Curriculum: Theory and Practice

Technology plays an important role in infiltrating every factor of people’s lives, altering how people work, how people learn, and how people educate or aware widely and efficiently. In the context of that, technology has massive relevance in the education sector as well. Technology has the capability to boost the relationship between students and teachers effectively. Besides that, when a tutor efficiently assimilates technology into areas of the subject, the tutor tends to emerge as a mentor or coach. This particular research report will provide a substantial understanding of the significance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum.

In present, New Zealand is been emerging as an innovation hub of technological aspects in the world, it has also successfully competed with the world in terms of technological innovations and testing. However, the scenarios were different in the late ’80s and 90’s when technology was not that popular and impactful towards society. Various works of literature shall be reviewed in depth in this research report to scrutinize facts and understandings regarding the research topic and subject area effectively. Undertaking this approach will help conclude the research findings with possible beneficial results concerning the research problems and questions.

According to the selected pieces of literature, technology education was integrated in the New Zealand curriculum since decades; however, the implementation was basic in form and was not effective to make awareness about the subject area. In addition, the significance of technology-enabled teaching approach was not assessed effectively to understand its benefits in the New Zealand curriculum. This will set as a problem statement and a significant research gap for the study. Also, the rationale for the study will encompass understanding the various factors involved in the ineffectiveness of technology education in the New Zealand curriculum. Besides that, this study will also help assess the benefits of effectively integrate technology-enabled teaching approaches within the classrooms will enhance the curriculum immensely.

Several kinds of the literature revealed that implementing technology education in the New Zealand curriculum was challenging and comprise of various barriers. Even though the subject was present since history; however, it was the parent’s and teacher’s willingness and reluctant to educate oneself about technology. The authors have indicated that there was various reason during those days as the traditional approach of education and teaching was more valued. Thus, the key focus of this research will be to analyze the challenges and issues in implementing technology education in the New Zealand curriculum.

Another study has suggested that previous practices of the teachers majorly affects their understanding of the description of the technology, trends, impacts, and usage familiarity within the classrooms. This has identified as a negative impact on the technological advancement in the education sector of New Zealand. Reviewing the factors and concepts involved in the study will help understand the benefits and impact on students, teachers, and society as a whole. Further, in this research, it will be clarified that how technology education can shape the education system of New Zealand curriculum effectively and what benefits and relevance it can provide to students and teachers in learning and teaching at the same time.

Table of Contents


Problem statement

The rationale for the study.

Significance of the study.

Literature review..

Research question and objectives.

Research methodology.

Data collection method.


The relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum..

Issues while implementing technology education in the New Zealand curriculum..

Benefits of implementing technology-enabled teaching approach in the New Zealand curriculum..




Introduction to Relevance of Technology

With the growing progress, developing countries across the world would are adapting to new trends and technologies to keep up with the pace effectively. Technology has been a key player when it comes to transforming any challenging task to a much easier form ensuring productivity and reliability at the same time. Besides that, by utilizing technology, the world has witnessed as well as experienced massive emergence in its economy, progress, and sustainability in the market.

Technology has helped many different sectors to grow enormously and has gained significant benefits by implementing technology in their processes. For example, developing countries like New Zealand, the technology sector has emerged rapidly and is considered a significant contributor to boosting the country economy and progression positively. In addition to that, a study by Morgan, (2019) stated that in 2018, the technology industry of New Zealand was worth $11 billion (Morgan, 2019). Majority of the revenue was from the technology export business to the global market (Morgan, 2019). The technology sector of New Zealand is diverse and advanced and has the potentiality to compete successfully across the global (Morgan, 2019). The country is been emerging as an innovation hub and successfully compete with the world in terms of facilitation and productivity to businesses, government sectors, educational institutions, and community as a whole.

Concerning such fact, developing awareness and providing a solid education to the younger and upcoming generation is an essential and key factor for any country to focus on. In today’s era, technology has helped the education sector massively to create a positive impact on students, tutors, educational institutions, and the overall economy as a whole. Thus, educating them about technology or implementing a technology-related subject in the curriculum shall help positively to develop and advance the nation more towards boosting the overall economy mutually. Learning about technology will help students to expand their ideas, concepts, and perspectives to create something creative and innovative that will lead to help ease life and efficiency. Implementing a technology-based education facility or technology related subject in the New Zealand curriculum will be worth for the country’s advancement and progression.

