Emotional and Behavioural Problems of Children and Adolescents

Introduction to Anxiety Disorder Research and Practice Paper

The main purpose of this report is to conduct a research on the prevalence of anxiety disorder among the students belonging to the age group of 12 to 17 years of age. An anxiety disorder has the potential to create an unfavorable impact on the students of the age group stated above. Moreover, it has the potential to lower down the level of the academic performance among the students who are suffering from an anxiety disorder. The prevalence of an anxiety disorder among the students also has the potential to reduce the self-effectiveness as well as the self-notion of the students who have been prone to it (Haller et al., 2015). Hence, in order to minimize or even eliminate the symptoms of an anxiety disorder, a combined initiative of the concerned students, teachers as well as the parents are required, which will be adequate discussed in the due course of this report.

Anxiety Disorder- Description

An anxiety disorder is known to be a kind of mental health issue that is indicated by means of an extreme level of feeling as well as enervative anxiety. Anxiety has been determined to be a normal way of behaving in certain situations, however, there are some cases where the occurrence of anxiety is critical and this tends to create major problem for the students suffering from it (Spence et al., 2017). Moreover, it is due to the prevalence of anxiety disorder among the students, that their academic performance degrades and their intensity of anxiety at the times of performing certain tasks also increases. Furthermore, social anxiety also has the potential of creating a negative impact on the academic performance of the students. In this context, if students belonging to the age group of 12 to 17 years of age are suffering from social anxiety, they are most likely to withdraw themselves from group activities and also hesitate to take any assistance in their class (Spence et al., 2017) . Additionally, it has also been determined that both social anxiety and academic anxiety can occur simultaneously within the students, however, there are times when academic anxiety occurs as a result of social anxiety.

Characteristics

Considering from the point of view of an educational environment, below are the few characteristics of an anxiety disorder among the students ranging between the age of 12 and 17.

  • Showing symptoms of anxiety, feeling uncomfortable, as well as worried are the few characteristics that the teenagers tends to depict if they are suffering from an anxiety disorder.
  • It has also been determined that the teenagers suffering from an anxiety disorder feels that there are some kind of a danger which they are about to experience or even that something bad would happen to them (Ollendick et al., 2019).
  • The rate of heart beat of an anxiety disorder victim is determined to be very much high.
  • Hyperventilation is also experienced by the teenagers suffering from an anxiety disorder.
  • The anxiety disorder victims tend to shake as well as sweat to a great extent.
  • Those teenagers who suffers from an anxiety disorder feels excessively weak and also gets tired very frequently and easily (Peter et al., 2017).
  • Furthermore, they face excessive problems in terms of concentrating towards anything other that problems being faced by them at that particular time.

Prevalence

In this context, it was determined that the concerned disorder was mostly prevalent among the age group of 12 to 17 years of age and was majorly found among the female students of that particular age group in the country of Australia (Iverach et al., 2016).

Causes

Here are certain factors that contributes towards anxiety disorder among the teenagers:

  • Genetics conditions like that of a particular family member suffering from any kind of a mental health issue (Andrews et al., 2018).
  • Personality-oriented conditions like that of being excessively sensitive towards any particular issue.
  • Environmental conditions like that of the occurrence of any tormenting event in the life of that particular student.
  • Additional factors like that of the existence of any particular health issue among the concerned students (Andrews et al., 2018).

