Globally increasing population and resulting traffic in the cities is a big concern for the most countries, however in most countries traditional signalling based trains were used for public transportation in which telecommunication between the train and track equipment for the traffic management and infrastructure control, but due to busy schedule of public they need every update about transportation like time delay, time table and exact communication based system which make their life easy and save time. Therefore, to address this problem computer based or computer control CBTC systems are revolutionary approach where exact position of a train is known more accurately than with the traditional signalling systems. This results in a more efficient and safe way to manage the railway traffic. Metros (and other railway systems) are able to improve headways while maintaining or even improving safety.
A CBTC system is a “continuous, automatic train control system utilizing high-resolution train location determination, independent of track circuits; continuous, high-capacity, bidirectional train-to-wayside data communications; and train borne and wayside processors capable of implementing Automatic Train Protection (ATP) functions, as well as optional Automatic Train Operation (ATO) and Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) functions.”, as defined in the IEEE 1474 standard.
Communication based train system has number of advantages compared to traditional system like-
Optimized and calculated train speeds to gain best line capacity which reduced costs and provide comfort to passengers.
Guaranteed short term of system delivery and launching.
Immediate operational facility from day one.
Automated computer-based operations and easy maintenance.
Driverless system reduces operating costs.
Best resistance against intrusion.
Minimum trackside equipment.
Therefore, innovative solution in transportation simplifies the complex route setting and interlocking functions, completely merging them into CBTC with good number of advantages-
Optimum train-centric architecture, with more on-board intelligence and direct train-to-train communication, leading to 20% less equipment and better performances;
Higher transport capacity with minimal headway (down to 60 seconds);
Higher operational availability (24 hours) with extreme flexibility of train movements;
Optimal investment and LCC for all types of line configuration.
CBTC can be easily integrated with all automation systems for railway transport.
In Driverless train, automatic train operation (ATO) is an operational device used to help automate operations of trains, which is based on standards of Grade of Automation (GoA), according to GoA 4 level, train is automatically controlled without the presence of staff on board. Although the system is safe but most of systems also elect a driver to maintain or mitigate the risk which is associate with emergencies.
Now days many systems are linked with automatic train control and in many automatic train protections systems where normal signaller operation are modified in automatic systems. Many systems combined with both system in order to maintain timetable of trains back to back.
Automation in the train systems is govern according to International association of public transport, according to International association of public transport automation has five grades.
Grade I which is indicated with symbol GoA 0, this automation is like trams which are running on street traffic with other vehicles.
Grade II which is indicated with symbol GoA 1, this is based on manual train operation where a driver is operates every aspect of the train like speed, opening and closing screen doors and handling of emergencies etc.
Grade III which is denoted by GoA 2 symbol, this is semi-automatic train operation (STO) where starting and stopping is automated, but a driver operates the doors, drives the train if needed and handles emergencies. Many ATO systems are GoA 2.
Garde IV which is denoted by GoA 3 symbol, which is driverless train operation (DTO) where starting and stopping are automated but a train attendant operates the doors and drives the train in case of emergencies.
Grade V which is denoted with GoA 4 symbol this type of system is unattended train operation (UTO) where starting and stopping, operation of doors and handling of emergencies are fully automated without any on-train staff.
Tractive power in trains is defined the force required at the rims or the outer edges of the driving wheels of moving trains. In other words, it is the sum of the tractive force and rolling effort on the road surface. However, in driverless metro to make efficient and expense viable the tractive power were addresses in such a manner to get as efficient accelerate train mass horizontally, accelerate rotating parts and overcome the train resistance and as a result reduced tractive efforts so that train can easily move not required too much tractive effort to move the train.
Driverless metro has number of innovative features that why it is called a innovation in transportation.
Level access between the platform and train and three double doors per side per carriage for faster loading and unloading.
Heating and air-conditioning in all metro trains.
A new generation of fast, safe and reliable metro train.
At all times, a team of expert train controllers will monitor Sydney Metro, making sure everything runs smoothly.
Wheelchair spaces, separate priority seating and emergency intercoms inside trains.
