The researcher Rosaria E.C. Amaral explores those strategies that effected comparatively less on the environment, society, and economy through waste management and other efficient resources at different stages of building a life. The practices involve contained energy consumption, water resources, recycling or reuse, low pollution, and embodied carbon. The generated waste of the construction industry had separate substantial residual importance so that sustainability principles and waste management techniques have to be implemented. The construction minimizes in terms of standardization of material, BIM technologies, and material standardization. For an effective waste management strategy, the essential part is to limit the waste and should be conscious about the life cycle of material which enhances cost, demand, longevity, and use. The economical approach is reusing or recycling the material and this technique encourages the principles of sustainability. The techniques help to tackle the problem related to energy consumption, waste, and GHG emission. The analysis helps to get an accurate estimation in terms of implementation cost and energy savings. The effect of the life cycle is analyzed to make sure the proposed carbon dioxide emission are feasible to achieve triple-bottom-line sustainability. [i]
The author Lamiaa Abdallah and Tarek El-Shennawy demonstrated the concept of a smart electric grid because it reduced the carbon dioxide gas emission potentially. The major sectors are distribution and transmission grid, generation, and consumption. They explained the opportunities of Egyptian case study such as electricity generation through solar energy and wind energy sources. The geographical location is perfect to interconnect the electrical system from Europe, the Gulf, North Africa, and the Nile Basin. The challenges observed in this project contained the aging infrastructure of transmission and distribution, lack of political willpower, and investment shortage. Instead of utilizing the outdated thermal power plant, the renewable energy sources are utilized to produce electricity which reduces greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide emission), leads to environmental improvement, and fossil fuel conservation. At the transmission end, the smart grid optimizes the substation and existing lines to gain minimum losses and maximum efficiency. The environment preserving, energy conservation, and GHG emission are reduced through smart meter having smart house facilities. In Egypt, most of the distribution companies and industries started prepaid electricity cards and automated meter reading systems using electronics meters while some of them allowed the user to pay their bill via the Internet. [ii]
The researcher Markovic D, Branovic, Popovic R, explained that environmental sustainability contained global warming and climatic change. The main source of climate change and the emission of carbon dioxide was fossil fuel. Most of the developed countries face a common problem and far away from establishing a sustainable energy system. The proposed research describes the impact of new technology such as nanotechnology and the smart grid. Both of them are helping to reduce carbon emissions. The author explained the features and requirements of the smart grid to incorporate enabler technology, expected benefits, and energy efficiency. The smart grid plays an important role in the solution of clean energy and nanotechnology became indispensable to evolve in the future. The power grid modernization helps a lot to provide a robust foundation for the latest technologies and applications. The challenges observed in this project were not related to the policy and technical but it was related to the political. The key to reducing the level of emission might be tough but the highest priority should be reducing carbon pollution. [iii]
The author Fengzhang Luo works on the development of photovoltaic power generation which is a great significance to reduce carbon emission in the electric power industry. The paper describes the methods and models for the evaluation of low-carbon advantages of the grid which was connected with the PV power generation. They analyzed the characteristics of carbon emission and the economic benefits against the PV generation with the help of improvement of loss efficiency, PV cost, capacity revenue generation, and capacity cost. Then, the respective model of economic benefits model and low carbon benefits are established. Both characteristics are combined for photovoltaic power generation which resulted in the generation of a model for determining the LCBs (low‐carbon comprehensive benefits) and the carbon emission payback period is forwarded. The method and model validity was verified with the help of the real-world application. The results of the analysis describe that the photovoltaic power generation has the potential for low-carbon comprehensive as compared to conventional power generation. [iv]
[i]Rosaria E.C. Amaral, Joel Brito, Matt Buckman, Elicia Drake, Esther Ilatova, Paige Rice, Carlos Sabbagh, Sergei Voronkin * and Yewande S. Abraham. (1st July 2020). Waste Management and Operational Energy for Sustainable Buildings: A Review. 21.
[ii]Lamiaa Abdallah and Tarek El-Shennawy. (April 2013). Reducing Carbon dioxide emission from the electricity sector using smart electric grid applications. Journal of Engineering.
[iii]Markovic D, B. I. (2015, January 23rd). Smart Grid and nanotechnologies: a solution for clean and sustainable energy. Retrieved from DOVEPRESS: https://www.dovepress.com/smart-grid-and-nanotechnologies-a-solution-for-clean-and-sustainable-e-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-EECT
[iv]Liu, F. L.‐W. (2017, Oct 15). Models and methods for the low-carbon-footprint analysis of grid‐connected photovoltaic generation from a distribution network planning perspective. Retrieved from Wiley Online Library: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ese3.175
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