Flat 50% Off on Assignment Bookings

Digital and Data Systems 

Abstract on Social Interactionist Theory of Language Acquisition

A human’s skill in acquiring language depends on many factors and is prevented by various elements of the educational environment. The field of language adoption, either first or second language, is influenced by three basic theories, including Innativism, Interactionism, and Behaviorism. The main characters in the school of thought are Chomsky, Vygotsky, and Skinner. All theories paid to the case by emphasizing specific aspects of the language acquisition process. Behavioral practice plays a key role in the environment by introducing the concept of imitation and shaping habits. Then again, Social Interactionist Theory is a description of language development that outlines the role of social interaction between masters of linguistics and children’s growth. This emerging perspective sheds light on the role of social interaction in language learning. On the basis of this approach, in order to realize language learning, they need to provide inputs that can be understood, discussed or edited. In the same vein, this study now attempts to give critical literatures on the interactionist approach in second language acquisition. teaching. Thus, this study mainly highlights on the key theoretical issues introduced by this theory. This study also discussed some key patterns and applications of the social interactionist approach in the field of second language acquisition. In this study, Social Interactionist paradigm of second language acquisition, particularly those involving Vygotsky social theories, focus on the role of interconnection with the surrounding environment in children's language progress and development. The role of feedback and empowerment in terms of external interpersonal acceptance and acceptance to gain access to modeling and to discuss mature support and direction with the right.

Table of Contents





Mode and Skills Development.

Social Interactionist Theory.

Social Interactionist Theory Development and Research.

Relevance of Social Interactionist Theory to the Participant’s Language Acquisition.



Introduction to Social Interactionist Theory of Language Acquisition

Language is the prime means of communication, but there are other means to communicate without using language. When asked to define a language, we think of written and verbal systems where certain symbols and words are found in certain ways to express meaning. The most complex forms of language are common to humans, while some animals have been found to have a large type of communication. Language is a part of every human being, and communication skills are the intention of all languages effectively. Within Second Language Acquisition, one tried to acquire and learn more languages than his mother tongue. To date, many researchers have referred to different studies, both of them have attempted to explain the process of second language acquisition in early childhood. Therefore, many of the approaches, models, and theories that have been published attempt to explain how SLAs occur (Islam, 2013).

Social Theory Interactionist is an account of language development that outlines the role of social interaction between masters of linguistics and children’s growth. This is based on the socio-cultural theory of the Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky. It is demanded that all people have access to a language acquisition device by the innate methods used to acquire knowledge about a language. Language is innate and supposed to be portion of our genetic predisposition. The overemphasis of this theory on the cognitive skills and on the grammar or syntax as well as its ignorance of the role of environment in all other aspects of language. Finally, this theory and its implication and application in learning of second languages will be discussed in this paper in detail (Lantolf, 2011).



The theory of interaction of language development is a compromise between the nativist theory of linguistics and the theory of behavior. The theory of interaction is recognized as important in language development for both environmental and biological reasons. This compromise theory is among the closest-extreme theorists. However, all conversationalists believe that language acquisition occurs as a result of natural interactions between the child and his environment, especially parents and carers. For example, speakers believe that language is a by-product of a child's social interaction with important people in life.

Second Language Acquisition (SLA) develops and tests theories related to language acquisition in various situations other than First Language (L1). SLA is the discipline of neo-liberalism, but its history is important and it helps researchers find answers to questions asked in the case of second history or foreign languages. Based on this context, the purpose of this article is to explain the history of growing disciplines from many disciplines such as linguistics, psychology, sociology, and psychology. Document analysis was used to achieve the goal. Analysis and interpretation of available documents indicate that SLA symptoms were observed in studies that consider oral communication. In particular, diachronic studies prove that the development of discipline has gone through three evolutionary stages: background, structure, and development. Attacks on background phase behavior, work against contrast analysis assumptions and initial assumptions of behaviour (Norton, 2012).

