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Table of Contents
In recent years, the acronym "active" has often been added to the term "civic education". Bernard Creek wrote an article that creates an attitude towards positive citizenship, which is what a free society needs. It is widely recognized that the national educational skills and practices required for effective political citizenship are important to their origins. For this reason, many recent discussions and studies have focused on the relationship to education and the types of participation considered political knowledge and citizenship requirements. However, despite the claim that there is a link between education and citizenship, much ignorance remains about the educational skills of active and effective citizenship. Aristotle writes: It is impossible to be a good ruler without a preliminary verdict. Good governance and good obedience are not the same qualities - only good citizens must have the knowledge and ability to govern and govern. By civic-understandable free male management from both perspectives we mean by this standard (Edgar, et al. 2011).
Demonstration of extensive knowledge of, and critical analysis of, dimensions of the educational issue topic through complex discussions and explanations
Citizenship education relates to the relationship between individuals and political communities and, above all, between individuals. The curriculum should reflect this. It certainly helps individuals to understand their identity and the nature of society and how they are actively involved in the complex relationship of rights and responsibilities that exist between them. The strength of the Odyssey shows that: ‘Citizens should not be unfamiliar to him, because he is a known and responsible person and can take part and like in public debates. 'It needs to be done.
Drawing the whole canvas of modern political and social debate has opened up great possibilities for provocative and exciting work. In a sense, the content of the citizenship curriculum is straightforward, based on the social and political debates of the time. However, what has been criticized is the original links to the topics in this journal, through which students discuss, speculate, analyze, and treat these topics. The goals of active citizens are: many politicians take action on behalf of passive citizens (good citizens who vote, become members of the state and abide by the law) and want the empowerment of the most progressive scholars and many more Trying to influence the course of events. This significant difference needs to be analyzed in both the principles and practices of active and passive citizenship. Currently, politicians and policy makers in many countries are looking for “effective” citizenship, which they consider red from a democratic point of view. Adequate literature has been published on this.
In many democracies, the level of participation in elections seems to be shifting from election to election and the percentage of young people voting is considered to be lower than that of adults. This has created a problem for political leaders who need a sufficiently high percentage so that their opponents can justify their administration. On the other hand, many movements for citizenship education and others are interested in education systems that empower citizens. In other words, it critically seeks to provide intellectual skills and practical knowledge to the people involved and to try to influence social trajectory events. Active citizenship is broadly about jobs, but passive citizenship is generally considered to be related to status, the work of any entity. The difference between active and passive citizenship has been particularly controversial in the last five to six years (Traina, 2016).
The enduring political activity (the level at which those involved in the democratic deficit can work for us) is the level where voting, party membership and position are involved.
The third type are "partners" who are influential and confident in their understanding of the domestic political system and tend to vote regularly in elections. Voting is an activity, but certainly a minimal step, but this kind of .this form of treatment is a form of participation and participation in social movements aimed at transforming civil society. To raise funds for. This form of civil society (as opposed to previous civic activities) is inherently natural and hypnotic. Repair or identify it instead of resolving possible causes.
The third form consists of steps of social change when a person is engaged in activities aimed at changing political and social policy. These include activities such as writing letters, signing applications, working with pressure groups, participating in demonstrations, pressure groups and other ways to influence decisions. This form contains a variety of illegal forms such as participation in occupations, graffiti making and other forms of civil disobedience.
The fourth active form is corporate citizenship. It is essentially a model of individual civic activity, where individuals engage in self-regulatory actions such as achieving financial well-being, becoming volunteer teachers, solving problems, and developing entrepreneurial ideas. These four formats never merge with the classification or classification of development. One don't have to go through a form to get a person. However, in any curriculum, all of this should be considered as a collaborative effort to facilitate development at any age or stage. The agenda set by Chow (2012) on this issue aims to categorize all these within the framework of civic power. Similarly, active citizenship is not always progressive. Lister distinguishes radical collective activities from narrow voluntary work and monstrous activity.
There are two forms of passive citizenship. The first of these relates to the identity of the country, where individuals understand and value the history of the country and its symbolic and symbolic forms in institutions, flags, music and political offices. Such passive citizenship is usually taught through civic education and a transition model of education, including silent peacocks, structures and hidden assumptions (Baker, 2013).
The second alternative form of passive citizenship is found in patriotism. Patriotism is more ultimate national identity, including military service and unconditional support for the demands of one country and another. This form of passive citizenship emphasizes the value of social stability and perseverance, creating the incompetence of loyalty and unyielding loyalty.