Continuous mobile phone coverage throughout the metro network.
Two multi-purpose areas per train for prams, luggage and bicycles
Driveress metro is a revolutionary equipment in developed countries, where public used his equipment in their daily routine. In ATO system train automatically drives to accomplish prearranged operational performance within the safety constraints imposed by ATP. The most important functions of the ATO is to drive the train with control three function at a time, precise stopping position at the station and to control the train and platform screen doors.
The train borne ATO subsystem drives the train in automatic mode with multiple function performance such as providing the grip and slowing control demands to the train rolling stock system and adjusting speed according to forthcoming station with screens doors closing and opening when required at prescribed stations.
Levels of Automation:
The International Association of Public Transport (UITP) summarises automation of rail transport into five Grades of Automation those are shown in below in schematic way.
This subsystem is the key heart of the driverless metro because it ensures or regulate performance of their assets to maximise safety, maximise steadfastness of operations and to minimise expenses. This approach depends on real time knowledge of the condition of an operator’s key assets.
There are 2 key outcomes that result from real time condition monitoring:
I. No Surprises and II. Optimised maintenance
Driverless metro system will provide advance warning of awaiting problems so in-service breakdowns and the safety and service implications that they cause can be avoided without any panic and surprising situation. Apart this surprising event in driverless metro maintenance is also crucial it can be postponed to when the specific asset requires it, rather than based on a generic time or distance milestone.
Automatic train stop is a computer based centralised supervises centre for driverless metro where overall operation of the train service according to a prescribed timetable or train interval by de-centralised processing through a network of distributed computers involving the automation of train supervision, with the flexibility for manual intervention.
In centralised system main function of ATS
Generate timetables to operate train services automatically
Obtain train positions and speed information from ATP system
Obtain train arrivals and departures from the ATO system
Automatically issue routing commands for each train according to timetable and train position
Adjust train timings by sending to ATO the dwell time at station and speed to the next station allowable by ATP (motoring and coasting data)
Facilitate remote central control of train service at the control centre
Facilitate the regulation of train services during train service disruptions (centrally-controlled at control centre)
Passenger information (schedules, arrivals and departures, destination)
Train service data and events (faults, alarms, train delays, deviation reports)
The ATP subsystem maintains protection against collisions, excessive speed, and other hazardous conditions by combining the following procedures: train detection, train separation and end of authority protection. The ATP ensures safe train separation by using the ATP track circuit status and by location determination. In order to verify that the train is able to stop at required stopping point to protect the train ahead, the ATP monitors the speed of the train, keeping it to an allowable speed. In the event of overspeed, the train will initiate emergency braking to protect the train ahead.
The system also ensures a safe exchange of passengers at station by providing zero speed detection to prove train has stopped. Door opening permission is also provided only when the train has stopped at the correct position. It also prevents the train from departing when the train and station doors are not closed.
“Interlocking is an arrangement of signal apparatus that prevents conflicting movements through an arrangement of tracks such as junctions or crossing.”
This arrangement may be manual or computer based. Computer Based Interlocking (also known as CBI) is the generic term for the most modern signalling interlocking products, implemented through computers rather than older technologies. A modern CBI ensures higher availability, reliability and safety. CBIs are mostly implemented in two parts; a section that implements the safety and failsafe requirements, and a second section that implements "non-vital" controls and indications.
Lost interlock means that the train could no longer detect that the doors were properly closed and locked. Usually this is caused by someone leaning on or forcing the doors open. If the interlock is lost, this cuts out the traction motors so that the train cannot accelerate.
The field of fire detection has advanced to where smoke detectors and alarm devices have combined to become life-safety systems. The purpose of an automatic fire-alarm system is to detect an occurrence, alert the control panel and proper authorities, and notify the occupants to take action.
Fire Detector Types:
Optical Fibber Detectors
Detection System by Video Camera
Sensor Cable Detector
Passenger Assistance Intercom is a set of modern residential service measures, providing two-way video communication between visitors and staff member, to achieve double recognition of image and voice, thereby increasing safety reliability, saving a lot of time and improving work efficiency.
