• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : EEE3ANB
  • University : La Trobe University
  • Subject Name : Behavioral Science

Lions (Panthera Leo) Appear to Accrue Foraging Benefits and Costs from Being in Larger Groups

Introduction

The species ‘pathera leo’ helms from the African regions. Their behavioural studies suggest that these species are sensitive to variations in pride size, exhibit a sense of competitiveness within the pride and specific about their natal territory. According to a research conducted by VanderWall et al., 2009, on animal behaviour, it was noted that, “Approximately 50% of female cohorts dispersed when potential pride size exceeded the habitat-specific optimum, whereas only 9% of cohorts dispersed at smaller pride sizes.” Consecutively it has observed that the cohorts of lions have rarely been dispersed especially in high density habitats. The study focuses on the understanding of benefits and benefits and costs borne by ‘pathera leo’ species of lions when they live in larger groups. It discussed the methodology and results of the research done through thematic analytical approach. Following a discussion and conclusion.

Aim: To verify the benefits and benefits and costs borne by ‘pathera leo’ species of lions when they live in larger groups.

Hypothesis:

Research Question 1: What are the benefits incurred by the lions panthera leo species by living in large groups.?

Research Question 2: What are the costs incurred by the lions panthera leo species by living in large groups.?

Literature Review:

Numerous studies have been conducted on the species of lions and their grouping patterns and how it confers to a variety of costs and benefits. On the other hand, various researches have also focused their study on the group-size aspect specific for foraging success in the species of African lions. These researches have been done in very controlled environment, encompassing changes in the group of size, solitary foraging, reduction in the risk of predation. The study on lions is more feasible as they usually live in “fission-fusion social units” and permit other members of the pride to form their own small groups. Researches reveal that by living in groups they benefit in a number of ways. Such as, living in larger groups enables them to be able to defend their cubs who are vulnerable to either get lost or dispersed. It also helps them achieve hunting and gathering food. It helps keeping the old lions survive by providing adequate nutrition as they do not have the rigor to hunt for any longer. This is particularly effective during the season of prey scarcity.

Many studies also revealed that, “Cohorts of one to two females rarely dispersed, especially in high-density habitats. Thus, pride size typically remained within the range that maximized individual reproductive success.” The dispersal of cohorts would depend upon the saturation of the habitat in which they survived. The quality of the habitat was also important to the maternal prides. It was observed that the maternal prides of high-quality areas, such as with increased flora and fauna, shared the same territory with their descendant prides and over a period of time, with a decrease in relativity, the tolerances were diminished. On the down side of forming groups is a totally different view, which showcases the scramble competition. It relates to the contest between various members of the pride for food. There are also territorial conflicts faced by various prides which can lead to intense wars, in which, surprisingly the female lions were very reluctant to participate. The territorial defence is a costly as it causes injuries to the lions.

Method: Thematic analysis approach has been used for this research. It offers help in categorizing the sourced data into relevant structured themes. It also offers better clarity and understanding of the researched topic and enables to find the appropriate responses to the research questions of the study.

Data Collection: A variety of articles have been used in the research mainly in English language. The articles used are raging from the year 2015-2020. About 15 articles were selected, out of which 06 were short-listed based on their reliability of information using “Abstract and Title Screening” method. JBI hierarchy of evidence was employed since it offers uniqueness as well as “appropriate decision- making that takes into account feasibility, appropriateness, meaningfulness (Aromataris et al., 2014)”

Data Analysis: For analysis if the data which is collected, an analysis must ensure thematic analytical implementation and design which provides fruitful result by categorizing the relevant data in to a structured theme. It also offers better clarity and understanding of the researched topic and enables to find the appropriate responses to the research questions of the study. Thematic analysis provides sufficient source for examining the data via variety of patterns and focusing on establishing concrete and accurate conclusions from the data.

Ethic Declaration: It is vital to acknowledge the efforts of the researcher from whose article the relevant data and information has been sourced. The data is collected from a secondary source which means that it is collected from various research articles so the ethical consideration is to give them the credit for their work and for contributing in our research study. The study uses plagiarism free data.

Result: The results reveal null hypothesis, which means that both the variables are true. The fact related to observation that, “Lions (Panthera leo) appear to accrue foraging benefits and costs from being in larger groups,” is established as true.

Findings: The findings reveal that there are more benefits for the lions to live when they live in groups and incur both benefit such as improved rate of food intake, protection of the pride as well as the young cubs. The cost of living in larger groups include territorial intrusions, and scramble competition.

Limitations: Articles which could contribute to the research in a significant way were excluded due to filtering of articles on the basis of language.

Conclusion: From the research two important variables were identifies which were benefits of living in larger groups and costs of living in larger groups for the panthera leo species. Both were identified and the balanced weight equally for both factors.

“Male Round-Eared Elephant Shrews (Macroscelides Proboscideus) Keep Very Close to Females During the Breeding Season, Leading to Suggestions that The Male Might Be Guarding His Mate. However, It Is Unknown Whether There Is a Cost to Males and If Guarding Is at All Beneficial.”