Paradis, Genesee and Crago (2011) found 25 children (starting age = 5; 6; starting at school pre-school / English version = 9.5 months) who were given an English battery every two years. authors discussed the profile effect based on a longitudinal study. 6 months were measured (Paradis et al., 2011). The proportion of children in each sample was calculated for those samples that were within the normal range of exclusive age peer editing. During this longitudinal study, a higher percentage of children achieved psychological performance of storytelling grammar than morphologically variable verb forms with vocabulary in the middle. This illustration was repeated with cross-sectional samples of different English L2 children (n = 169; mean age = 5; 10) and was grouped based on the length of English communication and the same pattern appeared, but with respect to descriptive and wordless repetition before vocabulary, and in vocabulary before vocabulary, children reached the exclusive level of half-tone level performance. (Wordless repetition is not a linguistic subdomain, but it demonstrates language learning skills and its function is often used in clinical assessments.) There are probably many reasons for the Basic Profile effect, which may include language subdomains and testing tools.

Mode and Skills Development

Mode and skill development

The study supports the idea that the subdomains of the interface between language and knowledge are easier for children with L2 to perceive more easily than highly specific subdomains with the target language. Narrative macrostructures, also known as narrative grammar, measure solidarity. This means, 13 elements that include through the children. For example, setting and location characters, starting troubleshooting events, troubleshooting, and so on and results. The story includes elements of grammar; both cognitive and linguistic resources can be used, so children have enough story grammar elements to tell a coherent story if L2 is morphologically incorrect can be included. Similarly wordless repetition is a work that utilizes the process of short-term memory and cognitive concepts such as existing vocabulary and vocabulary knowledge.


Listening, very basic language skills are consistently interrelated and skills in other languages-prevent speaking, reading and writing. Teaching-listening challenges are better understood as new techniques and broader technologies that help language-skilled teachers improve their hearing skills. However their assessment of hearing skills lags far behind current listening perspectives and should be invented for the reconstruction of hearing aids or learning. This white paper addresses the key importance of listening in language acquisition and the challenges of acquiring hearing skills and provides some strategies for overcoming them. Listening to a second language is a complex process and extremely important in developing the second language skills. The listener uses both the processor and the top-down process at the bottom to understand. Understanding the audience’s context and the audience’s purpose reduces understanding. Through the process of teaching language listening, teachers can help students develop the right techniques. It helps students hear and develop meta-cognitive knowledge and strategies on how to be successful (Lantolf, et al, 2015).


Talking is the most important part of communication Because it is the basis for providing a broad and meaningful response. Speaking plays an important role in learning a language, especially for communication purposes. This is because it helps language teachers learn pronunciation, word pressure, vocabulary and sentence structure, and understanding a particular message can only be based on voice tones, pitch and accents. And that is only possible when one listens and speaks. Simply learning steps cannot be taken if the input is not understood correctly (Neuman, et al. 2011).


The most important feature of the success of a wide reading program are mentioned below:

First, students are flooded with reading materials until they are “naughty” in reading. Second, they get their own measurements. Third, the texts vary in subject and genre. Fourth, the measurements are not too difficult to understand. Fifth, students do post-reading activities. For example, read aloud the bookmark design, poster design, interesting parts, or copy interesting words and useful expressions. Sixth, teachers must motivate their students. Seventh, there is a track record of student progress.

In case of Jenna, Her own reading experience has also changed. Her grandfather subscribed to Sinar Harapan magazine and read a short novel while in her second year of elementary school. Petluk Garen's cartoon book was also her weekly delight, not to mention other Indonesian fairy tales. As a junior and senior high school student, she read famous novels such as English short novels, easy-to-read novels and a series of novels from two cities in Oxford Dickens. When learning German, first read stories for children, then magazines and popular sciences related to psychology and education. While learning French, she read lots of franchise facials and cartoon books like Bonnet and Tintin.


Configuration for smooth improvement

"Writing is a picture of a voice" is a direct quote from elements written by the French author Voltaire during the French Enlightenment. When quoted in this context, it means one draws or pull a voice through writing. In the context of second language acquisition, writing here is defined as writing words on paper.

The relationship between input language learning and output language learning is very close. The more you read, the more you will be able to write. However, once one can master the comprehension lesson, one will not be able to conduct face-to-face conversations. Even if they are related to each other, one must work separately in each skill space (Haslam, et al. 2017).