Evaluation & Impact

  1. Emotional- Analyzing from the emotional perspective, it has been determined that the teenagers suffering from an anxiety disorder is most likely to get irritated very frequently, will face issues in terms of concentrating, will get uncomfortable to a great extent and will cry without any valid reason (Wehry et al., 2015).
  2. Social- Considering from the social point of views, it has been determined that such teenagers mostly isolate themselves from the society and also does not communicate in the usual manner with their friends (Wehry et al., 2015) . Moreover, they also do not engage themselves in extra-curriculum activities in their schools and spends majority of their time in isolation.
  3. Physical- Considering from the physical perspective, it has been determined that the concerned victims of an anxiety disorder are most likely to suffer from pain in their heads very often, inclusive of the migraine pains, also they suffer from gastric issues as well as great level of weakness (Topper et al., 2017), change in eating behavior as well as not keep well without any particular medical issue.
  4. Sleep interference- The teenagers, who suffers from an anxiety disorder experiences problems in falling asleep as well as faces problems in sleeping for an adequate amount of time (Topper et al., 2017). Moreover, such victims often get bad dreams and also does not feel relaxed after waking up from their sleep.
  5. Academic Performance- In terms of the academic perspective, it has been determined that the victims of an anxiety disorder often shows a considerable decrease in the marks they obtain in their schools, moreover, they often miss completing the tasks given to them in the class and feel that have been given excessive pressure from their teachers (Topper et al., 2017) .
  6. Cultural- Anxiety disorder is common among those teenagers who belongs to the family who earns less as compared to other families living in the country, those family who is jobless and does not a have a proper means of living as well those families in which the parents are living separately (Topper et al., 2017) . This tends to create a huge impact on the teenagers and leads to anxiety disorder among them to a great extent.

Assessment

Diagnosis of Anxiety Disorder

In order to conduct a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder among the students of 12 to 17 years of age, the concerned doctor or even the associated mental health care professional conducts a physical examination of the patient to identify certain symptoms that the anxiety prevalent in the concerned patient is connected to any kind of a medicine or if it is due to any kind of an underpinning health issue in that particular patient (Barlow et al., 2017) Moreover, if the doctor suspects any medical ailment, then he or should would require the patient to have an assessment of blood or even urine test if needed.

Method

The most broadly used method of diagnosing an anxiety among the students belonging to the age group of 12 to 17 years of age is the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule that is conducted with victim who is a teenager and the parents of that particular victim that adheres to the conditions as per the DSM-IV norms (Warwick et al., 2017). In this context, the questionnaires are used to evaluate the anxiety disorder among the victims in terms of the regulatory insights that offers certain beneficial signs as to whether the signs indicated by the concerned teenager persists at the impersonal level or not.

In this context, there are no summarized measuring techniques that can be used in terms of the children as well as the young patients of an anxiety disorder. Furthermore, the RCADS (Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale) as well as the SCAS (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale) also consists of measurement that is known to be widely in line with the different diagnostic conditions (Warwick et al., 2017) . The above techniques play a vital role in terms of identifying the prevalence of an anxiety disorder among the teenagers as it consists of adequate scales with which proper measurements could be made.

Specialists

In this context, a psychiatrist plays a vital role in terms of assisting the victims of the anxiety disorder in getting rid of their stress as well as the depression which they are facing. Moreover, this will also help them to live a normal life all more again and would also take an initiative to conduct a counselling session for the teenagers who is suffering from an anxiety disorder (Creswell et al., 2020).

Concerns

In this context, it was determined that the parents of the children belonging to the age group of 12-17 years stated that their children are not accepting any of help to get over their anxiety disorder systems. Moreover, 39 of these teenagers was not aware about the person or place to approach for help, while 33% of the parents stated that the concerned treatment was not feasible on their part (Creswell et al., 2020) .

Assessment Method within Individual Development

In order to determine, whether a teenager is suffering from an anxiety disorder within the area of individual development, the following assessment methods and processes would be applied:

  • In this context, it is significant to record the complete history of the concerned patient and execute an examination on them. This also includes examining the mental illness position of the concerned patient. Moreover, due amount of initiative should be taken to determine the biological reason for the existence of an anxiety disorder in an individual (Freeman et al., 2017) . This includes, the application of stimulants, thyroid gland disorder, asthma or even congestive heart related problems.
  • Consideration should also be given towards evaluating the connected functions, people to people as well as the various kinds of social issues being faced by an individual.
  • Moreover, psychiatric record of the individual suffering from an anxiety disorder should be obtained. In the context, the previous bouts of anxiety within an individual should be determined (Freeman et al., 2017). Furthermore, reaction of the concerned individual in terms of a treatment should also be recorded along with co-occurring health issue within that person, which in this case would be a teenager.
  • Additionally, the safety issues of teenager, who is suffering from an anxiety should be taken into consideration on a regular basis along with the risks they are most likely to face in this context (Freeman et al., 2017). Due caution should be exercised to ensure that the concerned teenager does not go into a depression, because in such cases the chances of suicidal acts are known to be very much high.