However, there are several challenges associated while implementing the said factors successfully. This research report will primarily focus on analyzing the relevancy of technology in the New Zealand curriculum and identifying the challenges that would occur while implementing the process effectively. Understanding the importance of technology and its education to students shall shed a light on the technological perspectives of toady’s need of the world and for national development concerns. Thus, this study will give a substantial understanding of the topic to the readers and use for further research as a point of reference.

Problem Statement of Relevance of Technology

Prior to performing any research or study, it is crucial to determine the problem statement closely to ensure accuracy and reliability in the conducted study successfully. Concerning this research report, identifying and setting a problem statement is essential to perform analysis, findings and subsequently to conclude the study effectively. In this report, the relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum will be discussed as well analyzed. However, before initiating the research report, it is crucial to understand and have insight into the problems or issue that are hindering the progression negatively. Besides, based on the problem statement, the whole research report will be prepared accordingly to overcome the problems effectively to conclude a substantial understanding and prospects of the report.

It has been identified that technology is booming within New Zealand and has a promising future in the future to expand globally. Relating to such fact, implementing and advancing technology education and implementation of technology can be beneficial for the country’s betterment. But it is challenging and critical to implement the said factors within New Zealand's curriculum successfully. According to Nia & De Vries, (2016), providing education about technology or technology education is potentially beneficial and advantageous to obtain advancement for the future and moving along with latest trends and information (Nia & De Vries, 2016). Technology has always known for making life and processes easier than it used to be or traditionally (Nia & De Vries, 2016).

However, studies have found out that technology-based education may distract students in their learning effectiveness and efficiency while utilizing technology in form of laptop computers, iPod, mobile gadgets, etc. (Nia & De Vries, 2016). Relating to this, educational institutions fear of implementing the approach into their classroom and curriculum. On the other hand, tutor’s incapability of required skill sets, and lack of know-how is another reason that has created a barrier to execute or introduce technology-enabled education approach. This reason has caused massive negligence for the technology-enabled education system to implement within the New Zealand curriculum. Thus, analyzing and evaluating the factors involved causing the problems while implementing the technology-based education is help understand its significance and importance of relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum.

The Rationale for Relevance of Technology

Assessing the rationale for the study helps one to provide substantial understanding on the topic and assists in giving a positive perspective to the readers who might have some other or considerably a negative outlook on the topic related. Assessing a research gap and rationale of the study helps to find new areas of research to perform, comprehend, and assess further research data about the related topic effectively. Concerning such fact, this particular research report of the relevance of technology in New Zealand curriculum has been undertaken for mend numbers of areas while keeping aware of the standards of the previous works of literature in determining the areas of the study considerably.

Relating to such fact, the current researches on the relevance of technology in new Zealand curriculum have covered several areas and standards that comprise of technology-based education approaches and many key methodologies to uplift the education system in the New Zealand curriculum as it will help to provide substantial information for a future pint of reference while conducting any related study or research. While analysing the current researches based on technology education or how technology-based education can help students and teachers to have an effective and beneficial session of learning and educating.

By assessing the researches available in different sources signifies the gap or topic which the past researches have not attended or did not find it of great importance to perform any particular research. This indicates that the selected topic of the research has not been researched or studied by any researchers in the past and carries potentialities to execute the research in-depth to conclude and find a substantial understanding of the related topic closely. Besides that, the assessment of present researches has assisted in understanding and finding the absence of research in a similar topic of the relevance of technology. However, the existing researchers relating to this specific area has been limited to the relevancy of technology in the New Zealand curriculum.

Selecting this particular topic for the research study consists of three reasons signifying a rationale for the study. The three reasons are as follows:

  • Analyse the relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum.
  • Understanding and clarifying the benefits and advantages of technology-based education and adding technology education subject in the New Zealand curriculum.
  • How it can potentially boost the education sector and approach to make student’s learning ability and tutors educating proficiency.

Concerning to relevancy of technology in New Zealand, the country has initiated technology education since the '90s from class 1 to 10 at least. However, the implementation was not that effective as it supposed to be and it is providing any substantial benefits to the end-users due to ineffectiveness while implementing and educating. This factor indicates that there is still a huge gap present in the New Zealand curriculum to enhance and implement the technology education and approach to ensure effectiveness and advancement rapidly and efficiently. Thus, understanding the concepts, ideas, and effectiveness of technology education and technology-based learning approach in the New Zealand curriculum shall help enormously to augment student’s efficiency level and innovation within themselves. This, in turn, would help boost the educational system, student’s creativity and innovation, and society at large.