Many people find it difficult to create material because they do not practice writing too much. Languages are very easy to hear, read and incorporate and they do not change a person's life much. However, one needs to get out of the comfort zone to create a sentence that suits one. This requires some effort, especially if one does not have regular contact with people who are learning the language. But one has to understand that the language one is learning is the most important part of language acquisition

Social Interactionist Theory

Social Interactionist Theory Development and Research

Vygotsky, a psychologist and social constructivist, presented the basis for the interactionist approach to language acquisition. As stated by Vygotsky, social interaction plays a key role in the learning process and suggests a proximal development zone (ZPD) in which students create new languages through socially mediated interactions. The social development theory of Vygotsky was assumed and distinguished in the Western world by Jerome Bruner, who set the foundation for models of language development for adult-child interaction.

Children’s language develops through social interactionist approach to creating a social world for children, also called as a “socio-cognitive model”. In contrast, behaviorism highlights the role of stimulus-response conditions for language acquisition.

In a word, the social integrationist describes a dynamic system in which children usually give their parents a sign so that it is necessary for language development based on language experience. In short, it provides a supportive [clarity] communication structure that allows for efficient communication even after primitiveness. Also, the concept of linguistic approach gives the child an active language processor, driven by the development of the adult nervous system (Ellis, 2010).

This theory does not ignore earlier theories, but provides an additional social viewpoint for language acquisition. As stated by Ellis, (2010) the interactionist approach has contributed special attention to the characteristic of the interaction L2 students generally participate in. Moreover, this has focused on studying, such as the role of negotiation for meaning relating to NS-NNS (“Native Speaker - Non-Native Speaker”) conversation. Ellis, (2010) argued that comprehensible contribution is required to acquire a second language as the primary title of an interactionist position. The speakers, however, accepted and embraced the natural conversation between local and non-native speaker as an important component of the process of language acquisition. The attention is on how native speaker can change their speech to attempt to make themselves understood by “English-learning conversational partners”. Furthermore, interactionist is concerned in how non-native speaker uses their (promising) knowledge of new language to take their thoughts across and to accomplish their communicative goal. In communication, this trial-and-error process of give-and-take as a person who is trying to understand and be understood is mentioned as the negotiation of sense. According to Lantolf, (2011) the role of feedback in the interactionist approach when making mistakes is also an issue. Also, Lantolf, (2011) discovered that the common response provided to students when creating incorrect forms is redistribution, which is the repetition of student pronunciation reduction errors. But they also found that recast was the type of negative feedback that students were mostly possible to avoid.

Relevance of Social Interactionist Theory to the Participant’s Language Acquisition

In this theory, a deeper level of the representation lays down the semantic content secondarily and the communication intent primarily. This theoretical approach to language acquisition includes a “linguistic-semantic” approach with a “theoretical behavioral” approach. Language acquisition in SIT is considered to be different from other major theories. It explains how the environment forms acquisitions. It is more relevant to child acquisition than with adult acquisition.

Dongyu, et al, (2013) argued that the interactionist approach is stronger than that of other theories "because they need both environmental and innate factors to explain language learning". First, they are looked at language not only as a subject of syntactic structure, but also as a subject of conversation. Vygotsky, the psychologist responsible for the basic theory of social communication, said that semantics is the interaction with other people as the basis for acquiring new knowledge. As stated by Dongyu, et al, (2013) Vygotsky suggested the Proximal Development Zone (ZPD), in which students create new languages through socially mediated interactions. The socio-cultural characteristics of people in education should be considered and everyday life experiences should be gained. In a social interactionist perspective, knowledge first developed by social interaction and then turn into an internal part of the students ’cognitive structure.

In second language acquisition, social interactionist with peers is considered an important part of language and enhances the cognitive growth of the parties involved in the activity. In the case of language learning it is clear that special attention has been paid to the role of interaction in the classroom of all communication methods. Based on this important concept, the most comprehensive communication system for task-based language learning has been created. Moreover, this is believed that through conversation students can improve their cognitive skill and productive language skill. Among the sphere of social interactionist approaches, various academics underlined the role of interaction in the process of second language acquisition in early childhood. The social interactionist approach helps students to improve their language expertise, as Vygotsky (1987, cited in Ormrod, 2003, p. 38) states “the range of tasks that children cannot yet perform independently but can perform with the help and guidance of others”. Moreover, the interactionists emphasized that face-to-face interactions have a significant impact on language learning because students are able to create verbal language, participate in discussions, and provide negative feedback.