There is strong cultural diversity in what can be considered an appropriate form of "active" citizenship. In some countries, the element of positive citizenship that can be encouraged and developed is clearly related to the position recognized as a form of many of the above passive traits. It depends on the specific historical development and composition of the state. Citizenship and national identity can now be seen as a social structure, and can take on a variety of situations related to active citizenship that can lead to “politically active citizens”.
These forms of citizenship define passive citizenship and much more activity than traditional enduring active political action. Both movements of segregation seem to be limited, so aspects of the Global Citizenship Education Program can be effectively incorporated into citizenship education. Active citizenship is currently being offered and inevitably crosses national borders. The difference between active citizenship education and passive citizenship education is impeccable. The development of citizenship as a general passive identity raises some issues because individuals are formally included as French citizens, others raise parallel identities among German non-German youth. And identify issues of citizenship. Effective citizenship education programs in many countries are less likely to be able to distinguish between three key components: quality and disposition, skills and competition, and knowledge and understanding.
Passive citizenship requires not only knowledge and understanding, but also active involvement. This includes not only the basic concepts of politics and society, but also knowledge of local, national and international national organizations and their methods. Educated citizens understand the role of law, the nature of general democracy, power and attachment to government and the need for some awareness in the context of economy, society, environment, values, skills and knowledge (Gaynor, 2011). The argument can be given that one need. Knowledge is sufficient for passive citizenship (although it can be assessed efficiently and accurately, although it may be accurate).
Manifestations of Active Citizenship
Clearly, political or civic knowledge is a prerequisite for effective practice of citizenship. But that is not enough. The Australian Citizen Expert Group reports that "not everyone likes it ..." (page). Yet, the ultimate goal of both active citizenship ideals is that voting is not an easy task. This may be the minimum requirement and in fact some countries like Australia also require voting. Also, many local community organizations work on behalf of interested groups. One of the neglected areas of active citizenship is the nature of protests and activities outside the formal channels of the political decision-making process. The group's activities include signing petitions, writing letters, and participating in protests. All associations have rules governing these activities, but most agree that they are an effective form of active citizenship.
There are forms related to political activity that may be more difficult to include, as they may be outside the ideological and legal limits of acceptable conduct. This includes more final forms of protest that can lead to any kind of harm or violence, such as building jobs or demonstrations. While the protests were damaging, some threw, fought with police and blocked traffic. Without discussing the volunteerism of these more extreme protests, they represent an attempt to hear their voices from the public and influence government decisions, as researchers have studied in concerted action. In some cases, these measures are illegal and in violation of the law. There are biases here for those involved in active citizenship research. In other words, to what extent does citizenship education even include citizenship disobedience? History shows many individuals as examples in the form of passive civil disobedience as it may differ from what is considered an outlaw law. The works of Thoreau, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, for example, include, under certain conditions, It suggests that "the disobedience of a citizen is the disobedience of those in power under civil law and government".
Synthesis of key points on the issue that are justified through literature connections and critical analyses.
Preparing young people for one is not an easy task. This is especially the case in democratic societies where the degree of independence allows for disagreements as well as treaties. Thus, the preparation of civic education and citizenship in a democratic context prepares one ng people to make informed decisions about the social and political future of the society in which they live. This means that the preparation for this amount of active citizenship is the preparation for independence.
Thus, education for active citizenship faces both problems and challenges. Regarding the former, the problem concerns the creation of an environment where active citizenship practices are tolerated in all its forms. The challenge is how to design a curriculum that educates young people about the essential responsibilities of active citizenship. In each of these, attention should be paid to the problems and challenges (Sépulchre and Lindqvist, 2016).
Active Citizenship as a Two-Edged Sword
It is clear that creating a political program aimed at creating politically active citizenship is a highly complex issue. Teaching young people to be active citizens can be a double-edged sword. Because, current students as adults may oppose supporting the government tomorrow. In addition, the scope of political activity ranges from highly legal and protected activities to violent, illegal and unsafe activities. There were social groups with the least respect for authoritarian, younger, more educated, and post-materialist values. This change may make it more difficult for those in power to manage, but may also tend to increase the demands of the people in reactionary and democratic institutions. According to Inglehart, this trend may be due to an increase in the level of political or civic indifference by the public. Thus, he concludes that citizenship education plays an important role in producing unemployed, uninterrupted, politically independent and politically active individuals.