Significance of Relevance of Technology

This section of the research report will help comprehend the importance or significance of studying this particular topic. Understanding the importance of technology and its benefits is important in today’s world of rapid development and progression across the world. In the recent scenario, technology is been known for creative innovations and for making life easier and processes more effective and reliable. Thus, studying or researching the relevancy of technology in New Zealand curriculum shall help understand the various concepts, ideas, and perspectives that are essential to implement and view to ensure progression and effectiveness at all levels.

The main tenacity of this particular research is to find and scrutinize the benefits and advantages of implementing technology-based education approach and the importance of teaching about technology subject in the New Zealand curriculum. As it has been understood that technology has helped New Zealand to grow immensely and boost its economy and businesses, it also driving towards emerging as a global technological hub in the world. The technology sector of New Zealand has emerged so rapidly and advanced that it has been studied that the country is competing successfully in technological grounds across the world. Many IT giants and software companies are seeking business opportunities in New Zealand to establish their business setting in the country after assessing the technological advancement within the country. Many prominent business leaders view New Zealand as a potential market for rapid business emergence and have promising future ahead to become the global leader in terms of technology supply, innovation, and development at the same time. With the growing demand for technology as per the paybacks and user openness, the relevance of technology is been creating a positive impact on students, teachers, and society as a whole.

Thereby, concerning such fact, implementing technology education and implementing technology-enabled teaching approach can help the economy, students, teachers, society, and scientific progress to reap substantial benefits out of it. By studying this particular project or topic will help to understand the several factors that are associated with the development of technology and how it creates an impact on people's lives, societies, and students. Many previous pieces of literature have been reviewed to identify and comprehend the aspects and components that are vital for the research to study to consider and implement while performing the research effectively in order to ensure accuracy and reliability of the study. Hence, this research report will provide substantial implication for the study to help readers assess and understand the benefits and advantages of utilizing and implementing technology in New Zealand curriculum; effective to enhance student’s learning abilities and tutor’s capability at the same time.

Literature Review of Relevance of Technology

It is important to understand that while researching regarding any particular topic or subject, reviewing records, history, and findings in order to make sure all the information that is available in varied sources are valid, accurate, and reliable is vital. Without such findings or reviews, one cannot claim that the conclusion or the contents in the report are valid and reliable to understand and consider true. According to Kibuku & Ochieng, (2019) a literature review can be defined as an exploration and assessment of the all the related literature available based on the topic or subject specifically (Kibuku & Ochieng, 2019). Another study by Nunn et al., 2016 stated that literature review is to surveying journals, articles, books, websites, news, and other sources related to the specific selected subject or topic, problem, theory, or area of research (Nunn et al., 2016). It assists to find relevant information to effectively investigate the research problem and able to conclude with proficient solutions or recommendations (Nunn et al., 2016). Literature provides significant shreds of evidence and understanding related to the topic or subject developed by the past researches (Nunn et al., 2016). The prime purpose to perform literature review while researching on a specific topic or subject is to gain a comprehension of the current research and arguments in order to make available that comprehended knowledge in a documentation form (Nunn et al., 2016). It significantly helps one to establish an in-depth understanding of the subject knowledge precisely (Nunn et al., 2016).

Besides that, reviewing literature that was developed or concluded by previous researchers in the past helps to identify the research gap that had not been attended or undertaken. This provides significant assistance in finding the research gap and leads to comprehending the importance of the particular study. Similarly, in this research, literature review has been performed to evaluate and search various ideas, perceptions, concepts, and theories based on the specific area of research or related topic to understand and help to find a solution to the research problem. By reviewing end numbers of literature which were executed by various researchers in the past, it is clear that researchers identified the topic as important and beneficial for the readers to understand the defined facts within it.

In addition to that, research on technology education and technology-based education topic had been performed earlier which indicates significant insights regarding the topic or subject that has been undertaken to develop this research report. Thus, this research report involves the literature analysis of varied researched scholarly journals, articles, news, websites, and books to scrutinize facts and concepts related to the research topic of the relevance of technology in New Zealand curriculum in order to find answers to the indicated research questions and problems.

