employees regardless of their culture, while at the same time developing and enhancing their individual attitudes and behaviors. A strong organizational culture (common consensus on the importance of values) is an essential ingredient for attainment of organization success, as it gives employees a sense of identity and a common goals, which are essential in order to attain organization success (Afsar, Badir and Kiani 2016).

Influence of legal, political and economic environment

These factors has an influence on how the leaders accomplish their goals. The leaders are required to be well informed about their competitors, customers and suppliers in order to determine the current economic and political factors that are affecting the market place. These factors influence the operation of the organization. Change in political, economic or social factors directly affects the organization growth and working environment. As a result of which, the leadership is also affected. Changing of these external factors changes the way the leaders strive to achieve their goals (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017). Change in market, introduction of new laws, change in the economy of the country has a huge impact on organization due to which the leadership style is required to change in accordance with the current ongoing situations. These are the external factors that are not in the organization hands. They cannot be controlled, only the thing that a leader can do is to change and accommodate his/her leadership style accordingly.

Task 5

Rational Approach to Organizational Change

It is a step by step and a systemic process of decision making. It mainly emphasizes on management and planning skills. This approach assumes that decision makers are well informed and objective, and the organizations are managed and economically based on them. This approach has several strengths and weakness. The strengths include in-depth analysis of alternatives, logical decision making, sequential process and decision is made without considering social or economic pressure (Laurs 2018). Whereas the weakness involves inappropriate information of time and financial constraint to manager, manager cannot predict accurate future and have limited ability to process information. Apart from this, it is difficult to quantify all the alternative which result in making comparison between alternatives difficult. The step of this approach are critically discussed below:

Stating Situational Goal: For a particular situation, first the goal is stated. Many of the approach does not begins with identifying goal because it may happen that decision is too made later (Laurs 2018).

Identifying problem: Problem is recognized and diagnosed in which cause, magnitude and nature of the problem is identified. The purpose of this step is to collect information in order to achieve the required goal.

Determining decision type: there are two types of decision types namely; programmed and non-programmed decision. In this step, the decision maker has decide what type of decision is to be chosen in order to achieve the goal effectively and efficiently. For both of the decision types, an appropriate decision rule is needed to be invoked and choices are needed to made from the alternatives available (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019).

Evaluate Alternative: It is important to evaluate the alternative so that the efficient and effective one can be chosen. They are evaluated on the basis of negative and positive consequences, costs and benefits, and strengths and weaknesses. It helps the decision maker to find which alternative will bring them close to the goal. The evaluation process follows three steps: a) describing outcomes of each alternatives, b) evaluating costs of each alternative, and c) finding risk and uncertainty involved with each alternatives (Moore Odom and Boyd 2017).

Choosing an Alternative: The best alternative is selected have least negative consequences and risk and highest positive consequences and benefits. It is one of the most critical step as the result totally depends on this decision. The alternative choice depends on logical analysis, experience, judgement and education of decision maker.

Implementing the plan: After the formal acceptance of decision, an approval for implementation is made. Implementation of plan include communication of plan, decision into action, finding supports and resources, acquiring and assigning the resources and tasks top individual to carry them out properly. It requires application of dynamics, reward structure and knowledge, leadership character spots, tremendous management skills, and sustainable use of resources (Bal, Arikan and Çalişkan 2016). It may also happen sometimes, that decision maker starts doubting about its decision after the choice he/she has already made. It is known as cognitive dissonance which indicates the experience of a person’s anxiety when two different perceptions or knowledge are contradictory or incongruent.

Control: it is the final stage of rational approach to organization change where decision outcomes are compared and measured with the predetermined goal or objective.

Emotional Approach to Organizational Change

It emphasizes on the presence of a crisis to drive organizational change, leader-follower relationships, and leadership skills. It also depends on the presence of crisis to drive organizational change. In this approach, the relationship between leaders and followers play a very important role (Kragt and Guenter 2018).

The emotional phases through which employees go through during organizational change are discussed below:

tabular representation of the phases of an employee during organizational change
tabular representation of the phases of an employee during organizational change

As a result of this organization change, Leaders employ transformational learning theory as a means to instill this new skill in the organization (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019). Transformational learning has majorly been used in adult education and rarely been used in an organizational context but its application is bound to work because it has been proved to work in aspects such as cross cultural experiences, interactive leadership and development, and active research projects by managers and leaders. Transformational learning should therefore be encouraged in the organization but this ought to be done in full support of the management, through the reaffirmation of accommodation of cultural diversity, training and development and action research (Bergner, Kanape and Rybnicek 2019). It is also important for leaders to let employees know their expectations in undertaking measures to organizational change. When employees comprehend the management’s expectations when employing new strategies, and are provided with the right tools for undertaking the strategy, they are bound to have an increased sense of job satisfaction when they accomplish the set goals. There are diverse and often conflicting demands by consumers, stakeholders, investors and employees as a result of organizational changes, that a firm must balance (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019).

This means that a good entrepreneur must be in a position to balance all these demands. Leader ensures that clear business values, culture and believe must accompany ethical codes of management and performance. Leaders also ensures that employees have a pro-work wage policy that enhances business good sense. Good remunerations attract quality workers who often remain in the firm for longer, it is a long-term investment and thus a benefit to the firm. Ethically justifiable form of payment is also very important. Ability to attract and retain better, more productive and loyal employees depends on how well a business is able to cultivate human resources. Most current firms have neglected this critical aspect of finding lifetime personnel to enhancing long-term business growth (Chaturvedi, Rizvi and Pasipanodya 2019).

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