As an educational approach, considering the concept of an interactionist approach, it is clear that a work-based approach, which can be effectively applied to language teaching. However, the interactionist approach can encourage scholars to absorb in the productive activities both outside and inside the classroom. Besides, educators must effort to give helpful situations so that verbal discussion in the classroom, schoolchildren can communicate freely, express their thoughts and take responsibilities for their learning. An important aspect of the interactionist approach is textbook designers and material developer (Lantolf, 2011).

Conclusion on Social Interactionist Theory of Language Acquisition

The social interactionist theory of human language development argues that development is both social and biological, and that language acquisition is prejudiced by children want to communicate with others. Moreover, this theory adds that child is born with a strong brain that slowly matures and they predetermine to acquire new ideas that inspire them to share with others. The basic theory involved in interactionist theory is Lev Vygotsky's model of collaborative education (1978) as well as the idea that conservation with adults can help children both linguistically and cognitively. Along with that, the social interaction theory of language development is a negotiation between behaviorist theory and nativist theory of language growth. It identifies that both environmental and social aspects are significant in language progress in early childhood. The primary application of the social interactionist approach is the position it attaches to the acquisition of childhood language at home and in the cultural environment. According to this theory, language develops when interacting with the environment. Therefore, the vocabulary is relevant or alternatively, bound by the culture where the speech is understandable and necessary. This theory includes theorists who are closer to one extreme end than the other. Still, all conversationalists trust that language acquisition occurs due to natural interactions between children and their environment, especially between their caregivers or parents. In short, the interactionist approach to linguistic development recommends that language is learned from an interaction of human innate biological abilities to obtain language with exposure to language within the environment where the children are developing.

References for Social Interactionist Theory of Language Acquisition

Dongyu, Z., Fanyu, B. and Wanyi, D., 2013. Sociocultural theory applied to second language learning: Collaborative learning with reference to the Chinese context. International education studies6(9), pp.165-174.

Ellis, R., 2010. Second language acquisition, teacher education and language pedagogy. Language teaching43(2), pp.182-201.

Haslam, S.A., Cornelissen, J.P. and Werner, M.D., 2017. Metatheories and metaphors of organizational identity: Integrating social constructionist, social identity, and social actor perspectives within a social interactionist model. International Journal of Management Reviews19(3), pp.318-336.

Islam, M.T., 2013. First language acquisition theories and transition to SLA. In Paper presented at the Asian Conference on Language Learning 2013 Official Conference Proceedings, Osaka, Japan (499-510). Aichi, Japan: The International Academic Forum (IAFOR).

Lantolf, J.P., 2011. The sociocultural approach to second language acquisition: Sociocultural theory, second language acquisition, and artificial L2 development. In Alternative approaches to second language acquisition (pp. 36-59). Routledge.

Lantolf, J.P., 2011. The sociocultural approach to second language acquisition: Sociocultural theory, second language acquisition, and artificial L2 development. In Alternative approaches to second language acquisition (pp. 36-59). Routledge.

Lantolf, J.P., Thorne, S.L. and Poehner, M.E., 2015. Sociocultural theory and second language development. Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction1, pp.207-226.

Neuman, J.H., Baron, R.A., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., 2011. Social antecedents of bullying: A social interactionist perspective. Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice, pp.201-225.

Neuman, J.H., Baron, R.A., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., 2011. Social antecedents of bullying: A social interactionist perspective. Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice, pp.201-225.

Norton, B., 2012. Identity and second language acquisition. The encyclopedia of applied linguistics.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our English Assignment Help

Get It Done! Today

  • 1,212,718Orders

  • 4.9/5Rating

  • 5,063Experts


  • 21 Step Quality Check
  • 2000+ Ph.D Experts
  • Live Expert Sessions
  • Dedicated App
  • Earn while you Learn with us
  • Confidentiality Agreement
  • Money Back Guarantee
  • Customer Feedback

Just Pay for your Assignment

  • Turnitin Report

  • Proofreading and Editing

    $9.00Per Page
  • Consultation with Expert

    $35.00Per Hour
  • Live Session 1-on-1

    $40.00Per 30 min.
  • Quality Check

  • Total

  • Let's Start

500 Words Free
on your assignment today

Browse across 1 Million Assignment Samples for Free

Explore MASS
Order Now

My Assignment Services- Whatsapp Tap to ChatGet instant assignment help

Collect Chat