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Learning and Development: An Introduction for Educators

There is no fixed definition of learning as every individual have a different perspective regarding the process of the learning and one of the definition states that learning is a process that leads to the change in the behaviour of the individual and they depend upon the experience. Another perspective of the learning is that is it considered to be a function that leads to the impact of the experience over the function of the individual. The learning helps the individual to change the behavioural aspect to sustain the changing environment and it is impacted by the external factors (Houwer et al., 2013). Moreover, the study presented by Lodge et al. (2018) added that learning is the process that is also affected the individual emotion as it includes integration of the different aspect gained from interaction to the prior knowledge of the individual. Learning is an on-going process that helps the individual to understand their level of knowledge with the requirement of the surrounding and it helps to improve the perspective of the individual. Different aspects those are important for the learning process includes reinforcement, integration and learning pattern.

There are different attributes of learning that might help the individual to improve the learning process which are important to improve the individual skills. One of the attributes of learning is the need for change in individual practice. The study presented by Gogus & Ertek, (2016) discussed that change in the practises increasing the need for the better learning of the individual. The learning is the process that helps to improve the practice which increases the change in the practice that can be implemented in the future practice to improve the behavioural aspect. The need for the change is an important attribute to the learning process and thus it helps the individual to improvise their knowledge to improve individual practise. The need of the change in the learning is important to improve the indvidual perspective concerning the different strategies that are important to improve the indvidual practise. The need for changes is important attributes as it improves the motivation of the individual to indulge in different strategies and activities that are important for the learning of the new skills and incorporate them in practice.

Moreover, another attribute of the learning process that is important to improve the learning is a continuation which helps the individual to incorporate the learning process lifelong. The continuation of the learning process is important to evaluate the situation and continuously improvise the skills to justify the surrounding requirement. The continuous learning process helps the individual to improve the surrounding learning skills which help in incorporating learning in very surrounding (Mwaikokesya et al., 2014). Feedback is also an important attribute of the learning as it helps the individual to understand their learning ability and identify the gap which is important to improve the practice. The feedback holds an important role in improving the learning of the individual as it helps the individual to identify the aspect that needs to be changed to improve the learning. Feedback helps the individual to correlate the direct observation information to improvise the learning which is important for the growth of the individual (Suhoyo et al., 2017).

The learning theory that has helped me to improve the learning process is the constructive learning theory that helps the individual ability to understand and deal with the learning. One of the studies presented by V & A, (2016) added that constructive learning theory is most preferred as it helps the individual to self-construct their knowledge and skills that support the learning. The theory helps the individual to improve reflecting practise that is important to evaluate the past practice to improve the learning by addressing the gap in the practice. The learning process through the constructive approach follows a set pattern that starts from the assimilation. The assimilation is the first step of the framework that includes individual collect new information, technique and approaches to improve the learning. The second step in the framework is accommodation which includes implementation of the changes that has been collected in the first step. The constructive approach requires the collaborative practice of the learner and surrounding individual to improve individual learning. This approach can help the individual to understand, evaluate and rationales the important aspect from the experience which help to add information through the right learning approach. The use of the right constructive approach can help the individual to continue the learning lifelong which is required to justify the changing need of the surrounding environment (V & A, 2016).

One of the sources of variation in student learning is related to the critical attribute of the learning that is need of change. Student learning is directly affected by the individual wish to change and the lack of the need for the change lead to the reduced student learning ability. The variation theory of learning discussed that variation is the essential component of the learning and it directly regulates the student learning process (Kullberg et al., 2017). The lack of commitment toward the change adaption can directly decrease the individual ability to learn new aspect and update the practices which are important for learning of the individual. The need of the change helps the student to evaluate the different aspects which are important to improve the learning process that adds the knowledge of different aspect to the individual (Kullberg et al., 2017). Another source of the variation in student learning is the motivation as it helps the individual to utilize the different resources to improve the learning. The motivation helps the individual to improve the learning of the individual and it increases the variability in the learning of the student. The better motivation of the student improves the learning as it increases the individual ability to analyse the different aspect to enhance the learning and lack of motivation decrease the learning of the individual leading to greater variability of the learning of the individual. Motivation is one of the important aspects of the learning process and individually motivated toward continuous leaning able to grasp and update new information which is important to improve practise (Urdan & Bruchmann, 2018). 