According to a journal by Kellow, (2018) which specifically provides significant discussions over the introduction of two digital technology education subjects within the New Zealand curriculum for students or learners aged from 01 to 13 years (Kellow, 2018). Specifically, the two technology education subjects are to be called as ‘computational thinking about digital technologies (CTDT)’ and ‘designing and developing outcomes (DDO)’ (Kellow, 2018). Besides that, Kellow, (2018) has also described the issues and challenges to face while implementing these new concepts or ideas, for example, professional development, the willingness of the teacher, resources, skillsets, and interest towards these progressions (Kellow, 2018). The main purpose of this journal is to assess the stated challenges and issues, and the best possible approach to resolve these (Kellow, 2018). The author also indicated that by 2020, every school or educational institutions across New Zealand are expected to add these subjects in the curriculum to boost knowledge and education about digital technologies and its impact. In addition to that, the journal summarizes a few backgrounds specified aims to introduce these subjects within the New Zealand curriculum. The author has also inspected the indicated challenges which include tutor’s readiness and resourcing, skill development and additional approaches to be associated with the amendments.

As defined by Kellow, (2018), adding CTDT subject in the New Zealand curriculum will help students enhancing and gaining knowledge about the standards, values, and efficiency of computer science which develops every digital technology (Kellow, 2018). Besides, CTDT will also allow students to explore and learn key theories and concepts of programming language and codes to establish themselves as innovators instead of operators of digital technologies and incline towards progressing the economy of New Zealand effectively (Kellow, 2018).

Whereas, in the case of DDO subject, it will enable students or learners to understand how to design and develop quality technologies that would provide best results as per the numerical solutions provided (Kellow, 2018). On the other hand, the subject also includes the education of digital strategies, infrastructure, artificial intelligence, and digital applications (Kellow, 2018). However, concerning challenges and issues in implementing these two subjects into New Zealand's curriculum, they aware related to financial assistance to educational institutions to install hardware and software requirements to successfully run the new courses or subjects. Thereby, this specific journal by Kellow, (2018) has been taken into consideration for literature review purposes as it resembles with the research rationale of the topic of issues in implementing technology education in New Zealand curriculum.

Another study by Reinsfield, (2016) has debated on how the understandings and the previous approaches of tutors affected their understanding of the nature of technologies in educational institutions like schools (Reinsfield, 2016). With the emergence of demand of technological innovations and fostered awareness about the impact of technology on the community, the author assumes reasonably that technology education has a conventional role in student’s learning about the regional and global societal issues that interconnect with technology (Reinsfield, 2016). The author has recommended that technology-based teaching remained as a part of the New Zealand curriculum within end numbers of methodologies since its inception as a matter of skill (Reinsfield, 2016). The methodologies that have been used in this journal are based on case studies which indicate a qualitative research approach (Reinsfield, 2016). Two schools and six tutors had been selected to assess the effectiveness of the approaches in the New Zealand curriculum and schools (Reinsfield, 2016). This indicates that the author has identified as well as describes the importance of technology-enabled teaching approach in New Zealand curriculum to increase education about the impact of technology in people’s lives and societies at large, it is the technology that intersects local communities with international ones effectively and reliably (Reinsfield, 2016).

However, the author has stated that few of the tutors has faced complications after the introduction of the new curriculum due to the requirement of reviewing technology standards about the technology education and approach of teaching students (Reinsfield, 2016). This indicates challenges and issues while implementing technology education and technology enables teaching approach within the New Zealand curriculum effectively. Thus, this specific article has been reviewed or undertaken for this research purpose as it provides a substantial focus on the forthcoming aspects of technology education in the New Zealand curriculum through assessing the findings of two schools effectively. Besides that, it comprises of tutor’s perceptions within the schools regarding technology education, their acceptance structure, and their interest towards the new concepts (Reinsfield, 2016). Thus, it helps to provide crucial information and understanding with reliable outcomes and findings gathered from semi-organized interviews and surveys with the school’s tutors meticulously (Reinsfield, 2016).

Research Question and Objectives

Research objectives and questions enable a researcher to understand the research aim and provide substantial guidance to the correct route to develop the research report effectively. 

For this specific research report, research questions are:

  1. What is the importance of implementing technology education and technology-enabled teaching approach in the New Zealand curriculum?
  2. What are the benefits of implementing technology education and technology-enabled teaching approach towards students and teachers in the New Zealand curriculum?

Research objectives:

  1. To analyze the impact of technology education and technology-enabled teaching method towards students and teachers in the New Zealand curriculum.
  2. To understand the relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum accurately and effectively.