Case Formation & Conceptualization

In the context of this report, it would be considered that a counsellor has determined by means of an adequate examination procedure, that a teenager is suffering from an anxiety disorder, due to which she is obtaining low grades in her academics, she is not actively communicating with her friends, hesitating to ask questions in class and also gradually isolating herself from the society (Zayfert et al., 2019) . Hence, in order to construct a case, it is important for a capable counsellor will be required to integrate an aimed examination of the cognition, attitudes as well as feeling that is connected to the problem depicted within an individual. Moreover, attention should also be given towards examining the person to person procedure in between the teenager suffering from an anxiety disorder and the parents or even the friends of that particular individual at the point of time, wherein the anxiety level of that particular teenager high or even when the mood of that particular teenager is low. It is important to implement the above, in addition to the standardized diagnostic as well as the examination tools to determine the seriousness of the different indications depicted by that person suffering from an anxiety disorder.

The concerned counsellor can achieve the same by means of providing a comprehensive description of one or more current incidents of an anxiety disorder that has been experienced by the concerned teenager (Zayfert et al., 2019) . In this context, it is significant for the concerned counsellor to conduct an enquiry in terms of the perception as well as the behavioural options adopted during the course of the concerned incident. Moreover, the concerned consequences would be determined both from the point of view of the parents as well as the teenager themselves who is suffering from the concerned anxiety disorder. Furthermore, data on the co-occurrence of other diseases, family record, prevalence of depression or even an anxiety disorder among the close family members (Zayfert et al., 2019), the growth of the teenager as well as the academic performance of the teenager are some other basis for the formulation of a case in relation to an anxiety disorder.

Risk Factors

Here are some of the risk factors in terms of a teenager suffering from an anxiety disorder from the point of view of an individual development:

  • The female gender is known to be under a high risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder, in the context of a teenager.
  • Early puberty is another risk factor associated with an anxiety disorder.
  • Low level of self-confidence, envisioned underperformance, unfavourable as well as reasoned attitude (Gelaye et al., 2016).
  • Those teenagers who is prone to unsecured connections is at a great risk of anxiety disorder.
  • Those teenagers who has weak social, communication as well as issue-solving skills are a greater risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder.
  • Lastly, those teenagers, who are determined to be a shy individual and frequently requires social assistance are at great risk of an anxiety disorder (Gelaye et al., 2016) .

Protective Factors

Here are some of the protective factors in terms of a teenager suffering from an anxiety disorder from the point of view of an individual development:

  • Favourable physical growth.
  • Positive performance both from the perspective of an academic as well as psychological growth (Fullana et al., 2019).
  • Self-control of feelings.
  • Good management as well as problem solving skills.
  • Getting involved as well as stay connected with two or even more of these channels, like school, sports, friends or even culture (Fullana et al., 2019) .

Ecological Perspective

Here are some of the ecological factors in terms of a teenager suffering from an anxiety disorder from the point of view of an individual development:

  • The depression among the parents is a major cause of anxiety disorder among the teenagers.
  • Dispute between a teenager and parents is another significant reason for such an anxiety disorder (Thomson et al., 2015).
  • Weak parenting on the part of the parents.
  • An anxiety disorder is mostly common when the parents of the teenagers does not have a job.
  • Furthermore, the use of substance among the parents is a great reason of anxiety disorder among the teenagers (Thomson et al., 2015).

