• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : ENST90045
  • University : University of Melbourne
  • Subject Name :

Ecosystem Management

Table of Contents

Abstract 3

Introduction 3

Background 4

Aims & Objective 5

Research Question 5

Literature Review 6

Results Analysis and Discussion 9

Methodology 10

Data Collection 10

Sampling and Data Analysis 11

Ethics 11

Conclusion 12

References 13


The evaluation of the report is based on the role of management in controlling ecosystem and biodiversity in context to efforts in Australian organizations. The major focus of the research is based on the background of the problem and the intended solutions which can contribute to controlling it as well. The evaluation would also be based on the aims and objectives of the study which would contribute to supporting the research question as well. There are so many reasons which have to describe the importance of biodiversity. Biodiversity also contributes to representing the wealth of systematic ecological data which contributes and helps in understating the natural world with a diverse range of regions. The literature review would also contribute to discussing the findings of the research. Quantitative methodology is going to get utilized which would provide useful insights regarding the Australian Organizations as well. Data would be collected accordingly. The ethical issues which can come in the way of qualitative research would also be discussed. The conclusion will take place accordingly. 


The restoration ecology and ecosystem have been focusing on the promotion of biodiversity by safeguarding endangered species. The ecosystem services concept has contributed to so many fields that have provided them with a new and anthropocentric rationale that justifies the promotion of human well-being in Australian organizations. Ecosystem services have also penetrated the process of decision making with the contribution of public support for ecological restoration in the context of Australia. This process has taken place by examining the funding priorities of government funding, manager goals, and land managers for public awareness so that they can pay for restoration as well (Matzek, 2019). It has been assessed that there are some of the challenges in the institutions of Australia regarding the ecosystem services. There are some of the identifications which have proved that in some occurrence, the country has also incorporated some of the major occasions regarding the ecosystem facilities which have also formed the core of numerous collaborations which have deliberated the dependence of individual on ecosystems. 

In some other ways, it has been observed that there are some of the opportunities which are overlooked as Australia has been lacking effective institutions for considering the human-environmental interactions strategically. The term ecosystem can be assessed adequately, as it appears widely and gets used superficially often with the contribution of some services. The entire suite of services, beneficiaries, and benefits with the natural environment are expected to coexist for the long-term which is not methodically included in the process of management and decision making as well. There are some of the insights which are distilled which can be useful for the presentation of ecosystem amenities in other parts of the universe. Well-funded and stable regional natural resources with some of the basin management institutions have a vital role in the process as well (Pittock, 2012). 


There is a great role that management play when it comes to controlling the ecosystem and biodiversity as well. Ecosystems have a crucial role in adapting climate, air quality, water, and soil but at the same time management for changing an ecosystem process is support for one regulating service of the ecosystem which can provide co-benefits to other services as well. Historically, it has been evaluated that there are some of the major pillars of ecosystem management which contributes to controlling the environment in Australian institutions as well. These major pillars include ecosystem integrity, social principles, community and ecosystem sustainability, biological diversity, ecosystem health, and social values as well (Smith, 2012). 

Ecosystem management is known as the process which contributes to conserving some of the major ecological services and they also restore some of the natural resources while meeting some of the socioeconomic and cultural wants of future and current generations. The principal objective which has been contributing to ecosystem management is the effective and efficient preservation of the natural resources. This process is known as the holistic and multifaceted method which requires the most significant change for the human and natural environments that have been identified as well. Adaptive management and command and control management have contributed to the organizations of Australia as well for controlling the ecosystem and biodiversity (Smith, 2012). 

Aims & Objective

The management of the ecosystem is based on the ecological services and restore resources that are natural while fulfilling the political, cultural, and socio-economic needs of the future and current needs. Biodiversity ecological effects are discussed that are impacted by climate change via diversity, extinctions of species, enhanced greenhouse gases, and other local populations. The management of the ecosystem plays an essential role in the ecosphere process functioning and the wellbeing of abiotic and biotic components. The major aim of the paper is based on analyzing the ecosystem and demonstrate the spatial skills concerning the current patterns. The objective of the research is based on managing the ecosystem and biodiversity concerning the efforts of the Australian Organization. This will discuss the relationship between the living and non-living organisms that interact within the given environment (Boiral & Heras-Saizarbitoria, 2017). 

