• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : EDPA6017
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  • Subject Name : Management

School Effectiveness and Improvement

Introduction to The Continuous School Improvement Framework

Huber & Skedsmo (2017) demonstrate that the standardization in each business art is of utmost importance as it outlines a structured and formal approach in the administration of any business activity. Education systems and organizations, specifically the school systems is one of such types where involvement of a standard structure and system is highly required as schools systems being one of the most dynamic business and service systems constitute for a lump of activities of administration, management, routine actions, etc. goes horizontal or simultaneous.

Teachers and leaders in a school system act as a prominent stakeholder for the reason that most of the proceedings and activities in a school system are inclusive of the teachers' or leaders’ involvement and responsibility for the ongoing operations within (Janmaat, McCowan, & Rao, 2016). Hereafter, the framing of a standard system becomes a crucial task in the school systems.

Developing a standard framework and operative measure for the effectiveness and improvement in the teaching, training, and learning practices in a school system can benefit to the greater range as such measures undergo a formal, proper, and structured outline and guidance of workflows and operative processes that must be conducted within the system (Huber & Skedsmo, 2017). It has been evident that maintenance and chalking out the standards in such a system has the capacity to serve the expected outcomes of improved performances and management of concerned insights.

Standards Operative in School Systems

For the sake of standardizing the system, the operative measures and regulations that usually work as the necessitated framework for such organizational functioning act as the initial standard operative in such. Apart from the documented and regulatory standards setup, certain realistic frameworks concerning the system management concept must be involved from the side of teachers and leaders in the frame that could cater as the constructive methodology for system standardization in schools (Nguyen et al., 2018).

To elaborate, the utilization of proper, structured management practicalities and effective leadership concerns from the teacher population for the sake of management of standard school systems is important and significant. To maintain the school system at the expected standardized level, the inheritance of a robust management and leadership technique is vital in order to compose a field of highly supportive, administered, standard, and qualitative teaching and leadership staff in the system that could benefit all the concerned area viz. the school students and their learning, system’s strengthening, and the self-development benefit of the teachers and leaders involved.


According to Velezo et al. (2017), to operate as a school system or organization with a higher rate of succession, the introduction of a core leadership practice is viable for fostering a positive and motivating culture of learning and development of concerned students under observation. Inhibition of effluent leadership by teachers and leaders in frame acts as a managerial standard in place that keeps track of the qualities and outcomes in the following resultants.

  • It inherits the motivation and willingness within the students towards a better performance drive.
  • Effective leadership strategy as a standard framework can aid the OCTAPACE factors viz. openness, collaboration, trust, autonomy, proactiveness, authenticity, confrontation, and experimentation to seed within the students in focus (Fatima, 2019).

Collaboration and Support

Inclusive management standards involved in the school system functioning must constitute collaboration and support as the second pillar of system standards that institutes for a greater scope for a learning environment for the students as well as for the teachers (Ishida, 2016). Furthermore, collaboration as a standard for the school system encourages higher collaborative participation in way of following attributes.

  • Participation of students at the school in learning and development phases.
  • It encourages the risk-taking capabilities within the students and teachers as well in the system.
  • It facilitates an open and transparent communication pattern within the systems’ people including teachers, students, and leaders.

Interrelations Improvement

As stated by Sheveleva & Pankratova (2019), formalizing a clear and coherent interrelations standard within the system operative must be incorporated for the reason that improved interrelations and communication within the systems, especially the schools have a higher responsibility for leveraging the behavioral and cultural tendencies at the organization and hence has a striving demand to be contributed.

  • Advancing the use of interrelations positively and constructively among students and teachers both have the tendency to community building and further sustenance of intercommunications.
  • Enhanced interrelations and fostering of the same incubates for the evolution of the learning environment and culture for students.
  • It encourages the students and learners and also drives passion among them to strive towards excellence and knowledge insights.

Role of Standards in System

Maintenance and management of a standard system or framework are advantageous to the organizations in a variety of ways that could overall act as a collective force in organizational upgradation and quality. Certain following standards and their implication has been found to play an elemental role in system management and improvement.

