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 Fundamentals of Academic English

Introduction to Empirical Comparison of Human Value Models

Culture is termed as the beliefs, values, behavior, and characteristics that are shared by the community or group of people (Benedict 2019). Out of these, values plays a crucial role and as found to shape the behavior of the individual. It has been found that in addition to customs, shared ethnicity, gender and values, even artifacts, clothing, and other values define the behavior of the community or an individual (Swartz, Wilcox and Ousey 2017). This assessment aims at highlighting whether values in the culture showcases only behavior or shared humanity.

Research suggests that within a country, the difference in values that is helpfulness, equality and so on outweighs between countries differences (Hanel et al. 2018). In many counties like India, Brazil, United States, and Australia study results show that people from different nations varies in behaviors which are seen as common as value instantiations, though having similar opinions about the abstract meaning and significance of values (Hanel et al. 2018). According to Smith (2017) culture is the key element in demonstrating the way of thinking of a group or their behavior and practices and values differ that characterizes the elements of thinking power. For instance, in some countries, it is ok to stare at people but in countries like India and Australia, it is regarded as an act of shame. In addition to this, in some cultures, it is quite ok to sit next to a person in an empty bus but in the United States, people accept it as an act of awkwardness (Smith 2017). This may cause a cultural shock by creating a state of anxiousness and confusion by different values and shaped behaviors.

Hofstede in his theory explained the six values that are significant to human values and behaviors (Huang and Crotts 2019). He states that the cultural aspects depict different interests over another, which separate countries (instead of individuals) from one another. The six values are Power Distance Index, Femininity Versus Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance Index, Restraint Versus Indulgence, Collectivism Versus Individualism and Short- Versus Long-term Orientation. An example of one of these values is power. For example, two employees have the same boss hence the power gap for the both is same but their perspective and behavior towards their boss can differ due to their values. Most people abide by their values of not eating non-vegetarian foods. Fischer (2017) puts forth that in contrast to respecting each other values based on eating habits, people judge each other and one such example is judging the dried squids that are smelly irrespective of the fact that other people like eating it and this is commonly termed as ethnocentrism. In contrast to this, ethnocentrism can also be loyalty towards cultural group values as in case of sports sportspeople support teams of their country rather than putting forward their cultural values they prioritize the nation's pride (Dentale et al. 2018). On the other hand, cultural relativism requires a strong mindset and a willingness to understand different values and standards and willingness to change. Pride in one's community and cultural values must not contribute to the imposition of its ideals upon others. According to Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's value, orientation theory proposes that value-based solutions among cultural diversities are limited (Huang and Crotts 2019). It is important to realize that at some point every community must express all possible responses. For example, it is normal for Euro-Americans to have a "doing" attitude throughout the workweek but they have a "being" attitude on weekends and during holidays (Hanel, Litzellachner and Maio 2018). An example from Human planet showcases that “I change the world, the world changes me” this statement clearly depicts the learned behaviour and reveals the importance of how one’s value are important in changing the world and vice versa (Libba Bray 1964).

Moreover, one cultural value reveals that women are sole for culture creating processes and in the other part of the cultural values women are completely excluded from this process. Hence, cultural values do not define shared humanity. In other terms, people from different communities may share the same ideals but may have the different behaviors. Also, Hanel et al. (2018) state that the evaluation of the reports have shown that the nature of human values over more than 80 countries is quite close. That is, in several countries same values remain linked together, contributing to the belief that the principles in a community are motivationally aligned. According to Fischer (2017), social norms and cultural values are interconnected and when societal norms and cultural traditions and rituals come along, they influence how women and men interact in the community, in families, and organizations and there is a clear bias towards cultural values. 

Conclusion on Empirical Comparison of Human Value Models

From the above assessment and evidence, it can be concluded that the given statement is right that varied values in different culture demonstrates learned behaviors. Most of the instances show that people work according to their perspectives and values. They do not show shared human behaviors and have a bias towards culture and traditions.

References for Empirical Comparison of Human Value Models

Benedict, R., 2019. Patterns of culture. London: Routledge.

Dental, F., Vecchione, M., Gebauer, J.E. and Barbaranelli, C., 2018. Measuring automatic value orientations: The Achievement–Benevolence Implicit Association Test. British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.57, no.1, pp.210-229.

Fischer, R., 2017. From values to behavior and from behavior to values. In Values and Behavior (pp. 219-235). Springer, Cham.

Hanel, P.H., Litzellachner, L.F. and Maio, G.R., 2018. An empirical comparison of human value models. Frontiers in Psychology, vol.9, pp.1643.

Hanel, P.H., Maio, G.R., Soares, A.K., Vione, K.C., de Holanda Coelho, G.L., Gouveia, V.V., Patil, A.C., Kamble, S.V. and Manstead, A.S., 2018. Cross-cultural differences and similarities in human value instantiation. Frontiers in Psychology, vol.9, pp.849.

Hanel, P.H., Vione, K.C., Hahn, U., and Maio, G.R., 2017. Value instantiations: the missing link between values and behavior?. In Values and Behavior (pp. 175-190). Springer, Cham.

Hanel, P.H., Wolfradt, U., Lins de Holanda Coelho, G., Wolf, L.J., Vilar, R., Monteiro, R.P., Gouveia, V.V., Crompton, T. and Maio, G.R., 2018. The perception of family, city, and country values is often biased. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.49, no.5, pp.831-850.

Huang, S.S., and Crotts, J., 2019. Relationships between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and tourist satisfaction: A cross-country cross-sample examination. Tourism Management, vol.72, pp.232-241.

Libba Bray. 1964. Human planet. Available from: http://www.pearson.com.ar/catalogue/PDF/nll/NLL_PreIntermediate_Coursebook.pdf. [14 February 2020].

Smith, P.B., 2017. Cultural values versus cultural norms as predictors of differences in helping behaviors and in emotion regulation: A preliminary nation-level test related to the Leung-Morris model. Management and Organization Review, vol.13,no.4, pp.739-766.

Swartz, K., Wilcox, P. and Ousey, G.C., 2017. Culture as values or culture in action? Street codes and student violent offending. Victims & Offenders, vol.12, no.6, pp.868-890.

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