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Contemporary Education Policy - Part A

Introduction

Overview:

The term globalization is known as the process to interconnecting the people and the business. It refers to the ability to communicate with the people from all over the world. In 1970s, globalization is relatively new word for the world. The Internet, television and airplane are the new invention to spread globalization. In today’s world, globalization enhances the technology in communication and ideas, knowledge and items are enhanced globally. These technologies have a great impact on communication globally as it compresses the time and space. Globalization has various positive impacts on the community to connect locally and globally. The closer interconnection is done between people and it also enables the new market and trends to develop (EDUC511 Glossary, 2020). Education is the major part of any society. For social, economic and human development, education plays a very important role (Bakhtiari & Shajar, 2015). It affects the world in the field of culture, technology, science and economics. If globalization will be understood in reference to the education, it suggests the new approaches in the education system to provide students an opportunity to play a role as a global worker or citizen. The globalization approach provides the government and global education consumer a way to find ranking of the education’s product. For this purpose, global measures of educational performance are done by using some methods like PISA, PIRLS and TIMSS tests. These methods are the international assessments methods that are used to monitor latest trends in student achievement in science, mathematics and reading. They have conducted e-assessments at regular intervals since 1995. In IEA’s TIMSS, monitoring of latest outcomes in science and mathematics of the students from eighth and fourth grades in four years is done where as in PIRLS, literacy of reading is monitored of fourth grade students in every five years (TIMMs and PIRLS International Study Center, 2020). In PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), the ability of student is measured by analyzing their mathematics, reading and science knowledge and skills (OECD, 2020). 

Role of International Organization in globalization of processes and education policy:

International organization plays an important role to assemble education policy to global. It plays a significant role to develop new idea and activities to improve the performance in education (Shahjahan, 2012). National/State policy actors are increasingly networking with their colleagues by participating in international organization activities (Rizvi and Lingard 2010). International organizations are basically a government organization that are joined together to handle national and international policy issues. It is an emerged social actor who contributes to promote and develop policy of education. There are many international organizations which are working on the education policy globally:

Role of global institutions in contemporary education policy:

  • World Bank

The World Bank (WB) established in 1944 aim to focus on the priorities of newly emerging developing countries. The World Bank is one of the world’s largest financial as well as the research institute. The World Bank Group’s global education strategy is to focus on the students to learning for all and to ensure that all children can attend school and learn (World Bank, 2020). To make it possible, WB works with other countries to help them to improve their education systems and to identify the best ways to provide better learning for children, young adults and adulthood that needs to develop skills. In 1994, the WB has published first education policy which is used to help to recognize an importance of education for socioeconomic growth and development. The WB publishes many documents which give information about the education policy and focused on the quality of education. The WB conducts many types of education related activities which consist of producing policy reports, financial support, collecting and analyzing data, offering policy advice, sponsoring international/national conferences, supplying technically support and providing analytical assistance for governments to make them take decision for betterment for education. It can be concluded that the WB plays a global actor role in education policy. The Bank is stem cell of economy as it provides the policy advice, assistance in technical problem and analytic work.

  • OECD

The OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) developed in September 1961 and its objective is to support economically, promote employment and gives assistance to countries in their development of economy. The OECD is interested in education policy since 1960s. The OECD focuses on various types of higher education activities which are collection of data, surveys on data production, country reviews which is basically focused on quality methodology based on education, policy based research reports or a combination of previous and new research, guidelines for internationally higher education, projects and international conferences. The OECD publishes the academic journal which focuses on education policy and issues of institutes. So it can be concluded that the OECD represents policy making in higher education. It develops PISA which is used to measure student’s ability to see their reading and knowledge of mathematics and science.

Theories of Globalization:

  1. Taylorism: Scientific Management of Education

Taylorism is the scientific management method in which decisions are made related to the education to increase efficiency and production (EDUC511 Glossary, 2020). In early 1900s, Taylor has developed the various principles in scientific management to increase efficiencies in industry’s production by measuring time and cost. Taylor’s four principles of scientific management are as follows:

  1. Work should be studied by using some scientific method and the most efficient way to perform work is to be found.
  2. Performance of worker should be monitored and accordingly provide instructions and guidance to make them work in the most efficient ways.
  3. Allocation should be done based on the work between managers and workers so that the manager and workers do their task efficiently.
  4. Assign a job to workers based on their capability and train them at maximum efficiency.