System Improvement

Day et al. (2016) has analyzed that the enforcement of management standards, to name a few, performance management, team management, effective relationship management, and effective leadership strategies result in the outcome of improved working conditions, human well-being, and welfare environment, and also student and classroom positive outcomes can be attained by the use of such standards. 

Innovative and Change Management Capabilities

Change management and innovation are the paramount investments an organization can handle and imply. Jacobson et al. (2019) demonstrate that in a school system, complexities occur as a normal part of everyday phenomenon where structured systems and standards in place safeguard the complexities and also derives the capabilities of the system or organization to deal with innovations and change management activities. Certain emergent situations arrive in school systems that enquire for a spontaneous decision making and handling of the same that may lead to change in the system framework. In such a case of question, innovative thinking comes into a vital play that generally is inbuilt by adoption to the standards since lack of standard would lead to a disorganized framework and hence diffused decision-making.

Efficient Leadership and Management Outcomes

Effluence in the style of leadership and management styles followed within an organization has a sound role in the construction of the system methodology and practices (Hellinger & Heck, 2011). Schools being the focused system of organization in the study must be taken into such a leadership style that could leverage the prompt administering of each corner of the system, wherein a pedagogical leadership has been observable and justified to act as the most optimum style in such organizational system.

Grice (2019) has identified that the pedagogical leadership traits as the most fitting leadership style in a school system that elevated the teachers’ morale and enthusiasm in the system and develops competencies to effectively handle the environment and the target population within i.e. students at the best possible behavioral and management pattern, henceforth effective for both the learners and the teachers.

Advanced Learning and Knowledge Gain

Relationship management, team management, and other management and leadership standards under action in the wellness of the school systems have been observed by Bauman (2015) as practical insights of knowledge gain and learning for teachers and leaders in the system that further enables the achievements of interconnectedness between these standards and strategies and their effect of learning and knowledgeable outcomes leading to increased systematic standardization of the organization and also the teachers’ achievement of satisfaction.

Followed by Liu et al. (2016) have also analyzed and critique setting up of a systematic structure and model, named as structural equation modeling (SEM), in the system or organizational practice have a proportionate influence in the resultant of leadership, training, and management structures followed within the school system by teacher and leaders. It has further been detailed that the variated level and degree of these factors have their dependency on the creation of outcomes from the same.

Support, Quality, and Accountability

Deriving a system to a qualitative degree is a crucial practice where incorporation of standards and standardized tools is essential to reach the trend. Caldwell & Spinks (2013) has similarly stated that the attainment of high-quality results and production within the school systems interconnects with the process of formulation of standards in the way to provide an accountable process for administration.

Gaining quality and accountability from the results by the use of standard processes requires the supportive intervention of its stakeholders and respective authorities to provide for a systematic review and feedback on the processes and standards inclined to understand its viability and assurance to provide the level of expected quality standards and outcomes in the school system. In a further manner, the utilization of standards sets a clear line of accountability and quality achievable in the same.

Improvement Areas

At the current pace of the study has analyzed that certain standards can perform inevitably robust to create profitable scenarios for the school system but there remains a gap in few that needs to be filled, hence considered as areas of improvement for the standardization of the system and viability.

Drive Towards Innovation

Striving for indulgence for innovation and transformations must also be a keen focus in the development and formation of standards and regulators for the continuous improvement and the success of the system (Bernhardt, 2013). There has been a low focus on the incorporation of actions and facilities that drive students and teachers both in the development of innovation capabilities and change management capacities in order to nurture the holistic development and standardization of knowledge and management both within the school system.

Coordinate Student Learning and Performance

Codification of standards and structures in the school system for the expectancy of a higher rate of accomplishment and performance is vital (Jacobson et al., 2019). However, there has been less concentration on the students’ learning process and performance management in the product of standardization of the school system management.

Students are the most crowded part in the stakeholder analysis of the school systems and henceforth, formulation and institution of student focus and their effective learning and performance strategies must be inherited in the standards for the sake of development of the student population as well and not only benefit the teachers and leaders section.