Introduction

Aim: To identify the reason of Macroscelides proboscideus for staying close to the females during the breeding season and the cost and benefits incurred by the act of guarding.

Hypothesis:

Research Question 1: What are the benefits incurred Macroscelides proboscideus for staying close to the females during the breeding season?

Research Question 2: What are the costs incurred Macroscelides proboscideus for staying close to the females during the breeding season?

Literature Review: In the species, Macroscelides proboscideus, “Mate guarding is predicted to be one of the driving forces for the evolution of monogamy, but supporting evidence in free-living mammals is rare”. It has been observed that the males have a tendency to over-mark their females’ scent as they offer them guarding, in order to avoid intrusion by other males. They also use this method to conceal the reproductive state of the females, As mentioned by researcher, Schubert in her study of animal behaviour in Macroscelides proboscideus, it is done to avoid “advertisement of the paired status, thereby decreasing the risk of intrusions by competitors. Mate guarding incurred costs, because, overall, males lost about 5 % of their body mass.

On the individual level, male body mass loss was negatively related to the intensity of mate guarding during the pre-copulatory period. Furthermore, guarding was inversely correlated with male body mass in the pre-copulatory period and with the number of neighbouring males during oestrus, indicating that males vary their guarding effort in relation to their physical capabilities and the competitive environment. Mate guarding strongly depended on the females’ reproductive state, and all males started to guard their mates prior to and during estrus, as exemplified by reduced intrapair distance.”

Method: Thematic analysis approach has been used for this research. It offers help in categorizing the sourced data into relevant structured themes. It also offers better clarity and understanding of the researched topic and enables to find the appropriate responses to the research questions of the study.

Data Collection: A variety of articles have been used in the research mainly in English language. The articles used are raging from the year 2015-2020. About 15 articles were selected, out of which 06 were short-listed based on their reliability of information using “Abstract and Title Screening” method. JBI hierarchy of evidence was employed since it offers uniqueness as well as “appropriate decision- making that takes into account feasibility, appropriateness, meaningfulness (Aromataris et al., 2014)”

Data Analysis: For analysis if the data which is collected, an analysis must ensure thematic analytical implementation and design which provides fruitful result by categorizing the relevant data in to a structured theme. It also offers better clarity and understanding of the researched topic and enables to find the appropriate responses to the research questions of the study. Thematic analysis provides sufficient source for examining the data via variety of patterns and focusing on establishing concrete and accurate conclusions from the data

Ethic Declaration: It is vital to acknowledge the efforts of the researcher from whose article the relevant data and information has been sourced. The data is collected from a secondary source which means that it is collected from various research articles so the ethical consideration is to give them the credit for their work and for contributing in our research study. The study uses plagiarism free data.

Result: The results are consistent with both variables, which are, benefits reaped by the Macroscelides proboscideus while guarding the females as well as cost incurred in the process.

Findings: It was noted that the males lost about 5 % of their body mass by protecting the females.

Limitations: Articles which could contribute to the research in a significant way were excluded due to filtering of articles on the basis of language.

Conclusion: From the research it can be concluded that the males of Macroscelides proboscideus are socially monogamous in their behaviour. The male guarding is dependent on the reproductive state of the female in order to avoid intrusion of other males. The process is beneficial to them as It offer protection to the females but it costs them to lose around 5 per cent of their body mass.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Behavioural Health Assignment Help

Get It Done! Today

Applicable Time Zone is AEST [Sydney, NSW] (GMT+11)
Not Specific >5000
  • 1,212,718Orders

  • 4.9/5Rating

  • 5,063Experts

"

5 Stars to their Experts for my Assignment Assistance.

There experts have good understanding and knowledge of university guidelines. So, its better if you take their Assistance rather than doing the assignments on your own.

What you will benefit from their service -

I saved my Time (which I utilized for my exam studies) & Money, and my grades were HD (better than my last assignments done by me)

What you will lose using this service -

Absolutely nothing.

Unfortunately, i had only 36 hours to complete my assignment when I realized that it's better to focus on exams and pass this to some experts, and then I came across this website.

Kudos Guys!

Jacob

"

Highlights

  • 21 Step Quality Check
  • 2000+ Ph.D Experts
  • Live Expert Sessions
  • Dedicated App
  • Earn while you Learn with us
  • Confidentiality Agreement
  • Money Back Guarantee
  • Customer Feedback

Just Pay for your Assignment

  • Turnitin Report

    $10.00
  • Proofreading and Editing

    $9.00Per Page
  • Consultation with Expert

    $35.00Per Hour
  • Live Session 1-on-1

    $40.00Per 30 min.
  • Quality Check

    $25.00
  • Total

    Free
  • Let's Start

Get
500 Words Free
on your assignment today

Browse across 1 Million Assignment Samples for Free

Explore MASS
Order Now

Request Callback

Tap to ChatGet instant assignment help

Get 500 Words FREE
Ask your Question
Need Assistance on your
existing assignment order?