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Critical Review on Sustainable Development

The chapter by Kennedy & Hauslik (2020), outlines the promises and limitations of green consumptions. In this chapter the authors have provided different approaches related to green consumption. The authors also question the power of green consumption. In addition the evidences also specified that the product design and architecture are most used alternative methods to measure the progress of goods and services. In the current scenario businesses and industries have adopted different strategies in order to enhance their corporate social responsibility initiatives. The concept of green consumption is highly inclined towards procurement policy labeling which encourages businesses to become highly responsible towards the environment. The chapter is highly interesting as it throws a light on the merits and drawbacks of green consumption. The chapter is interesting enough to engage the audience as it defines the concept of green consumption in the most effective manner.

Sustainable development becomes highly popular as an integrating discourse covering environmental issues from the local and global levels (Dryzek, 2013). In this chapter the authors put more emphasis on voluntaristic solutions. For instance, greenhouse emissions in the United States could be reduced by 7.4 percent if households adopted an environment-friendly everyday routine (Kennedy & Hauslik, 2020). However, the evidence also argued that the individual level strategy and not the effectual way to attain the Critical Mass of green consumption. The chapter specified that sustainability is all about motivating individuals and industries at a mass level. They have also described social practice theories help to understand the origin of unsustainable practices. The overall chapter makes an argument that consumption includes individualizing the responsibility to consume more sustainably. Also, specify that practice theories offer an effectual structure to reflect on the Nexus of state edition and capital influence on sustainability. Another major interesting thing about the chapter is that it throws light on different limitations to understand the issues that affect the sustainability objective. Furthermore, the authors argue that sustainability is not about encouraging individuals to buy organic products and using hybrid cars. People must take the concept of sustainability as a personal responsibility in order to reduce unnecessary pollution.

The chapter provides an alternative speculative viewpoint and provides Industries with insight into the inspiration and practices of green consumption. However the Chapter defines the stronger points like individualization deflects attention away from the role of certain entities in producing environmental problems. However, the chapter did not critically examine the concepts that dominate environmental discourses today. The explicit approach may be required to define the problems and approaches that influence the overall effectiveness of sustainability. The chapter describes that the drivers of change can be understood by a social lens. The social dimensions of sustainability describe how to promote change towards sustainable practices. The author describes that we need to understand the sustainable practices in the response of the citizens towards the rising greenhouse gases. Another important dimension is the ecological dimension stated that we consume vast capital without deliberately trying to exhibit status. The chapter also argues that it is difficult to understand the practices of people that lead to unnecessary usage of resources.

Oosterveer (2018), explains the term development and application of international Network and flows viewpoint to study in momentum change in the background of worldwide modernity. The evidences also specified that it is necessary to understand the consumption and food production practices of society. The everyday practices connection disconnections among material and non-material flows highly influence the goals and objectives of Sustainable practices. Authors attempt to sympathize that innovative environmental governance arrangements offer opportunities to deal with challenges linked with sustainability. The study of Oosterveer (2018), is different from Kennedy and Hauslik (2020) as it defined that the sustainability implication that creates different governance challenges. On the other hand, Kennedy and D. Hauslik put more emphasis on factors and limitations related to green consumption. Both studies are effective enough to tackle different elements related to sustainability. The chapter also offers different responses related to material dimensions in order to understand the global complexity of sustainable practices. The evidence also criticizes that the international network and flows give more importance to global dynamics and ignore the particular local dynamics. It has been identified that small scale local options are highly preferred by different observers as more effectual and inspirational. The authors also suggest that it is highly necessary to connect to a global network in order to find a consistent solution for environmental problems. Furthermore, the authors are clear that sustainability demands a reflexive mindset on how one engages with challenging concepts.

The first half of the chapter does a great job of identifying the alternative and challenges in developing more appropriate ecological governance provisions (Oosterveer, 2018). The second half of the chapter puts more emphasis on environmental governance. However, the author argues that the practices of environmental governance are becoming more complex because of the involvement of different public and private sectors. The final part of the chapter explores a case of global palm oil network. It is necessary to put more importance on a global product that causes significant harm to the environment; however, the evidence also specified that different sustainable guidelines were made to reduce the social and environmental impact. The chapter also highlighted that sustainability standards were not effective enough and its implementation is not effective to control the impact. The overall chapter is highly engaging and useful in understanding the application of global network and flows view to study ecological alteration in the context of international modernity. The author concluded that the global network and flows also need to evolve particularly by accommodating the role of agency in its framework. Also, the chapter shows a different perspective on improving sustainability. In addition, it shows that strong and effective guidelines are required to deal with sustainability issues.

Mol (2018), highlighted that the nation-state plays a major role in protecting the environment from harmful activities. In addition, the evidence described the involvement of states in order to analyze the factors that affect the environment. The authors provide evidence which stated that organizations', society and practice have been developed and install to cope up with the modern environmental challenges. The first half of the chapter puts more emphasis on describing the notion of environmental domination and the concept of environmental authorities. The historical phases and outlooks of environmental state establishment show the specific sites of the national historical context in mental threat and national economic and political developments (Mol, 2018). The author also described the different environmental laws and regulations to protect each state from different factors that affect the overall environment. However, the author also argues that the dissatisfaction with the result of ecological state Institutions and association in material environmental crisis resulted in discuss on ecological state breakdown. The chapter shows that human resource, budget, legislation and rigorous policy stagnate and rarely came under risk. The authors further argued that the power of the OECD countries is becoming stagnate and ineffective. 

 However, the author made it very clear that the numerous policies and practices must be developed to deal with environmental issues. In order to become a more sustainable an efficient implementation of ecological state, decisions are required. The evidence also specified that climate change, pollution of the ocean, unlawful trade in waste, biodiversity loss are some of the major current ecological challenges for which nationwide state organizations have to prove not to be the key controller. In addition, it is necessary to understand the capacity of the states to address a major problem. The author also argued that some of the systems are highly ineffective in addressing recent environmental challenges. One of the major issues is that polluters and Solutions are often no longer restricted to and contained in National entities (Mol, 2018). 

 This chapter is different from the above two chapters as it defines the role of authorities and different states to deal with the current environmental challenges. The chapter also suggested that the relocation and reshaping of environmental authority are necessary to deal with the environmental challenges and increasing sustainability in the current environment. The evidences specified that the strategy and the current practices of the NGOs and environmental authorities are not effective enough to deal with nature environment challenges. The authors also highlighted that Nation States have less authority to solve control and management problems. The research interest engages with sustainability in relation to authorities and partnerships. Also, the chapter gives an excellent introduction to environmental governance and partnership. The author also highlighted that the methodical and quantitative evaluation of the environmental efficiency of such supremacy and partnership. Furthermore, it shows that the nation-state is also responsible for managing the current environmental challenges. The chapter is interesting as it defines the current challenges that are affecting the overall environmental initiatives of a country. The author also makes some suggestions like an outward-looking cosmopolitan state that requires dealing with huge challenges.

Reference for Environmental Sociology and Policy

Dryzek, J. S. (2013). The politics of the earth: Environmental discourses. Oxford university press.

Kennedy, E., & Hauslik, D. (2020). The Practice of Green Consumption. Retrieved 13 August 2020. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Mol, A. P. (2018). The environmental state and environmental governance. In Environment and Society (pp. 119-142). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Oosterveer, P. (2018). Global Environmental Networks and Flows Addressing Global Environmental Change. In Environment and Society (pp. 95-118). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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