Research Methodology of Relevance of Technology

Relating to this research topic or area of research, exploratory research methodology has been applied to perform the research assessment effectively. The prime reason of selecting this specific research approach is due to its suitability and assistance in understanding, examining, and learning new areas and problems rather than focusing more on evaluating the statistics as per the qualitative method. the research topic significantly. Thus, utilizing this specific research methodology has helped provide a conclusive result for the research problems and explore benefits identified while researching the topic closely.

Data Collection Method

Concerning this particular research report, secondary data collection methods have been utilized to comprehend various factors, insights, and information to evaluate concepts and results to indicated problems and challenges effectively and accurately. Various related journals, articles, books, magazines, and news websites have been researched thoroughly to assess defined information and understandings to develop or conclude considerable findings of the research problems, research gaps, and questions to ensure reliability and accuracy simultaneously. Hence, applying the said data collection approach is effective in scrutinize facts and conclude a decisive finding of the research topic and research problems.

Analysis of Relevance of Technology

The Relevance of Technology in The New Zealand Curriculum

The relevance of technology is always been admired and praiseworthy in concern to a vital learning extent which gives thrilling prospects for all the students and learners to grow and encompass their thoughts and discover inventive solutions to real-world problems efficiently (Fox-Turnbull, 2019). In other words, technology is challenging as well as worthwhile, and open to the whole world to utilize (Fox-Turnbull, 2019). Relating to the research topic, there is a massive relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum. Since it is been known that, New Zealand is booming rapidly concerning technological innovations and advancements, pushing or introducing technology education effectively with more concentration and advancement in this specific study area will help students become competence and industry-ready (Jones et al., 2016).

Besides that, implementing technology-based learning and teaching approach within classrooms will help teachers and students to have an effectual interactive session to discuss ideas and confusions with ease ensuring productivity at the same time (Reinsfield & Williams, 2017). It is been said and concluded in previous kinds of literature that introduction of technology education was made since decades; however, there was substantial gap and ineffectiveness while educating and structuring the subject and topics coherently (Fox-Turnbull, 2019). This has created inefficiency and a gap in educating students and learning skillsets for the tutors in their teaching approach. Thus, there is an enormous relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum in order to advance and emerge students and society with the technological competence, efficiency in resolving practical problems, and trends proficiently.

Issues While Implementing Technology Education in The New Zealand Curriculum

According to Jones & Moreland, (2018) technology in New Zealand’s educational institutions, for example, schools is a new era of learning and developing which is currently compulsory for all children aged from 1 to 10 years (Jones & Moreland, 2018). However, implementing technology education is challenging and includes various hurdles to cross to ensure effectiveness and smooth flow of functioning. It has been understood that New Zealand has an extensive past of technology education in its curriculum which includes both the senior primary and secondary primary sections in schools. Since the establishment of the national school system in New Zealand, dated back in 1877 and during 1890 technology education was introduced, the educational institutions and body has witnessed end numbers of ineffectiveness and obligations in implementing the subject successfully.

It is of the obvious fact that technology was not as developed as it is today. Considering such a fact, there were massive objections from the parents of school students in regard to the introduction of technology education in the New Zealand curriculum (Jones et al., 2016). The prime reason was reluctancy towards enrolling their children to this subject as being imprinted with the tag of social lowliness and restricting their children to further unemployment as less paid and uneducated (Jones et al., 2016). Now, in this era of technological advancement, such issues are not prevailing any more (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). Students, parents, and societies are understanding their positive impact on ones learning and teaching ability (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). Thus, the issues in the existing ear are in concern to governmental intervention in enhancing or modifying educational act and regulations to promote and implement advance technology subjects in the New Zealand curriculum effectively.

Benefits of Implementing Technology-Enabled Teaching Approach in The New Zealand Curriculum

After reviewing all the relevant resources and literature, it has been understood that there are massive benefits of implementing technology-enabled teaching approach in the New Zealand curriculum. It is appropriate that the traditional learning approach was ineffective and little development in such an approach can maintain the effectiveness of learning and teach simultaneously (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). However, with growing demand and changes in technological trends and advancements, technology-enabled teaching approach helps keep students engage, interactive, and luring towards acquiring student's attention and learning abilities at the same time (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). It provides great another possibility to students and has the potentiality to involve and empower them to compel a contribution towards society and New Zealand as a whole (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017).