The application of above principles is used to give focus on approaches of outcomes, measurement and a standardization. It gives a strong connection between the schools and the industry with reference to the curriculum to meet an economic end. According to Welsh (2008), such approaches have used to lead standardization by narrowing the model of education and bigger class sizes. According to the Au (2011), now a days digitized Taylorism management technique with testing, measuring the performance and greater standardization can be seen in the U.S.

  1. Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism word has derived from two words i.e. new liberalism. Neoliberalism is used to describe social and economic policies which is characterized due to the privatization and marketisation. Privatization word representing the selling or transferring of responsibilities of government services to private companies with reference to the public services such as education (EDUC511 Glossary, 2020). Marketisation or marketized approach is the approach in which market ideas and practices is introduced into the organization and government services like users pay for accessing government services is delivered (Savage, 2017). It helps in minimal regulation of market, government spending is cut by reducing the size of some government department and new managerial techniques of government are redesigned the public sector with the private facilities. It emphasizes on characteristics such as privatization, competition and importance of market forces. Neoliberal education policies are explained by privatization and marketisation.

Implications and discussion of Globalization on Education and Practice:

In Australia, neoliberalism has changed the government’s schooling systems and curriculum and this trend is continuously going on by redesigning the market. Due to neoliberalism, the transformation of education has been explained by researcher/scholars in the field of education policy studies. The effect of neoliberalism in education is that it can be reimagined of it from an economic point of view (Rizvi & Lingard, 2010). The marketisation of education systems in Australia, The United states and the United Kingdom is known as quasi- marketisation. Education businesses in school and universities have new and powerful roles especially when government services have contracted out of government services but the through new business arrangements with schools. Various examples of the trend which were used to do contracting of PISA testing.

Contemporary Education Policy - Part B

Globalization of Processes and Education Policy in South Africa

How Globalization has impacted South Africa:

Globalization has a great impact on African nations and their economic and societies. The OECD economies are basically based on knowledge and information which is the key of productivity and growth focuses on the role of information, technology and learning in economic performance. In South Africa, education institutions are easy to operate internally and externally environments. In external environment, the system is affected whereas the internal environment works on the factors within the institution such as management, culture, school policies etc.

Key issues:

In South Africa, the external environment is complex, uncertain and very challenging to handle. The poverty and inequality are present in South Africa and due to which schools are facing insufficient teaching, teaching staff and learning, physical resources. Because of globalization, complexity and uncertainty is created in South Africa. Globalization is changing the educational scenario and the socioeconomic and technological environments. In South Africa, there are many issues like poverty, politics issue, social issues etc. which affects the education. However, South Africa’s government is now focusing on the globalization. These changes have taken place in education globally over the last few years (Altbach et al, 2010).

Policy Responses:

For globalization, governments and universities are implemented many policies and programs such as sending students to abroad for study purpose, has settling a campus outside the country or engaging the institutional relationship internally. Education policies and affected institutions are changed by using the concept globalization. The transformation of higher education is motivated by the globalization and it directly has impact on the educational motives and on strategic management decisions (University of Western Cape, 2017). If talk about Neoliberalism, South Africa has not accepted this feature completely. Neoliberal policies have been implemented for educational transformation. Privatization is a basic and important feature of the neoliberal project. Many countries has taken this idea from the U.K. and the U.S. South Africa also followed the same trend and taken this educational policies from the Australia and United Kingdom. Neoliberal policy failed in South Africa as it did not consider the implementation and the economic capacity required to implement such policies. In reference to the South African education, it is totally impractical. Neoliberalism has sweeping out the globe in waves of institutional reformation and too costly structural program. International organizations like the World Bank (WB) has announced the rules of engagement and has forced to implement with various condition including the loans provided by international organization (ERP, 2007). According to the Australian scholar Raewynn Connell (2013), the universities are now totally handled by a neoliberal management under their neoliberal rule, due to this education is displaced by competitive training and competition, social conformity is increased and because of this corruption takes a place in education sector. By the 1980s the neoliberal approach came to humiliate the policy all over the western world (Hickel &Peters, 2012). According to Bresser-Pereira (2009), neoliberalism is the kind of approach used by the rich people against the poor and the workers.