Trains will not move unless all doors are closed. The guards will have the command control of the system at their cabins," the official said, "Drivers will also be given command control at a later stage. In the new system, doors will be opened only on the platform side and those of the other side will remain closed, thus eliminating the chances of any unauthorised entry.
The status of all the doors (closed/opened) is indicated in master control panel in the guard cabin.
In panic situations the safety and rescue possibilities for people in the metro train are the main concern. ... Panic door exit devices acc. to EN 1125 are used in metro train where the visitors are not familiar with the function of emergency doors, like train, hospitals, shopping malls.
A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating (sometimes referred to as a fire protection rating for closures) used as part of a passive fire protection system to reduce the spread of fire and smoke between separate compartments of a structure and to enable safe egress from a building or structure or ship, train etc.
A system which causes the propulsion of vehicle in which tractive or driving force is obtained from various devices such as diesel engine drives, steam engine drives, electric motors, etc. is called as traction system.
It can also be defined as the railway vehicle that provides the necessary traction power to move the train is referred as the traction or locomotive. This traction power can be diesel, steam or electric power.
The traction system can be classified as non-electric and electric traction systems.
Non-electric Traction System
Electric Traction System
Traction Systems According to Efficiency.
Steam locomotive 5-7%
Gas turbine electric locomotive 10%
Diesel electric locomotive 26-30%
Electric locomotive with thermal power plant 34-36%
Electrical locomotive with Hydroelectric power plant 40-42%
When choosing financial sustainability of any project, manufacturing of product at home or domestic level taken account. Although most of the time financial viability is comes with domestic manufacturing but business need to take into account the pros and cons of each. Such domestic and international manufacturing both has their advantages and disadvantages.
Here in below section glimpses for both domestic and international manufacture’s advantages and disadvantage-
Advantages of domestic manufactures
Easier communication-At local level the most important advantage is communication because of same language, you could speak the same language which is used by your manufacture therefore you breakdown communication challenge at field
Positive press-Choosing to manufacture at home can set your company positively and set a valuable market tool.
Higher labour standards- At domestic level you could identifies the labour standards and protect well-being of workers and their family.
Positive perception- Customers positive perception for their country manufacturing help to success the project. For example, American public tends to perceive American-made products as being of better quality than products manufactured overseas.
Faster fulfilment times-By going with a domestic manufacturer, there’s a good chance you’ll experience a quicker turnaround time than you would by outsourcing your product overseas.
Reduced shipping costs-Choosing domestic marketing you could save the transportation cost.
Flexible payments options-While international manufacturers often accept only a few payment methods, and in some cases, require full upfront payment while at domestic market provide flexible mode of payment.
Better ability to “mind the shop-Businesses who choose a domestic or even local manufacturer are much better able to see first-hand how a facility operates and see how their product is produced.
Greater IP security- Technology and innovation is also deal with intellectual rights hence at domestic manufacturing a product domestically may decrease the chances of intellectual property theft.
Domestic manufacturing disadvantages
Since domestic manufacturing has number of advantages but as every process and option always carry some disadvantage, here some of disadvantage related with domestic manufacturing are-
Rarely cost-competitive-With few exceptions, costs for domestic manufacturing are significantly higher than costs for international manufacturing.
Limited production- Domestic level some time faced limitation of limited production which is might be not faced at international level because of lots of option or competition.
International manufacturing advantages
Global marketing offer number of advantages in every sector such as in manufacturing of driverless metro at globally also a competitive option of engineers therefore at international manufactures also have good numbers of advantages-
Reduced overall costs –Manufacturing a product overseas is almost always significantly less expensive than manufacturing it domestically.
Greater variability- Global market has variety for a same product in term of material and cost for example U.S. based manufacturing has wide margins of quality whereas In China companies can manufacture premium tech products as well as cheap, low-quality toys.
Easy to find-International manufacturers can be found with very little effort using well-known platforms.
High-volume capability-International manufacturers are equipped to efficiently produce high volume orders in a single production round.