Besides that, it would assist teachers or tutor in an extraordinary way to interact with students, preparing notes, displaying or teaching activities inside the classroom (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). Subsequently, it would help students, teachers, and parents to be familiar and aware of the current technological trends, changes, and solutions effectively (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). Thereby, these factors indicate that there are a substantial benefit and advantage of implementing technology-enabled teaching approach in the New Zealand curriculum to boost awareness and development at the same time. Subsequently, this, in turn, would help emerge and develop the economy and social advancement of the New Zealand curriculum and community as a whole.

Recommendations on Relevance of Technology

Recommendations play a significant role in providing substantial guidance towards overcoming the identified research problems and research questions positively. According to Viberg & Grönlund, (2017) recommendations can be defined as critical suggestions about the best possible approach or method to tackle the state of affairs effectively and efficiently (Viberg & Grönlund, 2017). Relating to such factor, in this report, based on the findings and analysis of the research topic and research problem, few recommendations have been offered to assist guiding overcoming the issues proficiently, not certainly, but with at least assure beneficial results.

Ensuring effectual access to technology for students and teachers within the classrooms and increasing number of lab sessions based on practical learning of various computer software, hardware, server, and so on to encourage and create effectual awareness. 

Providing adequate and effective training and professional development to teachers and peers regarding technology-enabled teaching devices, instruments, and approaches to enhance both learning and teaching experience. 

Supplying satisfactory support by software companies or partners for educational technologies and tools will ensure a smooth flow of teaching operations without worrying about technological breakdowns and instead concentrate on teaching students. 

Giving training to teachers concerning the theory of constructivism and student-centric education approach, importance, and benefits. 

Making sure adequate technical and managerial support is available while implementing technology education and technology-enabled teaching approach in the New Zealand curriculum. 

Conclusion on Relevance of Technology

Technology is been the strongest factor involved in shaping the educational landscape in today’s era. There are end numbers of schools and educational institutions across the world who actively supports and participate in integrating with the technology-enabled teaching and learning methodology. With such a factor, it has been identified that the schools who adopted technology education and technology-based teaching approach have gained significant benefits to enhance student’s learning capabilities. Similarly, New Zealand has the potentiality and wide scope to enhance and grow its technological aspects in the school curriculum effectively. Thus, it has been understood that there is a massive relevance of technology in education and teaching approaches which is demanding and trending as per its benefits and user-friendliness. Implementing a technology-enabled learning and teaching method will substantially assist schools and educational institutions in the New Zealand curriculum to reap enormous benefits out of technological education.

However, it is crucial to understand that, adequate support, strategy, and participation is essential to profit massive returns by such implementation within the New Zealand curriculum. Besides that, integrating technology education and tech-enabled teaching approach requires a continuous collaboration of peers, for example, technology education experts, school admins, and software professionals to ensure effectiveness at every level of implementation. 

References for Relevance of Technology

Fox-Turnbull, W. (2019). Implementing digital technology in the New Zealand Curriculum. Australasian Journal of Technology Education, 5.

Jones, A., & Moreland, J. (2018). Technology Education in New Zealand [Ebook] (1st ed., pp. 130-133). The Journal of Technological Studies. Retrieved 31 May 2020, from

Jones, A., Buntting, C., & de Vries, M. (2016). The developing field of technology education: a review to look forward. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 24(3), 191-212.

Kellow, J. (2018). Introducing Digital Technologies to the New Zealand Curriculum. Waikato Journal of Education, 23(2).

Kibuku, R., & Ochieng, D. (2019). Contributions and Shortcomings of Classical Learning Theories as Applied to E-Learning: A Literature Review. IEEE, 1, 218-329.

Morgan, S. (2019). Technology is now New Zealand’s third largest export sector and brings in more than just financial benefits. Technology is now New Zealand’s third largest export sector and brings in more than just financial benefits. Retrieved 30 May 2020, from

Nia, M., & De Vries, M. (2016). The New Zealand Curriculum's approach to technological literacy through the lens of the philosophy of technology. Australasian Journal of Technology Education, 3(1).

Nunn, S., Avella, J., Kanai, T., & Kebritchi, M. (2016). Learning Analytics Methods, Benefits, and Challenges in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review. Online Learning, 20(2).

Reinsfield, E. (2016). A future-focus for teaching and learning: Technology education in two New Zealand secondary schools. Teachers and Curriculum, 16(1).

Reinsfield, E., & Williams, P. (2017). New Zealand secondary technology teachers’ perceptions: “technological” or “technical” thinking? International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 28(3), 739-751.

Viberg, O., & Grönlund, Å. (2017). Understanding students’ learning practices: challenges for design and integration of mobile technology into distance education. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(4), 357-377.

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