Research Question

What is the role of management controlling ecosystem and biodiversity in context to efforts in the Australian Organization?

Literature Review

Emphasis has led to the study of Emilie J. Ens and her fellow research members in 2015 based on the knowledge of indigenous culture in the management and ecosystem science in Australia. The study found 1325 bio culture available documents. The conservation directives of the environment throughout the world are posing greater inclusion and management knowledge on the global ecosystem. Countries like Australia, the US, and New Zealand have responded with the policy array and programs to enhance the involvement of indigenous. The study analyzed the main components of ecosystem management and science. The experiment warming using the heating wires that are buried can increase the speed of microbial activity and enhance the abilities to break down through tough materials. The researchers suggest that both philosophical and tangible engagement of indigenous people can promote the thinking of socio-ecological systems and facilitate greater progress towards the directive of conservation agreements (Ens, Pert, Clarke, & Clubb, 2015). 

           To understand the role of management in saving biodiversity and ecosystem, literature reviews on this study are very helpful. The research conducted by David Linden Mayer and his fellows in 2015 that describes the plantation at a commercial level can be used for novel ecosystems. The policymakers can take advantage of this type of plantation and can meet the challenges that occur in managing plantations. Commercial plantation of trees can further be helpful for the managers of resources and conservation biologists. As tree plantation is the novel terrestrial form of ecosystem worldwide. In addition to that, these areas are very much concerned about ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, and the role of wood protection. Tree plantations are the novel socio-ecological systems that gave benefit to the authorities that have to compare the natural forest stands with the narrow stand-based perspective. The management promotes these principles by adding plantations at the commercial level and on the larger landscape. The benefits of integrating plantation have enhanced the effects that are negative for the ecological system are decreased (Lindenmayer, Messier, Paquette, & Hobbs, 2015). 

         Another research is done on the research conducted on managing risks biodiversity and ecosystem by David A. Keith in 2015. In this research, the importance of the ecosystem was declared for human well- being and biodiversity. The understanding of risks for the ecosystem is very important so, IUCN Red List provides the infrastructure for the adaptable assessment of risk for freshwater, terrestrial, marine, and subterranean ecosystems. The Red List explains the criteria that apply to a wide range of ecosystems and their different types. 

         The study determines that risk management is valuable for making strategies to control an ecosystem. The elements that are included in the assessments of the Red List are the determination of dependencies and diagnosis of trends that affect the ecosystem. Evaluating the role of managing these variables can be used. These assessments are very important for the processes that are regulatory for the authorities of Australia and other countries. This study provides a range of assessments that can reduce the risk for ecosystem and biodiversity. The opportunities that Red List provides used to demonstrate different approaches to risk management (Keith, 2015).

            A research was conducted by the Karel Mokany and some of his research fellows on the purpose of integrating modelling of biodiversity composition and ecosystem function. There are two common types of spatiotemporally categorical models. These models tend to focus on the composition and function of an ecosystem. With the discrete literature, these modelling castigations are proficient separately regardless of the growing evidence of that usual system shaped by the collaboration of functions and composition. In this research, the approaches have examined that they have initiated to combine the elements of functions and compositions. The application and expansion of combined models of function and conformation faced some encounters, which include the system knowledge, biological data confines, and computational compels. In this research, a range of auspicious avenue which helps the researchers in overcoming the challenges (Mokany, 2016).

A research was conducted by the F. Dane Panetta and some of his research colleagues on action and impact verges for invasive plants in the natural ecosystem. The researches examining the effects create by the invasive plants on the native plant communities and have verified the nonlinear damage functions. The components of the community, like the species richness, do not impact by the presence of any invader until it has accomplished with growth in the profusion. It has been claimed that most of the destructive invaders can be resistors effectively by developing their growth in abundances at such intensities. It is because most of the studies do not involve the specimen over a huge range of damaging invaders as it is not possible to appraisal the incidence of threshold associations. The costs of the control of invaders increases with the abundances of the invader's ecological and economic deliberations are affiliated when the abundance of invaders maintain at the low level. By following such approaches, the negative impacts can be reduced where the impairment is linear (Panetta, 2017).