Like domestic manufacturing international manufacturing also has some disadvantages like-
Cultural divides-Context is always very important and specific hence at international level the major barriers for marketing is culture and language which is kind of barrier in term of communication and understand requirement of customers.
Limited oversight-Without hiring a third party or making a trip to the facilities, there’s no way to keep an eye on how the facilities are run or to witness the production of your product.
Negative press-Depending on the size of your business, choosing to manufacture your product overseas may generate negative press and adversely affect your company’s reputation and sales.
Increased shipping costs-When products intended for domestic sale are manufactured overseas, shipping costs rapidly mount to transport them to market. Though experienced overseas manufacturers are expert in helping their domestic customer mitigate these costs, customs are an important part of the equation in choosing whether to have a product manufactured at home or overseas.
Less secure intellectual property rights-Without the stringent protections of U.S. intellectual property laws, it’s more likely (though still uncommon) that your idea might be stolen.
Manufacturing process is a combination of different steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the research and analysis then proceed with product design, and identification of materials required for product.
A number of steps mostly involved in manufacturing process are
Step I. Product Concept- Identification of concept and formulate in a shape.
Step II. Research- Analysis of situation, factures, barriers and strong point.
Step III. Product Design Development- Based on analysis design the product development plan
Step IV. Research and development of the final design- Final form of design with deep analysis
Step V. CAD- CAD work of proposed plan
Step VI. CAM- CAM work of proposed plan
Step VII. Prototype Testing- Making a prototype and test at laboratory level
Step VIII. Manufacturing- After prototype testing approval for manufacturing the parts
Step IX. Assembly- Assembling of the parts for final testing
Step X. Feedback and Testing- Testing the manufactured design and take feedback for further modification or improvement
Step XI. Product Development- After Testing and feedback the final development of product
Step XII. Final Product- Final product with improvement and according to requirement which is almost final and ready for industrial manufacturing.
In below section a typical Manufacturing Process flow chart of Wheels is shown-
Average worldwide production rate is 2600 coaches a year.
After research and development, the next task for team is deliver the product at required site, however a number of methods are available for delivery the product like self-delivery, third party delivery and distributors depend on the suitability and approach of the company.
Self-delivery-If your business has the resources and infrastructure, you can get your products to your customers yourself. This strategy will require a vehicle or a fleet of vehicles and a client base reasonably close to home so you don't have to deliver too far afield.
Third-party delivery-If you don't have the vehicles or the local customer base necessary to self-deliver, you can contract with a third-party freight company to make your deliveries for you. Be sure to include the added cost in your pricing structure, either as part of your price or as a separate invoice item. Using this model, you still make the sale directly to the customer; you just have it delivered by someone else.
Distributors-When you sell through a distributor, an intermediate business takes responsibility for both sales and delivery. This third-party handle customer orders and fulfilment logistics. However, your business still has to have a delivery strategy for getting your product to the distributor. You might make and deliver products in a short and time-sensitive window after customer orders have been placed, or the distributor may order and hold your products as inventory.
Manufacturing is a complex process which required number of standards instruments additionally some time for a special equipment a number of special instrument/equipment’s required for example for driverless metro manufacturing special instruments requires are-
Rail Truck Changeout System
Custom Self Propelling Personnel Lift for Railcar Assembly
Self-Propelled Custom Scissor Lifts for Rail Paint Booth
Self-Propelled Personnel Gantry for Train Maintenance
Railcar Wheelset Changeout System
Shim Table for Locomotives
Mechanical Paint Booth for Rail Facility
Overhead Rail Gantry
Self-Propelled Paint Booth Lift for Railcar Facility
Self-Propelled Sandblasting Booth for Rail Facility
Self-Propelled Sandblasting Booth for Rail Facility
Bogie Press and Bogie Stands
Car Body Hoists
Car Hoist Systems
Portable Electric Jacks
Rail Cable fixture Rotator
Rail-Guided Hydraulic Scissor Lift
Train is a metal-based equipment therefore to make strong and flexible a mixture of metals with steel required in different composition –
Manganese Steel- Manganese Steel with a 11% to 14% manganese content is a work hardening steel. With its high carbon (approximately 1.2%) and high manganese contents it combines its work hardening resistance to wear characteristics with high toughness and ductility.