Discussion and Analysis:

There are many arguments which supports the privatization and some arguments are against to it. The arguments which support privatization are as follows: it increases the economic growth and it is used to enhance development in technology and capacity of innovation. Now day’s private sector are more efficient than public sector as it gives the advantage in budget. There are some other arguments which are against privatization as follows: Due to privatization cost of education become higher and reduction in employment. It leads to loss of quality. There are some countries which imply the neoliberalism and have different impact. Chile is the country which has first implemented the privatization and it faces the different problem. As education become for the high and middle range class people. Poor can’t afford the high fees and quality education as their economic condition is not good. Canada implement this in 1970s and its also facing many problems regarding rising of unemployment. Main focus of South Africa is every child will get equal and quality education. According to UNESCO, due to high expenditure in education, the enrolment in primary class is low in 2000 (75%) as compared to 1988 (81.6%) in South Africa. This finance-driven strategy is inadequate and due to privatization, there is lacking of materials, quality as institutes are focused in making money. According to the information provided by World Bank, the education rate in African countries is very low. Many of the Africans are squeezed between education, the underground economy and into poverty by globalization. It’s important to invest in the region to develop the capability in education sector. There is a tension in taking the regional initiatives in between support for the privatization and marketisation of education. The tension is growing day by day and has given the increasing international effect of higher education especially in a tertiary level. The increasing privatization and marketisation of education have been a becoming a feature of education policy in low-income countries. In most African countries, marketisation is encouraging and forcing the policy of charging high fees in private schools and universities and there is limited development for some students in the urban areas. African governments should set their priorities in expenditure on education. The priority of African governments should give to education funding and spend more education and health.

Conclusion on Globalization of Processes and Education Policy

Neoliberalism theories promote the market above the quality and development. Their priority is to focus on economic instead of the social and political as their main aim is only to generate economic growth. They should work and do the investment on the human capital theories to enhance knowledge and skills of them which will focus on generating economic growth (Department for International Development, 2007). The relationship between education, globalization and development should be emphasized which make better policy and practice for education. During recognition of the particular difficulties in working in the education area can be faced. For low-income countries like African country, there are lots of difficulties while providing a good education or even basic education. Still after having so many difficulties, education should be equal for all. It can change the lives in a positive way. Many children and adults in the world are not capable to have a quality education. This fact also reminds us that education is meant for producing both social justice and injustice. For all of these reasons it is important that try to get it right or recognize that it can be tried again. If education will produce growth with equality and peace, then it’s a goal which can be achieved.

References for Globalization of Processes and Education Policy

Altbach P, et al. (2010). Trends in Global Higher Education Retrieved from Tracking an Academic Revolution Sense/UNESCO, Rotterdam.

Au, Wayne. (2011). Teaching under the new Taylorism: High-stakes testing and the standardization of the 21st century curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies,43 (1), 25-45.

Bakhtiari, S, & Shajar, H. (2015). Globalization and Education: Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Dr%20PK%20Aw/Desktop/Globalization_And_Education_Challenges_And_Opportu.pdf

Bresser, L & Pereira, C. (2009). Assault on the State and on the Market: Neoliberalism and Economic Theory. Estudos Avancados, 23 (66).

Department of International Development. (2007). Globalization, education and Development Ideas, Actors and Dynamics. Retrieved from https://www.dvv-international.de/fileadmin/files/aaaglobal-education-dev-68.pdf

EDUC511. (2020). Glossary of terms. Contemporary Education Policy, New Zealand, Victoria University of Wellington.

Hickel, J. (2012). A Short History of Neoliberalism (And How We Can Fix It). Retrieved from http://www.newleftproject.org/index.php/site/article/comments

OECD, (2020). PISA. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/

OECD. (2019). South Africa. Retrieved from https://gpseducation.oecd.org/CountryProfile?plotter=h5&primaryCountry=ZAF&treshold=5&topic=EO

Popescu, F. (2015). South African globalization strategies and higher education. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Dr%20PK%20Aw/Desktop/south-african-globalization-strategies-and-higher-education.pdf

Rizvi, F. & Lingard, B. (2010). Globalizing education policy. New York: Routledge.

Savage, G.C. (2017). Neoliberalism, education and curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320069681

Shahjahan, R.A. (2012). The Roles of International Organizations (IOs) in Globalizing Higher Education Policy. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Dr%20PK%20Aw/Desktop/handbookchapter.pdf

TIMMs and Pirls International Study Center. (2020). Data to improve education worldwide. Retrieved from https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/

University of Western Cape. (2017). The impact of neoliberalism on South Africa’s education policy discourse post–1994: The quest for a radical critical pedagogy. Retrieved from https://etd.uwc.ac.za/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11394/6371/27433280RV.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Welch & Anthony. (2008). "Making education policy." In Education, change and society, edited by Raewyn Connell, Craig Campbell, Margaret Vickers, Anthony Welch, Dennis Foley and Nigel Bagnall, Melbourne, Oxford University Press. 1-33.

World Bank, (2020). Education. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/education/overview#1

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