Understanding and Supporting Inclusion

Introduction to Cerebral Palsy

According to the Australian Education Department, People with Special needs or bodily disabilities are classed under "orthopedic impairment." The term includes affected congenital disorder and impairments triggered by diseases such as poliomyelitis. One of the most rampant physical disability problems is Cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a category of chronic neurodegenerative disorders that begin in early childhood. Symptoms of the disease vary among individuals and over the period. Signs often include slow reactions, tense muscles, atrophied muscles, and trembling. Also, kids with cerebral palsy do not turn over, sit down, crawl, or go as quickly as others of their age. There are issues with touch, vision, listening, swallowing, and talking. Other signs include convulsions and thought or reasoning difficulties, which occur individually in about one-third of CP patients. During the early development years of a child, symptoms may become more apparent, but underlying problems do not deteriorate with time.

Cerebral paralysis happens because the brain parts that track the movement, equilibrium, and posture are formed annoyingly or are impaired. Problems usually happen during pregnancy, but they can also occur during or immediately after birth. The trigger is always unknown. Preterm birth, becoming a child, other pregnancy pathogens such as toxomethyl mercury or rubella, pregnancy radiation, difficult delivery, and head injury, among many other risks during the lifespan. Roughly 2 percent of children are assumed to be attributable to a genetic origin inherited. Despite affecting body muscles and other organs such as eyes, ears, and tongue, cerebral palsy has negative impacts on children such as seizure and intellectual disabilities.

Discussion of Cerebral Palsy

Policies set to help children with cerebral palsy

At a glance, the law on disability feels like a writing system of names and acronyms related to antiquated definitions. The laws defined by those upper-case letters, however, provide the society with additional needs with a fundamental right for persons with disabilities. A few years ago, there were few protections for people with disabilities (Schiariti et al., 2018). Children with physical or cognitive impairments did not have the right to free, equal education, and special education regulation where it existed was undoubtedly weak. Those who used a wheelchair as their key mode of the movement were at the discretion of others when the time was right for entry into government.

The existing disability law does not cover every important matter that can be faced by a person with additional needs. However, over a couple of decades, legislation has slowly moved a cause down the list of its position. According to Levac et al. (2018), human beings with additional needs have a constitutional right to quality public education, support, and access. They can sue to exercise their rights if discriminated against. Those laws help everyone who wants to become involved in education, function, and culture immensely. Currently, some policies have been put in place to protect people living with cerebral palsy. They include comfortable and convenient access to bus transit as well as air travel. Also, there are assistive communication tools and technology, making buildings and public ways accessible for them through right of way and providing special programs and funds to aid their education.

Impact of cerebral palsy to the child and family

Treatment is a necessary part of a young legal guardian, but that task becomes completely different when a child encounters functional restrictions and long-term dependency. In addition to dealing with the demands of everyday life, claimed that one of the greatest challenges for family members is to effectively manage their chronic health conditions (Romley et al., 2017). Consequently, Moraes et al. (2016) claimed that it might be a little bit overwhelming for caregivers to take care of a child with complex disorders at home. The care provided can be dangerous to both the general health of parents of children with chronic disorders.

Caring for any children requires significant resources, but when looking after a child with a disability, the demands for such services are often increased. There are also cases of psychological problems for children with cerebral paralysis, which contributes to the difficulty of treatment. From Novak et al. (2017), perspective, the development of speech problems in kids with CP is said to have a significant impact on mothers' depression. Why some providers cope well, and some do not. It is not completely understood. However, even as child recovery continues, there is a daily need to evaluate the mental health of the parent.

In a study, a disabled person's dependence on others in everyday work has had a significant impact on the mental distress of families, and more reliant on the child, the greater family's distress. Trying to cope with the psychological effects of cerebral palsy (CP) could lead to higher levels of pressure than other parents (Hauser-Cram & Shonkoff, 2017). That is because kids suffering from CP require long-term treatment. Cerebral paralysis typically has a role to play in parental stress, such as higher demands for treatment, inadequate maternal schooling, and a low ethnic context.

Types of Learning Environments

Although all children with brain paralysis are affected by motor disorders, the severity and position in each adult of their motor disabilities differ. Some of them can walk on their own while people require a wheelchair or a walker. According to Cameron et al. (2017), when cortical paralysis affects the oral nerves, people may not be articulate, as is the case with those who are normal. The law on disability-based discrimination in the workplace, government and businesses government, public accommodations, commercial services, transport, and telecommunications forbids the use of Australian additional needs legislation. As such, reasonable amenities must be done so that disabled students can succeed and engage, just like everyone else, in schools and events.

The development of an atmosphere that encourages classroom success for CP children is essential. Imms et al. (2017) argued that the question is how children with CP can be accommodated in a classroom to enable them to learn like the rest. Some common modifications for disabled children include having more time to complete jobs and functional tools that make the school wheelchair accessible, allowing added time to complete tasks, having flexible tools to change the arrangement of tasks and assignments (for instance, verbally completing a written test), and using alternative communication (iPads and voice producing devices) that support reading and writing.