Policy Framework

Managing a standard framework and methodology in the system or organization must always include the act of chalking out the formal and structured policy for the same for the betterment in the surveillance and analysis of the progress made by the system and its people with the incorporation of standards methodologies for administering the school system (MacBaeth et al., 2018).

Surveillance and tracking of the pathways the system is moving forward at are highly essential to be investigated as this represents the does and don’ts of the formulates system frameworks and hence systems request for the policy production.

Conclusion on The Continuous School Improvement Framework

Management and leadership along with the use of other behavioral and management techniques and tools have been identified as the major heads that attribute and depicts the standardization of the system or organization and its viability and reliability factors towards the attainment of prospective results at the expected level that drives the organization, the school system in the study, towards propensities and development in order to achieve a critical understanding of the effectiveness of teachers and leaders in the school’s effectiveness.

In the likewise manner, utilization of management and leadership standards among the system people has been analyzed to cater to the intellectual development and practicality in the knowledge application of the same that further can benefit the knowledge processing of the students and their learning interests in such an environment to increase.

In addition to this, the study also highlights some areas that have been underestimated in the subject of standardization of management and leadership practices in the school system such as policy framework, motivating students towards learning, etc. to name a few, that needs to be focused on, practiced, and accelerated to be positioned as an essential service in the generation of favorable outcomes of the standards in the system or organization.

References for The Continuous School Improvement Framework

Bernhardt, V. L. (2013). The continuous school improvement framework. V. L. Bernhardt. Data analysis for continuous school improvement, 11-40. London and New York: Routledge

Caldwell, B. J., & Spinks, J. M. (2013). Expectations and impact of self-management. B. J. Caldwell & J. M. Spinks, The self-transforming school, 17-27. London & New York: Routledge.

Day, C., Sammons, P., Stobart, G., Kington, A. & Gu, Q. (2007). Commitment and effectiveness: Contexts which make a difference to standards. Teachers matter: Connecting lives, work, and effectiveness, 215-235. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Fatima, S. (2017). A study of organizational culture: Octapace- profile. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 19(2), 87-92. httpS://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1902038792.

Grice, C. (2019). Distributed pedagogical leadership for the implementation of mandated curriculum change. Leading and Managing, 25(1), 56-71

Hallinger, P. & Heck, R.H. (2011). Leadership and student outcomes. J. Robertson & H. Timperley (Eds.) Leadership and learning, 56-70. London: Sage

Huber, S. G., & Skedsmo, G. (2017). Standardization and assessment practices. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 29(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-017-9257-1.

Ishida, T. (2016). Intercultural collaboration and support systems: A brief history. International Conference on Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, 9862, 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44832-9_1.

Jacobson, M., Levin, J., & Kapur, M (2019). Education as a complex system: conceptual and methodological implications. Educational Researcher,48(2), 112-119. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0013189X19826958.

Janmaat, G., McCowan, T., & Rao, N. (2016). Different stakeholders in education. Compare A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 46(2), 169-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2016.1134956.

Liu, S., Hallinger, P., & Feng, D. (2016). Supporting the professional learning of teachers in China: Does principal leadership make a difference? Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.05.023.

MacBeath, J., Dempster, N., Frost, D., Johnson, G., & Swaffield, S. (2018). Challenging policy, school, and classroom practice. Strengthening the connections between leadership and learning: Challenges to policy, school, and classroom practice. Abington: Routledge.

Nguyen, T. D., Cannata, M., & Miller, J. (2018). Understanding student behavioral engagement: Importance of student interaction with peers and teachers. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(2), 163-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2016.1220359.

Sheveleva, A., & Pankratova, I. (2019). The interrelation of career anchors with education and labor activity motives of students. SHS Web of Conferences, 70, 8038. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20197008038.

Vélez, S. C., Lorenzo, M. C. A., & Garrido, J. M. M. (2017). Leadership: its importance in the management of school coexistence. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 169-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2017.02.059.

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