It can be seen that in the discussion of the two articles, there has been an evaluation on the respective pedagogies and the thoughts that are related with the education in the modern society for the Islamic sector. The authors has exposed with the terms ‘tarbiyah’ which simply takes us deep into challenges that have been faced from the youth of Muslim primarily focusing on the western context which falls under the category of minoritized. According to Sahin (2013), the article primarily focuses on the life of Muslim who are young and which showcases the social contexts who are categorised as minority and majority. The pedagogy that has been stated by the author accounts for developing the education and training for the respective faith leaders and which also accounts and focuses about the rapidly changes about the world for the young Muslim people.
The main focus or perhaps the aim which is provided as per the theoretical and practical effects of Sahin (2013) highlights the fact that theoretical and practical effects about the educators of Muslim context are able to transform a new and innovative identity. On the other hand, Ahmed and Lawson (2016), talks primarily about the term ‘hermenuetics’ which can be defined as the science of the interpretation. The main definition of this term can be taken into account by stating that it is a methodology which is related and which focuses on the concerns generated by the problems dealing with the interpretation in the society of Muslim having a modern culture. It is more of a branch dealing with the interpretation of the society of Muslim on the basis of concerning the relevant theoretical basis for the modern culture.
It can be seen that it is methodology which takes into consideration and concerns about the problems arising relevant problems for it to deal with genuine methodological for the same. On page 255 and 245, the author mentions about the term ‘Halagah’ which is nothing but more of ‘reflective group conversation’ which is being conducted between the educators and learner. One also needs to see and witness the fact that there can be various things which are not exactly realised by us as a matter of one subject but also as one of the objects. It simply boils down to one point and that is the object becomes a subject before we even realise it. Taking into account some instances such as if there is something which is not exactly concrete and which is not driven as the influences of personal or environmental, it comes down to one point and this is the reason why we can link it with the educator and the learner. In simple terms, one can provide and link this term with Quran then we will witness that there is little subjectivity and the guidelines from majority lessons comes from the objectives which hence cannot be transformed as per the new testament. This is the primary reason why there are a lot of pedagogical aspects which are concerned with the practicing aspects which in turn practice the shaping of the young Muslims.
The discussions about the previous education theology can be witnessed as per the works which is primarily described by Abdullah Sahin (2008). The Islamic education is being intergraded as part that sheds and enlightens about the Islamic education which focuses merely as per the installation and imitations of how secular teaching can act merely as a path of one’s knowledge through secular teaching and learnings which are generated as per the previous education theology. It can be seen that Sahin (2013) also focuses on the traditional Islamic education and its practices that form the basis of the minority and majority of previous Islam education theology for the integration of modern education and its theology.
The word ‘theology’ and ‘philosophy’ is believed to give an impression ‘new’ when read together, in addition to this, it also focuses on the factors as if the author is highlighting the factors and proposing Islamic Education, which is nothing but an education which is comparatively new as per the Muslim identities and experiences of life. Sahin (2013) also includes reviews of theoretical and methodological literature which is extensive and quite insightful. Sahin, has proposed a view of education which is responsible for taking and delving deep into the regards of past and which can be developed with the philosophical approach for education so as to provide and attach it as per the theology (Sahin 2013). The author also studies theology as per the beliefs that can be considered as the Ageeda issues who focuses on the oneness and the word ‘Tarbiyah’ which simply means to provide nurture and for describing the critical process of dialogical. It can be seen that dialogical is not one way which can be described as per the interactions which are being received and produced as per the formation of leadership prospective.
The author also mentions the in order to study the Grass Theory, one can witness that fact that it is trying to indicate the processes which states that the rain falls on the ground and how the grass is able to grow and in the very same way it can become the processes to study from that of the methodological critiques (Ahmed and Lawson 2016). In this way, it can be also seen that the author is primarily focusing on how religion which can be taken into consideration should be about the majority and the minority. The revelation of the Muslims as per the diverse and the sense of the religious aspects is being studied. There are some of the evidences as well which go along with this statement such as the academic studies which focus on how the author must propose to the context of the term ‘Tarbiyah’ (Sahin 2013). While its description we can also see the precise and the dialogical, dialogue education which can be received as per the methodology critiques and which also becomes the processes that are crucial with the broader context and which can explored by the Quran.