The inclusion of students who have cerebral paralysis is so critical for both early childhood education and basic education practitioners. As with other children who live with special needs, these children are more likely to be removed from school programs and debates, social events, athletics, and recreation places since they cannot cope like others (Ravi, Kumar, & Singhi, 2017). Adults and teachers need to be better understood to ensure greater integration. From Wang, Huang, & Kong (2020) perspective, most cerebral paralysis children need more space. It is important to have enough room to move with the muscle movement as a key feature of that condition. Spaces can lead to lower inclusion; therefore, hampering/limiting these children from acquiring knowledge. The classes should be opened and divided between desks and other items.

Cerebral disability students are more likely to be threatened. Bullying is a major problem for many students, but disabled people are more vulnerable. From Bayon et al. (2016) perspective, children who are threatened are even more likely to be removed and thus excluded. With a learner in the class with CP, teachers need to become even more aware of the bullying to take measures to prevent and interfere (Pashmdarfard & Amini, 2017). Interesting things that educators can do include setting rules in the class and enforcing them, intervening immediately on compliance with bullying, and involving parents and managers.

Inclusion is so critical to every child's healthy growth, but teachers must be particularly conscious and knowledgeable for those at risk of isolation. According to de Oliveira et al. (2016), CP can be restricting, but not, especially in school, where all kids deserve the same opportunity. Teachers should play a significant and constructive role in ensuring that they obtain them. The government should establish a CP Guide team for discussing these valuable instructor thoughts.

Conclusion on Cerebral Palsy

In summary, many kids with cerebral paralysis have special needs, but these criteria differ by person. Some children with this anti-progressive, but permanent, the disorder is minor, while others aspire for independence. While children with cerebral paralysis are affected, their involvement, including in school, is always lower. Educators must learn more about the disorder and the different kids living with it to guarantee they build inclusive classrooms. Coping approaches should, therefore, be designed to reduce the stress of day-to-day treatment, reduce hospital re-admittance, and provide appropriate psychosocial support to different groups to impact parental understanding and aspirations. Psychological trauma is also a result of people's perceptions of kids with CP and their parents. The behaviours and stigma could be extremely disturbing, thereby interfering with the learning and growth of the kids whose needs required special attention. The child may be deprived of schooling, leisure facilities, and pleasant opportunities. A decent sense of identity-esteem is therefore needed for family members and care providers to cope essentially and encourage good mental health.

References for Cerebral Palsy

Bayon, C., Raya, R., Lara, S. L., Ramírez, O., Serrano, J., & Rocon, E. (2016). Robotic therapies for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Transl Biomed, 7(1), 44.

Cameron, D., Craig, T., Edwards, B., Missiuna, C., Schwellnus, H., & Polatajko, H. J. (2017). Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP): a new approach for children with cerebral palsy. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 37(2), 183-198.

de Oliveira, J. M., Fernandes, R. C. G., Pinto, C. S., Pinheiro, P. R., Ribeiro, S., & de Albuquerque, V. H. C. (2016). Novel virtual environment for alternative treatment of children with cerebral palsy. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2016.

Hauser-Cram, P., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2017). Rethinking the assessment of child-focused outcomes. In Evaluating family programs (pp. 73-94). Routledge.

Imms, C., Granlund, M., Wilson, P. H., Steenbergen, B., Rosenbaum, P. L., & Gordon, A. M. (2017). Participation, both a means and an end: a conceptual analysis of processes and outcomes in childhood disability. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 59(1), 16-25.

Levac, D., McCormick, A., Levin, M. F., Brien, M., Mills, R., Miller, E., & Sveistrup, H. (2018). Active video gaming for children with cerebral palsy: does a clinic-based virtual reality component offer an additive benefit? A pilot study. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 38(1), 74-87.

Moraes, A. G., Copetti, F., Angelo, V. R., Chiavoloni, L. L., & David, A. C. (2016). The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(8), 2220-2226.

Novak, I., Morgan, C., Adde, L., Blackman, J., Boyd, R. N., Brunstrom-Hernandez, J., ... & De Vries, L. S. (2017). Early, accurate diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy: advances in diagnosis and treatment. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(9), 897-907.

Pashmdarfard, M., & Amini, M. (2017). Does parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy children impact on the quality of life in these children?. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, 11(4), 52.

Ravi, D. K., Kumar, N., & Singhi, P. (2017). Effectiveness of virtual reality rehabilitation for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: an updated evidence-based systematic review. Physiotherapy, 103(3), 245-258.

Romley, J. A., Shah, A. K., Chung, P. J., Elliott, M. N., Vestal, K. D., & Schuster, M. A. (2017). Family-provided health care for children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 139(1), e20161287.

Schiariti, V., Longo, E., Shoshmin, A., Kozhushko, L., Besstrashnova, Y., Król, M., ... & Mwale, M. (2018). Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core sets for children and youth with cerebral palsy: global initiatives promoting optimal functioning. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), 1899.

Wang, Y., Huang, Z., & Kong, F. (2020). Parenting stress and life satisfaction in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: The mediating effect of social support. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(3), 416-425.

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