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Knowledge and Learning in Professions

Contents

Introduction.

In what ways does work in your profession draw upon different types and sources of knowledge?

Types of Knowledge.

Knowledge type 1: Know that

Knowledge type 2: Know-how..

Knowledge type 3: Tacit knowledge.

Sources of Knowledge.

Disciplines.

Professions.

Practitioners.

What is the relationship between different types of skills and abilities?.

Is this relationship changing?.

References.

Introduction to Knowledge in Marketing

Knowledge management and development has been objectified as a continuous activity in the working and occupational areas and industries. It has a significant play in the effective development and demonstration of the growth perspectives, value creation, and idealization for a competitive edge (Newell, 2015).

The improved area and scope for different disciplines of work have raised the base for numerous knowledge sources and skills to inherited. To take into the study a specific area of knowledge management, the marketing domain as a tactic knowledge resource has been acted upon.

In What Ways Does Work in Your Profession Draw upon Different Types and Sources of Knowledge?

According to Unal (2018), Knowledge management and development is a crucial part of the formation and framing of beliefs and cognition in people. However, the style and area of professional work of an individual reflect distinctness in the types and source of knowledge gained and experienced significantly where these gains become ab essential part of structured conduct and professional working system. 

Types of Knowledge

Kogut & Zander, (1992) bifurcated the types of knowledge in two distinct categories namely information or ‘know-that’ and ‘know-how’, in addition to which Wu (2003) demonstrated the tacit knowledge as an explicit type of knowledge in the workplace.

Knowledge type 1: Know that

The primary type of knowledge and source, the 'know-that' or informational type is knowledge is an explicit and conceptual model of knowledge based on the facts and already codified information in a declarative form of conveyance that assists the individual acquisition of new propositions (Winch, 2014).

For a marketing specialist, the ‘know-that’ type of knowledge becomes a primary source of information it acknowledges the facts and required informational insights to import in the individual in order to optimum performance.

Knowledge type 2: Know-how

The know-how type of knowledge is a practical sense of knowledge that has its alliance with the comprehensiveness in the work and activity of work (Winch, 2010). In integration to this, the ‘know-how’ type of knowledge involves two kinds of theories that systemize the knowledge in relation to the outcomes.

  • Firstly, knowledge of inferential relations between the propositions- that facilitates the feasibility of the existing knowledge of an individual in the workplace in creative as well as discreative ways.
  • Second is the knowledge of procedures- that helps in the assessment, analysis, identification, and acquisition of new knowledge and insights by individuals in the workplace.

The 'know-how' type of knowledge assessment becomes a vital player in the marketing industries as this provides a scope to individuals to derive the most practical ways of marketing ease and success through the ability to sense the practical foundations.

Knowledge type 3: Tacit knowledge

The tacit type of knowledge is the reference for an extremely personal knowledge an individual possesses, which usually has the inability to be expressed (Jisr & Maamari, 2017). Tacit knowledge is an implicit kind of knowledge that is not articulated for the reason of lack of its awareness, explanation, and practicality in the views of individuals and usually comes out in the form of talents and innovations.

The use of tacit knowledge has a big scope in the workplace. The marketing domain involves a comprehensive tacit knowledge in an unknown way that is transferred by use of mental methods, beliefs, perceptions, and assumptions of one to other (Davenport, 2000; Haradhan, 2016), that aids the strategic management, knowledge management, and development, and thus provides competitive marketing edge in the workplace.

Sources of Knowledge

Three ways of professional knowledge have been defined majorly that acts as assistance in the workplace scenarios.

Disciplines

Discipline source is the knowledge about the work and studies generated by scholars and researchers in a specific domain and expertise. The source of knowledge influences the qualitative and purposive exposure to individuals in the marketing domain of emerging situations and cases (Harris, 2017).

Professions

The most common source of knowledge in an organization or workplace, the collective knowledgeable insights of people from within the organization. The professional source of knowledge allows individuals to learn and induce certain marketing tactics and pieces of training through effective understanding and inculcation of knowledge and relevant marketing insights from the professions in the organization (Kulgemeyer, 2018).