Chromium molybdenum steel- AISI 4140 is a chromium-molybdenum alloy steel. The chromium content provides good hardness penetration, and the molybdenum content ensures uniform hardness and high strength. AISI 4140 chrome-molybdenum steel can be oil hardened to a relatively high level of hardness. The desirable properties of the AISI 4140 include superior toughness, good ductility and good wear resistance in the quenched and tempered condition.
Alloy Steel- Alloy steels can contain a wide variety of elements, each of which can enhance various properties of the material, such as mechanical thermal and corrosion resistance. Elements added in low quantities of less than around 5 wt.% tend to improve mechanical properties, for example increasing hardenability and strength, whereas larger additions of up to 20 wt.% increase corrosion resistance and stability at high or low temperatures.
Stainless Steel-304- High ductility, excellent drawing, forming, and spinning properties.
Stainless Steel -316– 316 Stainless Steel is a chromium-nickel- molybdenum austenitic stainless steel developed to provide improved corrosion resistance to Alloy 304/304L in moderately corrosive environments.
Light Weight. Aluminium is a very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 g/cm3, about a third of that of steel
Electrical and Thermal Conductivity
Strength at Low Temperatures
Impermeable and Odourless
Nickel-Nickel is a hard-silver white metal, which forms cubic crystals. It is malleable, ductile, and has superior strength and corrosion resistance.
A complete team is required for any kind of project to success which includes interdisciplinary people for example for driverless metro manufacturing we required skilled production Engineer, Skilled mechanical engineer, Skilled electrical engineer, Skilled Architectural Engineer, Skilled Environmental Engineer, Skilled Geotechnical Engineer, Skilled Project Manager, Skilled Chemical Engineer, Skilled Computer Engineer, Maintenance engineer, Design engineer, Design Manager and Skilled labours. Every person has their individual role without missed any part of personnel requirement a complete team play a good job.
Manufacturing of an equipment is a long process where number of tests required during process to ensure what materials we are using; everything is according to national or international standards. Most common used test for manufacturing a train like equipment are-Tensile Strength, Compression, Flexure/Bend Strength, Coefficient of Friction, Puncture Strength, Tear Resistance, Peel Strength, Shear Strength, Delamination Strength, Bond Strength, Adhesion Strength, Break Load, Creep and Stress Relaxation, Crush Resistance, Deformation Strength, Ductility, Elastic Limit, Elongation, Rupture Strength, Young’s Modulus, Toughness and Torsion. These tests are ensuring quality of material that used in equipment manufacturing.
Quality control is very important aspect in every production which indicates quality maintenance. In present case we have seven steps for managing quality.
First step is always identifying your customer whom you want to serve the service. Next list out requirement of customers. Get specification of listed requirements. Find out quality assurance strategies and then make a quality assurance plan. So in above step we have a final quality control plan and after that a system required which improve continuous according to feedback of customers.
Supplier tests, Type tests, Routine tests, Integration tests Software tests, On Train tests
In the process of driverless metro manufacturing number of tests were performed to ensure viability like supplier tests, type tests, routine tests, integration tests, software tests and on train tests.
Supplier Tests will be carried out on individual equipment of the system and the total system in the supplier’s workshop in presence of purchaser’s representatives.
Type tests are categories in different category as follow: -
Temperature rise test
Measurement of Harmonics of No-Load as per IS 2026-1
Determination of sound level for each method of cooling.