Citizenship education does not provide knowledge to understand the rights and obligations of citizenship, it thinks clearly and critically about the political development of society in accordance with the guidelines developed as a result of current research probably. Therefore, citizenship education is a form of political empowerment that allows individuals to participate in public debates and civic activities in a distinct and intelligent manner. At the same time, individuals can perceive themselves as patriotic, loyal, and committed to the political values and processes of society.
It is not clear what positive citizenship is considered as desirable, under what circumstances there is an uncertain value in creating educational programs and curriculum materials, and achieving the desired citizenship goals has become a problem (Houtzager and Acharya, 2011).
Coherent and persuasive presentation of arguments.
Much of the discourse on citizenship and citizenship education assumes that a democratic society has a deliberate body of political ideas, beliefs and knowledge of life. Thus, the curriculum of the citizenship education curriculum, depending on how and by whom it was developed, provides a good basis for making political decisions with other forms of political participation, starting with voting.
However, these assumptions cannot always be substantiated. Socio-political processes and their interpretations of events and historical facts are rarely propagated in a purely objective way. The reason for this was the subject of considerable controversy, which revolved around the view of the relationship between the classification of society and the energy flowing from it. Similarly, as long as the education system reflects the power structure of the society, it provides a clear view of the social structure of the society and how it is managed. This also applies to civic education activities. Thus, the content of the citizenship or citizenship education curriculum will reflect the political structure of a society governed by influential social groups in this society. Those who see education as a reflection of the power structure of society take this view. Also, they see citizenship and the teaching of citizenship as a tool of the political manipulation (Bombardelli, 2016).
The focus of positive citizenship is somewhat different from the general debate on the rights and obligations that the citizenship aspect focuses on. Clearly, these are not contradictory or exclusive aspects, but also the practice of civil rights and obligations to be active citizens. However, the link between education and active citizenship is more complex. It is often noticed that civic education and civic education are not exactly the same. Because it includes later knowledge as well as various knowledge related to citizenship. But the complexity doesn’t stop there. Knowledge is needed to be an active citizen, but not of any kind.
Active citizenship includes the normal practice of voting, paying taxes, and providing military services as needed. These are forms of faithful citizenship, but they are not positive citizenship unless they are the result of critical judgment and decision making. Citizenship practices become more active when it comes to gaining knowledge about how and when to practice citizenship and, as a result, develop skills. The practices of active citizenship are not common loyalty or routine behavior. Active citizenship practices can also manifest themselves in non-compliance and unusual behavior.
This difference plays a particularly problematic role for educators and educators. Education for active citizenship is not a disaster education. But it is also a productive education for citizens who have the knowledge, skills, and commitment to work in a loyal or non-loyal way or in a routine or extraordinary way. Education for active citizenship develops the ability to evaluate political demands ethically and responsibly at a given time. It is for a kind of education that requires sufficient self-awareness and open teachers to see citizenship education as a place of competition (Wood, 2010). Ultimately, we need a society with a competitively open political structure. This can be uncomfortable for the government and the politicians in it, especially in an environment where their actions are open to investigation and evaluation. But these are necessary to create active citizens in a truly democratic society.
Baker, F.S., 2013. Responding to the challenges of active citizenship through the revised UK early years foundation stage curriculum. Early Child Development and Care, 183(8), pp.1115-1132.
Bombardelli, O., 2016. Effective teaching practice: Peer tutoring in education for active citizenship. Eur. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci, 2016, pp.343-355.
Edgar, K., Jacobson, J. and Biggar, K., 2011. Time well spent: A practical guide to active citizenship and volunteering in prison. London: Prison Reform Trust.
Gaynor, N., 2011. In-Active citizenship and the depoliticization of community development in Ireland. Community Development Journal, 46(1), pp.27-41.
Houtzager, P.P. and Acharya, A.K., 2011. Associations, active citizenship, and the quality of democracy in Brazil and Mexico. Theory and society, 40(1), pp.1-36.
Sépulchre, M. and Lindqvist, R., 2016. Enhancing active citizenship for persons with psychosocial disabilities. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 18(4), pp.316-327.
Traina, I., 2016. Participatory & Emancipatory Approaches in Disability Research: Possible allies for supporting active citizenship, civil rights and actions of social innovation. Considering Disability Journal, 1(1), p.829.
Wood, J., 2010. Young people as activists: Ethical issues in promoting and supporting active citizenship.
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