A research was conducted by Malcolm Hunter Jr. and some of his research colleagues based on two roles of ecological surrogacy in which one is management surrogates and indicator surrogates. Ecological surrogacy is using an element or process, i.e., ecosystem, abiotic factor, or ecosystem, which causes to characterize the other features of a biological system. Ecological surrogacy is an extensively used theory, but some of the applications of the surrogate idea have been contentious, it is very crucial to assess the worth of the various surrogates, in particular when the when potential surrogate might be useful in one but the other one not (Jr, 2016).

The research was laid by Peter R. Last and some of his research fellows on the purpose of a hierarchical framework for classifying seabed biodiversity with the application of forecasting and managing the marine biological resources of Australia. The planning and managing of the marine assets of Australia have a broader application at the universal scale. It is distinguished from the prevailing schemes for organizing marine biota by unequivocally by identifying the impact of large biodiversity arrangement at the tectonic or ocean basin (realm), atomic, and provincial scale (Last, 2010). 

Results Analysis and Discussion

In this research, the data collected from the recent studies of researchers. These recent researches support and provide guides to the hypothesis of this research. The study reveals that there are two types of spatiotemporally categorical models. These models concentrated on the configuration and the utilities of the ecosystem. Recent studies tell that the growth and the extension of the combined models faced some defies, which includes the computational induces and the system knowledge. The studies provide knowledge about the attack of the invaders o the community of the natural plants and reveal that it is a non-linear mutilation purpose.

 The constituents of the community, like the species richness, remains unaffected by the presence of the invaders. The native plants can resist the attack of the invaders by increasing their abundance. The studies reveal that the managing and organizing the marine of assets of Australia has the wide solicitation at the universal level. The studies reveal the two roles of ecological surrogacy, which includes the indicator surrogates and management surrogates. The studies give knowledge that ecological surrogacy has a broader scope, but some ideas about the surrogate theory have arguments (Sangha, 2019).

The results obtained from the second study shows that Red List provides all assessment that is necessary for controlling the biodiversity and ecosystem. A comprehensive explanation for removing the risks that occur in freshwater and all types of the ecosystem is given in the study. The role of management can be evaluated from the literature review of biocultural knowledge about biodiversity and the ecosystem. In addition to that, it shows the results of insight and review from Australia. The result conducted by that research was funded by the 1325 documents that were available publicly.

The researchers have analyzed the nonlinear functions of management and biodiversity. They used different approaches to analyze why biodiversity is valued by people. The monetary valuation that is deliberative pools the economic strength approaches in institutions. Biodiversity helps to cycle water and regulate the atmosphere. The studies discussed the contribution of ecosystem and biodiversity services to society. The rapid expansion of management resulted in forest adoption management and has been recognized thoroughly. Under the influences of substantial human, establishing forests can lead to ecosystem emergence and established states. 


Approaches based on ecosystem works with the local and government communities to implement and develop actions and policies contribute to the long-term climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Based on the objectives of the research and question, the quantitative method will be used which is an effective way of analyzing the effects. This will assess the changes in the organizations of Australia regarding the services of the ecosystem. The quantitative research method focusses on the measurements of objectives and the mathematical, numerical, and statistical analysis of data. This will help in finding the change factors in the natural and human environments. The biodiversity of Earth is in grave danger as the destruction of habitat is the main cause of loss of biodiversity. 

Data Collection

The data will be collected through surveys by using computation techniques. The survey will include close-ended questions that will be answered by selecting the options of limited numbers using choices like no or yes. The survey will be conducted in the organization where the practices are carried out in reducing the biodiversity effects that are affecting the environment. Three organizations will be selected and a total of 30 participants will be included in the research. The participants will give the rating scale that can easily analyze the data of the quantitative research (Mori, Lertzman, & Gustafsson, 2017).