Identification & Assessment of Anxiety Disorder in An Educational Context

In the due course of research, it has been determined that the children belonging to the age group of 12 to 17 years of age, shows indications like that of poor performance in their academics, faces experiences in dealing with friends or even class mates and even experiences issues in the context of their relationship with their parents. Moreover, it has also been determined that such teenagers have also been determined to have a poor viewpoint in terms of their own self and also lower level of self-confidence within themselves (Shapiro et al., 2015) Furthermore, in this context, it has been also determined that such students have a high possibility of suffering from mental health issues in the later part of their life.

In the course of assessing anxiety disorder among the teenagers in an educational context, the different holistic reviews as well as the practical guidelines have succeeded in determining the SCAS ( Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale) (Shapiro et al., 2015), which in turn have served to be a sincere mechanism in terms of school-oriented global assessments. In other words, the SCAS is known to be a self-reporting technique that has been created to deeply line with the diagnostic as well as the statistics-based guidelines for diagnosing any particular mental health issue being experienced by a teenager. Furthermore, the SCAS plays a vital role in determining an anxiety disorder that is connected with weak attendance, poor performance in exams, dropping out in exams as well as poor relationship with the class mates (Shapiro et al., 2015) .

Description and Analysis of Specific Interventions

Here are the two evidence-based interventions for managing anxiety disorder among the teenagers:

  1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)- The CBT is known to be a developmental modification of the traditional cognitive therapy model and this is more common in the process of managing the occurrence of an anxiety order among the teenagers. Moreover, CBT is known to be a type of counselling-oriented therapy that serves the purpose of integrating the models of discernment as well as behaviour-oriented mechanisms (Trauer et al., 2015). As per this intervention measure, it has been determined that the thinking, behaviour as well as the feelings of an individual are interconnected. Hence, the main purpose of this intervention measure is to determine and transform negative thinking and attitudes by means of reformulating the emotions of a person as well as behavioural mechanisms.

The CBT addresses challenges like the anxiety disorder in general, anger management, eating issues, depression as well as emotional outburst among many other developmental factors in the context of a teenager.

CBT can often be implemented by means of determining a condition that a particular teenager is constantly neglecting or the conditions that is creating an element of fear in that particular teenager. Moreover, this procedure is implemented by a mental health counsellor, wherein the anxiety disorder victim would need to attend a stipulated number of sessions (Trauer et al., 2015) . With the help of this technique the concerned person will become informed about their improper thinking enabling them to view their difficulties more specifically and also respond to them much more efficiently.

Furthermore, for CBT to be effective, it is important for the concerned individual to understand his or her feelings, hence it would be suitable for children between 6-7 years of age to some extent, however, it will give its best, if the children are older, making it a good strategy to manage anxiety disorder among the teenagers (Trauer et al., 2015) . Furthermore, the CBT takes place in a clinical setting.

  1. Adolescent Coping with Depression (CWD-A)- The CWS-A is known to be an intellectual behavioural group intervention measure that aims at the uneasiness, nervousness, bad thoughts, unfavourable social competencies as well as restricted experience of favourable conditions (Weersing et al., 2017).

CWD-A addresses developmental challenges associated with any kind of feeling that a depressed teenager is experience. Moreover, it deals with the issues related to the reduction of favourable communication on the part of a depressed teenager and the increase in negative communication on their part.

The CWD-A is implemented by mental healthcare practioners who has been given an adequate amount of training and who has a considerable level of experience in the same. In this context, all the participants receive their worksheets that offers well-formulated learning activities, brief question and answer sessions as well as home assignments. This is mostly implemented, when an individual has weak social, communication as well as problem-solving skills (Weersing et al., 2017) . This is implemented in a school, rural as well as urban settings. This technique is known to be most effective, in individuals ranging between the age group of 13 -17.

Here are the two evidence-based strategies to manage an anxiety disorder in the educational setting:

Universal Strategies

The universal approaches are known to have a specific kind of a charm because it is less invasive and also does not involve high expenses, thus it has a high chance of being embraced in an educational environment. Moreover, this particular strategy, is highly preferred in an educational setting because it is known to be a comparatively simpler method to handle an anxiety disorder than any other techniques that can be used in a school setting (Dray et al., 2017). Furthermore, it is considered to be a holistic strategy and it requires the assistance of the administrative leaders among the school employees. CBT and stress reduction mechanisms are considered to be universal strategies (Dray et al., 2017).