Measurement of power taken by Fans
Short-circuit withstand test
Line terminal AC withstand voltage test (LTAC)
Vacuum deflection test on liquid immersed transformers
Pressure deflection test on liquid immersed transformers
AC Long Duration Test
Dry lightning impulse voltage withstand test
Temperature Rise test
Thermal Short-Time current withstand
Cantilever Load Withstand Test
Tightness test on liquid-filled
Temperature rises of contacts
Service duty test
Breaking capacity test
Short-circuit current test
Mechanical endurance test
Routine tests are also categories in different category the list as follow: -
Measurement of winding resistance
Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement
Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss
Measurement of no-load loss and current
Full wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals (LI)
Chopped wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals (LIC)
Switching impulse test for the line terminal (SI)
Applied voltage test (AV)
Induced voltage test with PD measurement (IVPD)
Line terminal AC withstand voltage test (LTAC)
Auxiliary wiring insulation test
Tests on on-load tap-changers operation test
Leak testing with pressure for liquid-immersed transformers (Tightness test)
Check of core and frame insulation for liquid immersed transformers with core or frame insulation
Check the insulation between the Transformer body & Earth and provision of the insulation Pad
Determination of capacitances windings-to-earth and between windings
Measurement of D.C insulation resistance between each winding to earth and between windings
Measurement of dissipation factor (tan δ) of the insulation system capacitances
Measurement of no-load loss and current at 90 % and 110 % of rated voltage
Measurement of zero-sequence impedance(s) on three-phase transformers
Measurement of frequency response (Frequency Response Analysis or FRA).
Measurement of tan δ and capacitance.
Dry lightning impulse voltage withstand test
Dry power-frequency voltage withstand test
Measurement of Partial Discharge Quantity
Tests of Tap Insulation
Tightness test on bushings
Tightness test at the flange or other fixing device
Visual inspection and dimensional check
Auxiliary circuits insulation test
Integrated testing simply put, is an assurance that all system elements work together in an integrated fashion.
Types of Integration Tests:
Verification of Safe Braking
This test is to validate the safe braking distance between signals. Given that the performance of light rail vehicles is well known, this test was only performed as a representative sampling. It was only tested where the grade was -.5% or better, or the block distance was less than 2,200 feet.
2- Safe Braking Validation
The safe braking test (above) used a three-car train with the brakes off on one car, giving it 33% de-ration. However, since not all of the test could be performed at the same time (due to construction sequencing) the logistics of loading the train to AW3 several times was too difficult. In this test we loaded one car to AW3 and tested it under slippery rail conditions. We took a AW0 car and made the same test. This created a multiplication factor, which was applied to the three-car train.
3- Visibility of Signals
There was a contractual requirement to sight the signals to 1,000 feet. We found that this was not always possible due to obstructions such as OCS poles. Each signal was tested with a light rail vehicle and adjusted for optimum sighting.
4- Signal Operational Testing
Using two trains, all routing scenarios were tried including following moves. The construction contractor using track shunts conducted the same testing, so the live test was merely a final validation.
5- Approach Timing Validation
Train is operated at track speed and the crossing warning time verified.
6- Near Side Crossing
Where a station is near side to a crossing, a timer delays the start of the gate to allow the train to stop at the station without holding up street traffic. This test verifies proper advance warning with a desired dwell time.
7-Visibility of Motorman
Light rail trains have such good braking that it is worthwhile to provide an indication of the crossing status. This indication is known as a motorman indicator. This test was performed in the same manner as visibility to signals.
8- Simultaneous Start Test
Using three substations, the center one off line, two trains are started at the same time going in opposite directions. This test is performed right after the bolted fault test and while the instrumentation is still in place. The bolted fault test verifies the protective relay setting on the DC breaker. The pull away test verifies that the breaker settings won’t trip the breaker under a real load. It also validates the substation design spacing, so it should be performed where the substations are spaced the furthest.
INTEGRATION TESTING is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested as a group. The purpose of this level of testing is to expose faults in the interaction between integrated units. Test drivers and test stubs are used to assist in Integration Testing.
List of maintenance equipment used: -
Automatic bogie wash
Automatic train washes
Compressed air system
Computerised maintenance management system
Depot protection system
Diesel fuelling point
Flat wagons with cranes
Magnetic particle inspection equipment
Road/rail car and bogie pushers
Road/rail Unimog with re-railing equipment
Shot blast booth
Surface wheel lathe
Track geometry recording vehicle
Track maintenance vehicle
Track ultrasonic recording vehicle
Underfloor lifting system
Underfloor wheel lathe
Wheel impact load detector
Wheel monitoring system
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