Quran, states that the mankind of the single pair for the male and female and male as per the nations and the tribes can also be known with each other. It is rather more general and most honoured that the sight of God is one of the most righteous path for is as stated by Sahin (2013). This statement is made honoured as per the sight which bounds the communities together. It is imperative to know that the Brooking Project on US and its relation is formed as the basis of minority and majority having no claims which can be presented as the facts that are found from the article. There are relevant religious identities as well which can be formed as per the psychological and critical dynamic sense and clarity for these young Muslims. However, there are factors such as globalisation which states that the Muslim and their social conducts irrespective of minority and majority can be influenced as per the western society.
There is no denying that the work of both the artists are up to some extent similar. They both have focused primarily about the term “Islamic Education” and their appearances of Muslim Society. There work sets out for examining the question about how spirituality in the schools of Muslims and their society. This work sets for examining the questions on the term spirituality and how there is an increasing number of offerings as per the Civilization of the Islamic and Muslim Schools (Ahmed and Lawson 2016). There are relevant philosophies of the Islamic Education which stands as a tandem for the call and which takes a step deep into establishing the importance of the study as per the study of academic approach. It primarily deals with the pedagogic institutional and contemporary issues that can be dealt with reflecting on community in the western and broad subjects (Ahmed and Lawson 2016).
It can be also seen that the Attas’s work is one of the important figures in Islamisation which can be used as the formation of Islamisation of knowledge where it can be also seen that there is a mention of the work for the work which comprises of the terms such as “tarbiyah” (Attas and Ashraf, 1979). In this article, the author focuses on the fact about how education is the growth. It can be defined as the stage which explains the increment of nurturing, development and for the training of describing the various elements and aspects which can be commonly used educationally morally and spiritually (Attas and Ashraf, 1979). It is the need of the term Attas which talks about the term “Adab” which focuses on the analysis of tarbiyah and which captures the discipline and captures that can be derived from the root word ‘adab’, hence it can be concluded that it refers to knowledge and action. The term Attas deals mainly with the positive aspects of the argument for the view which can have a view of the Islamic education. The philosophy has also been developed for engaging and benefitting the Islamic education as per the development of covering pedagogy and critical thinking of Islamic education (Freire, 2018).
The critical pedagogy is considered as the necessity of consistency and identity as an educator which in one sense can be defined as the development of personal identity with the character is a character that there is an identity which can be formed with the representation of the Islamic Education (Ahmed and Lawson 2016). The author is known to evaluate the terms according to his best knowledge. The author has interpreted in the utterances and suspects to the goals which can be considered as the interpretation of what can be considered as the problems which arise with dealing of some meaningful and human related actions. The methodological approaches which acts as a discipline also offers the treatment of the efficiency and the treating of the interpretation for the human actions with the meaningful material. This framework is known to establish the categories which can be used for forming an understanding of young youth which acts as to be conducted in the western culture (Ahmed and Lawson 2016).
The conclusion of the review for both the articles can be done on the basis of conducting a discussion for the majority and the minority of the Muslim Society. It is also seen that there is a highlight of the critical pedagogy for the development and work which is being explored as per the education of the contemporary times in both of the articles. The works of both the articles clearly state that there is an exploration of the education and its contemporary issues and times in the Muslim societies. It can also be seen that the work which can be analysed by Dr Abdullah Sahin states and informs that there is not enough focus which can be generated on the concepts of the intellectual knowledge. In other words, it is safe to say that the researches predicted and done by Abdullah Sahin is not highlighting entirely in the concepts of application and knowledge with the application of reason and logic.
It is also seen as that the development of the spiritual knowledge by Quran and Sunnah can be done with the help of encouraging and providing learning to the young Muslims. One can try some of the different techniques in Muslim Education that can encourage the students for learning different and several aspects for the thesis education while the pedagogy and the philosophy can be done with providing different techniques for the facilitation of needs in their education society. One can also identify that for underlining and developing the knowledge which can benefit the needs for the students who will be provided with the central and the theoretical concepts and the values for Islamic education.
Ahmed, F. and Lawson I. 2016. Teaching Islam: Are there pedagogical limits to critical inquiry?. In Philosophies of Islamic Education (pp. 248-262). Routledge.
Attas, M.N.A. and Ashraf, S.A. 1979. Aims and objectives of Islamic education. Hodder and Stoughton.
Freire, P. 2018. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Bloomsbury publishing USA.
Sahin, A. 2013. New directions in Islamic education: Pedagogy and identity formation. Kube Publishing Ltd.
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