The vignette is one of the important processes to improve and support the individual learning as it utilizes the better teaching approach which leads to improved understanding of the individual (Erfanian et al., 2020). Vignettes are considered to be short tools which help in depicting the hypothetical situation to improve the understanding of the student which lead to a better learning approach. Vignettes are considered to the stimulation process of the real event which is important to convey the important message to the student that lead to the improved learning approach. This approach is helpful to convey the important message from the scenario to the individual which is important in the evaluation process of the individual which eventually add better learning approach (Erfanian et al., 2020). Moreover, the study presented by Skilling & Stylianides (2019) added that one of the descriptive episodes that help in understanding a specific situation related to the event is vignette and it helps to improve the understanding of the individual related to the event to increase the individual learning ability. The advantages that are linked with the use of vignette are it encourages discussion, improve learning and improve individual perception about particular phenomena. Vignette act as specific stimuli that improve the responding ability of the participating which lead to improved learning that is important for future practise. One of the studies presented by Suhendi & Purwarno (2018) discussed that constructive learning theory requires the individual to learn from the experiences by utilizing their understanding and knowledge. The constructive learning theory added that students are expected to understand different aspect and scenarios to improve the learning process which leads to better individual skills. The constructive learning theory requires students to improve the learning by analysing different scenarios which are important to understand the different aspect of the learning. These findings reveal that vignette can be an important approach to improve the learning of the individual by using evidence from different scenario to improve individual learning (Suhendi & Purwarno, 2018).

There are different positive and negative aspects of the learning theory and there is a need to implement it right in the learning process to use all the advantage linked with the constructive learning theory. One of the strengths of constructive learning theory it is a personalized approach that directly improves its efficiency concerning individual learning. Strength of the constructive learning theory is the increased involvement of the student in the learning which leads to a better commitment to the approach of learning. One of the weaknesses of the constructive learning theory is the lack of structure that directly decreases the proper utilization of the approach by the student which hampers the learning of the student. There is need to improve the framework of the learning which will help the student to correlates different aspect that is important in the learning process and it will help to improve the student performance due to the better learning ability.

References for Personal Theory of Learning

Houwer, J., Barnes-Holmes, D. & Moors, A. (2013). What is learning? On the nature and merits of a functional definition of learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(4), 631–642. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-013-0386-3 

Erfanian F, Roudsari, R. L., Heydari A, Bahmani, M. N. A. (2020). Narrative on using vignettes: Its advantages and drawbacks. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, 8(2), 2134-2145. DOI: 10.22038/jmrh.2020.41650.1472

Gogus, A. & Ertek, G. (2016). Learning and personal attributes of university students in predicting and classifying the learning styles: Kolb’s nine-region versus four-region learning styles. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 779–789. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.145 

Kullberg, A., Runesson Kempe, U. & Marton, F. What is made possible to learn when using the variation theory of learning in teaching mathematics?. ZDM Mathematics Education, 49, 559–569 (2017). DOI: 10.1007/s11858-017-0858-4

Lodge, J. M., Kennedy, G., Lockyer, L., Arguel, A. & Pachman, M. (2018). Understanding difficulties and resulting confusion in learning: An integrative review. Frontiers in Education, 3. DOI:10.3389/feduc.2018.00049 

Mwaikokesya, M. J. D., Osborne, M. & Houston, M. (2014). Mapping lifelong learning attributes in the context of higher education institutions. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 20(2), 21–36. DOI:10.7227/jace.20.2.3 

Skilling, K. & Stylianides, G. J. (2019). Using vignettes in educational research: a framework for vignette construction. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 1–16. DOI:10.1080/1743727x.2019.1704243 

Suhendi, A. & Purwarno, P. (2018). Constructivist learning theory: the contribution to foreign language learning and teaching. KnE Social Sciences, 3(4), 87-95. DOI: 10.18502/kss.v3i4.1921.

Suhoyo, Y., Van Hell, E. A., Kerdijk, W., Emilia, O., Schönrock-Adema, J., Kuks, J. B. & Cohen-Schotanus, J. (2017). Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: Does culture matter?. BMC Medical Education17(1), 60-69. DOI: 10.1186/s12909-017-0904-5

Urdan, T. & Bruchmann, K. (2018). Examining the academic motivation of a diverse student population: A consideration of methodology. Educational Psychologist, 53(2), 114–130. DOI:10.1080/00461520.2018.1440234 

V, D. & A, Y. (2016). Constructivism: A paradigm for teaching and learning. Arts and Social Sciences Journal, 7(4). DOI:10.4172/2151-6200.1000200 

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