Practitioners

It involves knowledgeable practices with the help of experienced absorbed by individuals from past work performance and self-assessment. This source of knowledge generally enhances the development of a tacit type of knowledge in person, such as the past experiences and failures in the marketing effort would develop a tacit knowledge of what steps must or must not be involved in the work to eliminate the risk of failure.

Each of these three of a combination of these is responsible for the development of the mentioned types of knowledge or a combination of them towards effective development of:

  • Occupational capacity
  • Knowledge translation marketing
  • Overall knowledge facilitation, etc.

What Is the Relationship Between Different Types of Skills and Abilities?

It has been argued by Winch, (2014) that the exploration of different types of knowledge from distinct sources does not just enhance the work productivity and knowledge management practices of one but also employs the most typically significant work skills.

Depending on the degree of exposure to knowledgeable insights, an individual may inherit moderate to extreme levels of skills and abilities, and its effectiveness in relation to the working practices.

The sound level of knowledgeable exposure enhances the skillful development in following manners.

Types of skills

Description

Examples

Moderate Exposure

 

Non-physical skills

Mental skills (such as mental calculation and mapping as used by a shopkeeper).

In the marketing domain, mental skills have a significant relationship with mental capabilities like mental statistics, mental calculation, and virtual marketing mapping, etc.

Transferable skills

Literacy skills

The literacy skills are those that are transferrable and conveyable among people, such as in terms of collaboration, teamwork, and inter-team assistance in relation to marketing strategic plans.

Extreme Exposure

 

General skills

Decision making and problem-solving capacities

The marketing individuals must have a strong relationship with the abilities and skills to be arising from the knowledge management practices, for example, efficient risk management, problem-solving skills, etc. in the marketing domain.

Soft skills

Communication and orientation.

Soft skills development and skillful utility have a major role in the marketing tactics in inclination with knowledge. For instance, evolution of public relations, customer engagement activities, etc.

Also, as stated by Beck (2013), the adoption and provision of vocational education and knowledge have a prominent effect in the endorsement of ‘employability skills’ that leads further towards individual allocation and accessibility to competitive knowledge in the place. 

Although there has been an interchangeable use of the terms skills and abilities, both have quite distinct meanings and representations in terms of utility. Cegielski, (2016) has discussed that knowledge, skills, and abilities act as a multi-method development of an individual in the workplace.

Certain abilities have a powerful and robust significance in the effective and enormous development of knowledge, workplace experience, and mental capabilities of the people. The most prominent abilities that evolve as an important factor of knowledge outcomes have been enlisted below.

Abilities

Description

Example

Transversal abilities

The type of abilities that often have a substantial impact on the performance of a person in place. This type of abilities involves the infusion of professional highlights such as the ability to plan, coordinate, control, and evaluate a certain process in the organization (Winch, 2014).

For the case of marketing, the transversal abilities relate to knowledge management by the optimal performance of activity like the development of a new marketing strategy, changes in the present marketing strategy, etc. which requires a chain of the process as discussed.

Project management abilities

According to Winch (2014), the ability to manage a project comes with the dynamic knowledge gaining and management factors that enhance and influence the strength and potential of the individual in decision-making and quality project management techniques. 

The marketing sector of the industrial arena has been observed with effective development of project management abilities such as the development of leadership qualities, problem-solving capabilities, decision-making and judgment specialties, etc. to name a few (Udo, 2004).

Communication and personality abilities

Knowledge management practices have a significant impression on the non-technical background of abilities such as the development of sound communication strategies, critical thinking, time management, etc. (Doyle, 2017).

The persuasion of knowledgeable insights in an individual has a great scope for the development of non-technical and soft communicational abilities in a way of proactiveness, creativity in ideas, sound reasonability and aptitude, etc (Udo, 2004). 

This concludes that there is a strong relationship between knowledge management and the different abilities and skills in the workplace. The thorough consumption of abilities and skills by the way of knowledge management in the work field has raised a bar for the concentration of unique abilities and skills.

Is this Relationship Changing?

There has been an ongoing, continuous, and evolving relationship between the knowledge practices, skills, and abilities in the workplace and the process has transformed in a robust way with the evolution of digitalization in the revolutionary business shifts (Di Gregorio, 2019).