Selective Strategies

The selective school-based approaches are known to highly effective in an educational context in the process of managing students suffering from anxiety disorder or even depression. Moreover, in the settings of a school, numerous preventive measures have been applied to manage the risk conditions such as that of substance among the teenagers who are suffering from anxiety disorder. Coping Power Program is known to be a good example of selective strategies that can be applied in a school setting (McCoy et al., 2015). This is a suitable strategy to deal with those teenagers who is in high risk of behaving in an aggressive manner or get involved in the process of substance use.

Implication of Professional Practice

Through this research report, it is recommended to all the counsellors or even the therapists in the area of managing patients suffering from an anxiety disorder, to follow the adequate technique of the diagnose the concerned mental illness.

Firstly, the physical examination of the patient, which in this case would a teenager should be conducted in order to determine the symptoms of the occurrence of an anxiety disorder in that particular patient (Spence et al., 2017). The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule is one of the most important technique that can be used by counsellor to determine the prevalence of anxiety disorder in children mostly between the age of 12-17.

Moreover, this process of an examination of anxiety disorder is conducted by a psychiatrist, who provides a set of questions to the victims in order to determine their symptoms of an anxiety disorder (Zayfert et al., 2019) . However, in such a situation it has also be determined that concerned patient does not accept that they are suffering from the problem of an anxiety disorder, hence it gets difficult for a psychiatrist or even a counsellor to help the patients to overcome the various problems they had been experiencing.

Secondly, it is significant for a counsellor to find out the past record of the patient as well as his family in the context of determining if any of his family member was or is suffering from any particular mental health (Gelaye et al., 2016) . Moreover, it is significant to determine the kind of relation the concerned teenager shares with his or her parents, or even the employment status of their parents which is considered significant to determine the prevalence of anxiety disorder in terms of teenager.

Thirdly, the concerned counsellor should exercise due amount of caution while dealing with such kinds of a patient as those teenagers who is suffering from an anxiety disorder is in the highest risk of committing a suicide (Thomson et al., 2015) .

Furthermore, it is significant for a psychiatrist to note that it is mostly the female teenagers who is suffering from an anxiety disorder as compared to their male counterparts. In this context, it has been determined that the teenagers who has an early puberty, poor social or even communication has a higher chance of getting prone to an anxiety disorder.

Considering the protective factors, it has been determined that the teenagers who does well in his or her academics, who has a good physical growth, who can control their own emotions has a lesser risk of getting prone to anxiety disorder.

Furthermore, there are certain ecological perspective of an anxiety disorder among the teenagers like that of the prevalence of depression among the parents and also among those teenagers whose parents are jobless or whose parents have failed to raise them in a proper manner.

CBT ( Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) and Adolescent Coping with Depression (CWD-A) are the evidence-based strategies that can be applied by the counsellor to treat a teenager who has suffering from an anxiety disorder (Trauer et al., 2015). The CBT mostly takes place in a clinic while the CWD-A can take place in any rural, urban or even school environment.

Additionally, considering from the point of view of an educational environment, the counsellors can take the initiative to make use of both selective as well as universal approaches to manage the patients suffering from an anxiety disorder (Dray et al., 2017) . The universal approach includes the CBT, while the selective approach includes the Coping Power Program which needs to be used by the counsellors in a wise manner.

In this context, it is also recommended for the counsellors to include the family members of the victims in the process of counselling (Dray et al., 2017). This will give them an idea about the past episodes of an anxiety disorder in terms of the concerned along with the type of behaviour demonstrated by the victims when they get such an attack.

Parents should be consulted to find out if any other members of their family had been suffering from an anxiety disorder or any other mental health issue.

Teachers should also be included in the process to understand the indications of anxiety disorder demonstrated by the teenagers in their school (Weersing et al., 2017) .

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