Sampling and Data Analysis

Based on the given and specified reasons related to the research objective, purposive sampling will be applied in which the participants will be selected based on the judgment. This is the sampling of non-probability in which the organizations will be selected that represent methods to describe the characteristics that are essential in the sample. The data will be analyzed based on the numerical data that is collected through the survey. Thus, the research will help to find the variables, distribution, and the design of the analysis. Biodiversity can negatively impact the well-being of humans by increasing the mercury concentration in the aquatic ecosystem of food chains. These effects and the control of management will be analyzed with the help of the survey and analyzing the data. 


Many ethical issues can disrupt the quantitative research method. These ethical issues include the anonymisation, the right admittance to the data for applicants, the honesty requirements, stowing of the data, and duty of privately for all those who assume the research. The ethical considerations for the quantitative research method are confidentiality about the data, the components discussed in the research should be relevant to the purpose of the research, and the data that is going to be discussed in the research should be approved or confirmed.

 The most common ethical issue is that the survey which is going to be conducted is legal or illegal, or any inappropriate way is used for the survey like teasing to the respondents. The research has the power for the improvement of society. The ethical issues can occur like the organization working and survey for its profit not to serve in society. The survey that is going to be conducted should be ethically approved, and there should be approved information about the contest of research.


It is concluded that biodiversity is suffering from great loss and the habit loss is triggered by overpopulation, global warming, deforestation, and pollution. Species that are living in the forest area are affected by the reduction of habitat.  The biodiversity effects can impact climate change but managing the effects of biodiversity is important. The organizations are taking this impact seriously and are making efforts in reducing its effects. If the biodiversity negative effects can be reduced then the environment can be saved from the destruction of the ecosystem. If there will be more plants then the better environment and less impact of temperature rising or greenhouse gases. The biodiversity can help to maintain the circle of the food web and disturbing can result in food scarcity.

The method and the data analysis are given that show that the ecosystem contributes to restoring the natural resources and fulfilling the cultural needs. The major pillars of the ecosystem are discussed such as social principles, sustainability, ecosystem health, social values, and biological diversity. The literature review studies have analyzed that help obtain the desired objectives of the research. This shows that the species provide different kinds of functions to the ecosystem so it is essential to store and capture the energy that can regulate climate. Thus, adaptive management contributes to controlling biodiversity and ecosystem. Future studies are also going on to analyze the various aspects of ecosystem management.  


Boiral, O., & Heras-Saizarbitoria, I. (2017). Managing biodiversity through stakeholder involvement: why, who, and for what initiatives?. Journal of Business Ethics, 140(3), 403-421.

Ens, E. J., Pert, P., Clarke, P. A., & Clubb, L. (2015). Indigenous biocultural knowledge in ecosystem science and management: Review and insight from Australia. Biological Conservation, 133-149.

Jr, H. (2016). Two roles for ecological surrogacy: Indicator surrogates and management surrogates.

Keith, D. A. (2015). Assessing and managing risks to ecosystem biodiversity. Austral Ecology, 337-346.

Last, P. R. (2010). A hierarchical framework for classifying seabed biodiversity with application to planning and managing Australia’s marine biological resources.

Lindenmayer, D., Messier, C., Paquette, A., & Hobbs, R. J. (2015). Managing tree plantations as novel socio-ecological systems: Australian and North American perspectives. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 1427-1433.

Matzek, V. (2019). Mainstreaming ecosystem services as a rationale for ecological restoration in Australia. Ecosystem Services, 79-86.

Mokany, K. (2016). Integrating modelling of biodiversity composition and ecosystem function. Oiko.

Mori, A. S., Lertzman, K. P., & Gustafsson, L. (2017). Biodiversity and ecosystem services in forest ecosystems: a research agenda for applied forest ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54(1), 12-27.

Panetta, F. D. (2017). Managing for biodiversity: impact and action thresholds for invasive plants in natural ecosystems.

Pittock, J. (2012). The state of the application of ecosystem services in Australia. Ecosystem Services, 111-120.

Sangha, K. (2019). Recognizing the role of local and Indigenous communities in managing natural resources for the greater public benefit: Case studies from Asia and Oceania region. Ecosystem Services.

Smith, P. (2012). REVIEW: The role of ecosystems and their management in regulating climate, and soil, water, and air quality. Journal of Applied Ecology.


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