The increased span for globalization and revolutionary digitalization in the workforce practices have catered to the scope for a dynamic and modified relationship between the three attributes namely knowledge, abilities, and skills of an individual.

Similarly, marketing has also created an expanded force in globalized factors. The wider range of marketing has taken a big role on the digital platforms and has aided the increased span for assessment of quality knowledge, abilities, and skills of the individual in the marketing zone of the work.

Attitudes and skills

Emergent changes

Soft skills

There has been an appealing change in the variation of soft skills. The traditional marketing techniques and capabilities used to involve a basic requirement of communication, listening skills and some of the non-verbal cues of communication what has robustly developed in a wider scope with the advent of digitalization by adding into the recent cues of soft skills such as the capability to initiate, robust and 360-degree interpersonal communications, flexibility, etc.

Technical abilities

The conventional practices of knowledge management namely campaign management, website development, designing, content development, etc. have become a basic in relation to emerging development of skills and abilities like social media marketing, search engine optimization, and search engine marketing, analytics, etc. have become a materializing list of abilities and skills in the recent and robust marketing arena.

Core marketing abilities and skills

The knowledge management practices used to include only elemental marketing skills like planning, organization, and commanding the marketing strategies in the workplace. However, the emergence of recently popularized marketing tactics has become evident, namely content creation, multilateral marketing tasks, and achievements, forecasting the sales, and assisting the after-sales services.

Analytical skills and abilities

Traditionally, the practices and use of analytics have recently developed as an essentiality in the orbit of analytical skills utilized in the context of knowledge management. The ability and skills of analytics like data orientation, critical thinking capabilities, use of CRM, and relational analytics have taken a good structure in the recently changed scenario of knowledge management and its relatable skills and abilities.

Table1. The changed relationship between knowledge in view of abilities and skills

Source: Di Gregorio, (2019).

To conclude, there has been a radical shift in knowledge management and its derivatives in form of abilities and skills developing in the individuals working in the field of marketing. The evolution of digitalization in the marketing sector has raised scope for the development of various new and emergent skills and artistry for individuals.

References for Knowledge in Marketing

Beck, J. (2013). Powerful knowledge, esoteric knowledge, curriculum knowledge. Cambridge Journal of Education, 43.

Cegielski, C. G. & jones-Farmer, L. A. (2016). Knowledge, skills, and abilities for entry-level business analytics positions: A multi-method study. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 14(1), 91-118.

Davenport, T. H. & Prusak, L. (2000). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.

Di Gregoroi, A., Maggioni, I., Mauri, C., & Mazzucchelli, A. (2019). Employability skills for future marketing professionals. European Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.03.004

Doyle, A. (2017). Top 10 communication skills. Communication skills for workplace success. Available at: https://ramapo.edu/.

Harris, J. & Wihak, C. (2017). To what extent do discipline, knowledge domain, and curriculum affect the feasibility of the recognition of prior learning (RPL) in higher education? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 36(6), 696-712. https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2017.1379564.

Jisr, R. E. & Maamari, B. E. (2017). Effectuation: Exploring the third dimension to tacit knowledge. Knowledge and Process Management, 24(1), 72-78. https://doi.org/10.1002/kpm.1536.

Kogut, B. & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organizational Science, 3(3), 383-397.

Kulgemeyer, C. & Riese, J. (2018). From professional knowledge to professional performance: The impact of CK and PCK on teaching quality in explaining situations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(10). httpS://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21457.

Mohajan, H. (2016). Sharing of tacit knowledge in organizations: A review. American Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 3(2), 6-19.

Newell, S. (2015). Managing knowledge and managing knowledge work: What we know and what the future holds. Journal of Information Technology, 30, 1-17.

Udo, N. & Koppensteiner, S. (2004). What are the core competencies of a successful project manager? PMI Global Congress 2004- EMEA. Prague, Czech Republic.

Unal, E. & Papafragou, A. (2018). Relations between language and cognition: Evidentiality and sources of knowledge. Topics in Cognitive Science, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12355.

Winch, C. (2014). Know-how and knowledge in the professional curriculum. Knowledge, Expertise, and Professions, 47-60.

Wu, L. L. (2003). Understanding senior management’s behavior in promoting the strategic role of it in process reengineering: Use of the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Information and Management, 41, 1-11.

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