Describe the pathophysiology of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
Emilio suffers from a medical condition called Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) which is the enlargement of the prostate gland. This can often be seen when the males get older and elder. Emilio being a 79 years old man complains of frequent urinations and this is the probable sign of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. The prostate organ is situated below the urinary bladder. Along the centre of the prostate gland, there runs a tube-like structure called the urethra that transfers the urine from the urinary bladder to the penise. At the point when the prostate amplifies, it starts to obstruct the flow of urine causing problems (Foo, 2019).
A maximum number of males have proceeded with prostate development all through life. In numerous men, this proceeded with development expands the prostate enough to cause urinary side effects or to fundamentally impede the flow of urine.
Yet, studies have not been definite about the exact cause of BPH. However, it could be due to the sex hormones released by the male glands in the male body. For the entire lifetime, males produce significant amounts of testosterone (male sex hormone) and a considerable amount of oestrogen hormone (a female sex hormone). According to the increasing age of the males, they tend to produce more amounts of sex hormone i.e. testosterone. In this process, the production of oestrogen is excessively reduced. Studies show that this could be a probable reason for increased cases of BPH in older men. In any case, intense urinary maintenance and kidney failure can be an alarming cause of serious health hazard. Having an amplified prostate isn't accepted to build your danger of creating prostate cancer (Chughtai et.al., 2016).
Describe 5 clinical manifestations of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
The symptoms and sign may vary with each individual and also gets worse with increasing age and increasing disease. Although, there are a few clinical manifestations that remain near about similar in the maximum number of cases with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (Macey et. al.,2016). The common symptoms of BPH are as follows:
Emilio has made the decision to have a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). What is this procedure?
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate commonly called as TURP. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a medical procedure used to treat urinary issues that are caused by the enlargement of the prostate. It involves chopping off a section of the prostate organ through surgery (Foster et.al.,2019).
An instrument called a resectoscope is embedded through the tip of your penis and into the cylindrical tube that transfers the urine from the urinary bladder (urethra). The resectoscope enables the surgeon to test and get rid of the overabundance prostate tissue that is obstructing the flow of urine (Gratzk et. al., 2017).
For males who suffer from moderate to extreme medical conditions due to BPH undergo TURP. The individuals with serious issues with their urinary system and are not likely to be treated by the prescribed medications require to undergo the TURP surgery. While TURP has been viewed as the best treatment for the enlargement of the prostate, various other, insignificantly intrusive methods are getting more viable. These techniques, for the most part, cause less complexity and have a snappier recuperation period than TURP.
Is benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) considered a normal process that occurs with ageing? Why/Why not?
Yes, BPH is usually prone to men in their later age. This is because with increasing age, the male sex hormones get accumulated and tend to act more strongly on the male body. This increased amount of sex hormone gets collected and results in the enlargement of the prostate organ. It not only increases the size of the prostate but also causes major difficulties in urination causing urinary infections.
The other probable reason could be similar, like the dihydrotestosterone hormone. It is a male sex hormone that plays a vital part in developing of the prostate. The DHT hormone accounts majorly for the growth of the prostate. Researchers have demonstrated that however, there is a fall in the blood-testosterone levels but, there is a continuity to collect DHT. This leads to the enlargement of prostate in older men. It was significantly found that the males producing no DHT are immune to benign prostate hyperplasia (Rastrelli et. al., 2019).
Chughtai, B., Forde, J. C., Thomas, D. D. M., Laor, L., Hossack, T., Woo, H. H. & Kaplan, S. A. (2016). Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Nature reviews Disease primers, 2(1), 1-15.
Foo, K. T. (2019). What is a disease? What is the disease clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?. World Journal of Urology, 37(7), 1293-1296.
Foster, H. E., Dahm, P., Kohler, T. S., Lerner, L. B., Parsons, J. K., Wilt, T. J., & McVary, K. T. (2019). Surgical management of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia: AUA Guideline Amendment 2019. The Journal of urology, 202(3), 592-598.
Gratzke, C., Barber, N., Speakman, M. J., Berges, R., Wetterauer, U., Greene, D.,& Schoenthaler, M. (2017). Prostatic urethral lift vs transurethral resection of the prostate: 2‐year results of the BPH 6 prospective, multicentre, randomized study. BJU international, 119(5), 767-775.
Langan, R. C. (2019). Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 46(2), 223-232.
Macey, M. R., & Raynor, M. C. (2016). Men's Health: Medical and Surgical Treatment Modalities for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in the Male Patient Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Review. In Seminars in interventional radiology, Vol. 33, No. 3, p. 217. Thieme Medical Publishers.
Rastrelli, G., Vignozzi, L., Corona, G., & Maggi, M. (2019). Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Sexual medicine reviews, 7(2), 259-271.
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